Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2904981 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 22, 1959
Filing dateMay 9, 1957
Priority dateMay 9, 1957
Publication numberUS 2904981 A, US 2904981A, US-A-2904981, US2904981 A, US2904981A
InventorsMacomson Wlstar Wright
Original AssigneePatex Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for treating web materials
US 2904981 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 22, 1959 w. w. MACOMSON 2,904,981

MEANS FOR TREATING WEB MATERIALS 1 N VENTOR! 5 n W\$TA?. Wmqn T MAcoMs-oN ATTORNEYS Sept. 22, 1959 w. w. MACOMSON 7 2,904,931

MEANS FOR TREATING was MATERIALS Filed May 9, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 (I417 1% INVENTORI F 5 WxS'fAR wmqH MACQME'QN BY 013, w, WM Mg ATTORNEY 5 Sept. 22, 1959 w. w. Mmwsow; 2,904,9 1 MEANS FOR {TREATING WEB MATERIALS Filed May 9, 1957 v esnets-sneet a s t. 22,1959 7 Wju A coMsoN v I I MEANS FOR TREATiNG wEB LiATERiALS e Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed May 9, 1957 INVENTORI W\$TAR wwqu MAcoMsoN ATTORNEYS Sept. 22, 1959 w. w, MAC MSQN 2,904,981

- MEANS FOR TREATING WEB MATERIALS Filed May 9, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 T CooLAuT Cmcum Mr; 1 9 7 9 fiouace- INVENTORI W\'E TAR. WmqH MACOMSON mat, fiammdm w ATTORNEY5 Sept. 22, 1959 w. w. MACOMSON MEANS FOR TREATING WEB MATERIALS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed May 9, 1957 INVENTOR:

W1 STAR Wmc rr MACOMSON .BY 5w, M, #Mfi ATTORNEY5 United States Patent 2,904,981 mans FOR TREATING WEB MATERIALS Wistar Wright 'Macomson, Charlotte, N.C'., assignor to Pater: Corporation, QImrIotte, NrCL, acorporation of North: Emeline p Application. May 9, 1951, Serial No.v 658,152

reclaims. or. 68-6) This invention. relates. to an. improved apparatus for and:process-of. treating web materials of any type which are. capable of. penetration by fluid. in liquidor gaseous form and including materials such as parallel textile strands, cloth-,teln sheet paper pulp and the like.

It. is an. object. of thisv invention to; provide a novel process oii and meansfor agitating or vibratingfluids to facilitate rapid. penetration of pervious; webmaterials during. continuous. movement thereof through a fluid.

It. isanother object of this: invention to provide a process ot treating, perv'ious web materials. comprising passing; a web. through a fluid (liquid or gas); and while passing, the web: through: a zone or zones. of. agitation while confining the fluid-to. the extent that the waves or": agitation. are. oii substantially uniform.- force throughout the lateral. thickness. on depth of the fluidand while causing the waves of agitation to impinge upon the. entire width of: theweb-in said zones or zone.

It is another object .ofthis invention to-provideaprocess offl the. character. last. described wherein the firequency of. theiwavesl ofi agitation. or vibration of the fluid is efiected at. either. sonic or. ultrasonic-frequencies; that is, at from five cyclesper second to sixty thousand cycles per second. I

It is still' another. object of. this invention to provide a process ofi'the character describeda in. which. the direction of the vibrations in. adjacent zones are opposite. from each other,

It is. another object. of. this invention to provide 'ap-' paratus for carrying out theprocess: above described. comprising. a;.chamber for containing a fluid through which the 'webfmat'erial. passes. and. wherein at. least one of the. opposed. walls oi the fluid chamber is provided withmeans for creating, vibrations to therebyagitate the fluid in.a zone, or. a pluralityof successive. zones, which preferably encompass the entire width of the web material,

andwherein said. opposed; walls are spacedfrom each spaced relatively close together and between which theweb material passes-.andwherein at least one 01? said.

opposed'walIs is. provided. with means for agitating; the fihidtherein throughout at least the width of the web material at a frequency of from five cycles per second to sixty-thousand cycles per second.

It is. another. object of this invention toprovide apparatus ofi the character described wherein, in one embodiment, at least one: Oh the said walls of'the: chamber ismad'e from apliable or resilient. material and is providedwithonmor: more transversely extending and relatively narrow bars. plates or other rigid members with means: fonim'parting movement to the rigid members inwardly and outwardly at predetermined" frequency to 2,904,981 Patented. Sept. 22,. 1959' correspondingly agitate the fluid through which the web material ispassed.

It is. still another object of this invention to provide apparatusof. the character last described including a plurality of said rigid members and wherein alternate or adjacent members move in the opposite direction: from adjacent or intervening rigid members with each movement during reciprocation thereof.

Itis. still another object of this invention, to provide another embodiment of apparatus of the character described wherein opposedwalls, between which the web passes, aremade from a substantially rigidmateri'al and at. least. one ofthe walls has one or more rows of trans"- ducersthereon disposed in close relative proximity. The transducers are preferably arranged in at least one pair of. adjacent rows with those in one row being spaced in. alternation to the transducers in the other row; Said transducers are capable ofsetting up ultrasonic wavesirr the fluid; which waves vibrate through a rapid sucicession of changes in dimension: and transmit the vibra tions as pressure Waves to the fluid through which the web passes, said transducers being capable of vibrating the. fluid at a rate of from twenty-thousand: to Sixtythousand cycles per second.

Some of the: objects of the invention having. been stated, other objects will appear as the description. pro ceeds. when taken in connection With the accompanying drawings; inwwhich Figure 1 is a side elevation of one form ofi apparatus for. carrying, out the improved process;

Figure 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in Figure 1. taken substantially along line 2'2';

a Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view; partially broken away, taken substantially along line 3-3 in Figure 1;

Figure. 4 is. an enlarged vertical sectional view, longitudinally of the direction of movement of the web taken substantially along line 4-4 in Figure 1?, and showing; somewhatschematically, some ofthe associated elements;

Figure. 5 is an elevation looking at the right-hand side of Figurel;

Figure 6 is a: side elevation of a modified form ofi apparatus in which transducers are used, whereas the apparatus shown in Figures 1 through 5 is provided with rigid members for effecting vibrations to the fluid through which the webpasses; I

Figure 7 is an elevation looking at the right-hand side of Figure6;

Figure. 8 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along line 8-8 in Figure 7;

Figure 9 is an enlarged vertical sectional View, with parts shown somewhat schematically, take-n substantially along line 9-9 in. Figure 7'.

In. thev processing of Web material such as dyeing, washing, sizing, desizing and mercerizing of textile material's; applying. plastic to pervious web materials, drying pulp in sheet form and in treating other materials, I. have discov ered that such web materials may be processed at a very rapid speed ascomparedto prior processes by vibrating the. fluid. through which the material is passedfor treating the same. Some attempts have been made in the process ingof web material to utilize subsonic vibrations with Now, I have discovered that the speed atwhich a con-' tinuous moving pervious web material can be efliciently processed during penetration of the web material by a fluid, in either gaseous or liquid form, is greatly increased as compared to prior processes, by creating vibrational Waves in the fluid with which the web material is pene trated in a zone or successive zones which preferably encompass the entire width of the pervious material being processed and wherein the vibrational waves are effected in either sonic or ultrasonic frequencies or, in other words, at a frequency of from five cycles per second to sixtythousand cycles per second.

One form of novel apparatus for processing web materials according to the present invention is illustrated in Figures 1 through 5, this form being so constructed as to produce sonic vibrations of from approximately five cycles per second to approximately two-hundred-fifty cycles per second in a given zone or zones through which the material passes. A modified form of novel apparatus for processing web material according to the present invention is illustrated in Figures 6 through 9, this apparatus being so constructed as to create ultrasonic vibrations in the fluid at a frequency of from approximately twenty-thousand cycles per second to approximately sixty-thousand cycles pertsecond in a given zone or zones through which the web'material passes. The first form of the apparatus shown in Figures 1 through will now be described.

Referring particularly to Figures 1 through 5, the numeral 10 broadly designates a main fluid treatment chamb'er adapted to contain a treating fiuid F. Various types of fluid may be used as will be described hereinafter. The main fluid treatment chamber is broadly characterized by relatively closely spaced walls containing the treating fluid, and between which a web material W is passed, the walls preferably being spaced from one to six inches apart, by way of example, so that the vibrational waves created by sources at either of the walls will not have diminished materially by the time they have reached the opposite or other wall, thus insuring thorough agitation of the fluid throughout its thickness or expanse between the walls.

Although not limited thereto, the main chamber 10 is shown in Figure 4, as being of generally U-shaped construction and includes a substantially semi-circular or arcuate bottom wall 11, a pair of opposed outer side walls, 12, 12' and opposed end walls 13, 13. Inner side walls 14, 14 are spaced inwardly from and extend between the respective outer side walls 12, 12' and define an auxiliary temperature controlling chamber (heating or cooling chamber) 15 therebetween, the temperature cor1- trolling chamber 15 being closed at its lower end by a plate 16 spaced above the bottom of the main chamber 10. Since the main chamber 10 is substantially U-shaped, the two legs thereof actually embody sub-chambers or compartments A, B. Since it may be necessary to remove the temperature controlling chamber 15 from within the main chamber 10 for the purpose of threading web material W through the main chamber, opposite ends of the temperature controlling chamber are also closed by end plates 17, 17' positioned closely adjacent the respective end walls 13, 13' of the main chamber 10. The plate 16 extends between and is connected to the inner wall members 14, 14' and the end plates 17, 17'.

The-main chamber 10 is carried by a frame 20 comprising a pair of opposed inverted substantially U-shaped end frame members 21, 21 which are spanned by respective vertically spaced intermediate and substantially horizontally disposed frame members 22, 23 and 22', 23. The end wall 13 is suitably secured to the upper horizontal portion of the end frame member 21 and the intermediate horizontal frame members 22, 23 extending between the vertical legs of the inverted U-shaped frame member 21.. The end wall 13 is suitably secured to the upper portion of the inverted U-shaped end frame members 21' and the corresponding intermediate horizontal frame members 22, 23 extending between the vertical legs of the inverted U-shaped frame member 21.

A pair of vertically spaced front transverse frame members 24, 25 extends between and is suitably secured to the front legs of the inverted U-shaped frame members 21, 21', and a similar pair of vertically spaced transverse frame members 24', 25' extends between and is suitably secured to the rear legs of the inverted U-shaped frame members 21, 21' (Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4).

The front and rear walls 12, 12 of the U-shaped chamber 10 are, for the most part, made from a pliable or resilient leak-proof sheet material such as rubber, syn-' thetic rubber (neoprene), plastic or the like, and are supported by and extend between respective substantially rectangular frames 30, 30 which are preferably made from angle plates or angle bars as best shown in'Figures 3 and 4. The curved bottom wall 11 of the chamber 10 may be provided with front and rear outwardly projecting flanges 31, 31 suitably secured to the lower portions of the respective rectangular pliable wall-supporting frames 30, 30. Suitable gaskets 32 may be provided between the flanges 31, 31 and the lower substantially horizontal portions of the respective rectangular frames 30, 30'. Y

The upper substantially horizontal portions of the rectangular frames 30, 30' are suitably secured to the bottom wall members 34, 34' of respective sealing chambers 35, 35 whose inner or proximal Walls 36, 36' serve as extensions to the upper ends of the respective walls 12, 12', but which terminate on a lower level than the upper ends of the temperature-controlling chamber walls or inner walls 14, 14'. It should be noted'that the upper portions of the end Walls 13, 13 are somewhat wider than their lower portions; that is, the end walls 13, 13' are substantially T-shaped, to accommodate the sealing chambers 35, 35' and serve as end walls to the sealing chambers.

The sealing chambers 35, 35' are also provided with respective front and rear walls 37, 37' whose upper ends terminate on a substantially higher level than the upper edges of the inner or proximal walls 36, 36' of thesealing chambers 35, 35'. The lower portions of vertically disposed baffle plates 40, 40 terminate in spaced 'relationship above the bottoms 34, 34 of the sealing chambers 35, 35' and extend upwardly therefrom and preferably terminate above the level of the upper edges of the respective front and rear walls 37, 37'. Medial portions of the baflle plates 40, 40 have respective rests or projections 41, 41' thereon upon which front and rear edges of a cover plate or platform 42 normally rest. I The upper edges of the inner walls 14, 14', which define the temperature control chamber 15 therebetween, along with the end walls 17, 17, are connected to or suspended from the cover plate 42. The cover plate 42 preferably has a pair of spaced loop members or handles 43, 43' thereon which may be engaged by a suitable lift mechanism, not shown, for raising the temperature controlling chamber 10 and to facilitate the threading of the web material W therethrough.

The cover plate 42 is spaced above the upper edges of the inner walls 36, 36' of the respective sealing chambers 35, 35 to permit the web material W to pass therebetween. Suitable seals or gaskets 45, 45 may be provided between the bottom walls 34, 34' oflthe sealing chambers 35, 35' and the upper substantially horizontal members of the respective pliable-wall-supporting frames 30, 30'.

The web material W may be drawn from a suitable source, not shown, between a pair of upper and lower driven feed rolls 50, 51. The Web material then passes over an idler roll 52 and then downwardly partially around and beneath a pair of idler rolls 53, 54', then upwardly over another pair of idler rolls 55, 56, and then downwardly through. the rear portion or compart ment of the chamber 10; that is, between the walls 12', 14. During its passage through the chamber 10, the web material ,W passes through a suitable treating fluid F.

acne-cs1:

i The lower portion ofthe main; chamber I has a relatively large idler roll therein which is suflicientl-y large so that opposite vertical runs of the. web material W may'pass through the treating fluid while being maintainedin spaced relation to the inner walls 14, 14* defining the temperature controlling chamber 1 5 therebetween. The web material passes upwardly from the idler roll 57' and over a pair of relatively small idler rolls 60-, 6 1, then downwardly beneath a pair of idler rolls 62', 63', while also passing beneath the lower edge of the baffle plate 40. The web material then passes upwardly from the idler-roll 63 and over an idler roll 64 and is withdrawn between a pair of driven upper and lower rolls 65, 66 which are prefierably covered with aresilient materiel-I toserve as squeeze rolls. The feed rolls 50, 51 are also preferably covered with a resilient material.

The. idler rolls 52 through- 57' and 60 through 64 may be suitably journa-led in the opposed end walls 13, 1'3 of the main chamber Opposite ends of the front and rear bottom driven rolls 66, 51- are jo urnaled in respective pairs ofbearing stands 70, 70' and 71', II (Figures 1, 2, 4 and 5). Tofacilitate removaI of" the top rolls 5!), 65", the bearingstands 70, 71, 70', 71" are provided with respective slots or notches 7-2 in their upper ends in which corresponding reduced ends of the corresponding rolls 50, 65 are looselymounted for rotati'on therein. i

It is important that the feed of the webmaterial W through the main chamber 10- be carefully regulated to insure that the web material passes throughthe fluid F atthe desiredspeed and to also insure that the web material is maintained under the proper tension. Therefore, it will be observed in- Figures 1, 2 and 5 that a separate variable-speed drive unit is provided for each of the sets of rolls 50-, 51 and 65, 66-. The variable speed drive units are shown somewhat schematically, since there are many different types of variable-speed units which will serve the intended purpose and, accordingly, a detailed description thereof is deemed unnecessary.

The variable-speed drive units for the set of web withdrawing or squeeze-rolls 65, 66 and the set of feed rolls 50; 51* are respectively designated at 75-, 75' in- Figures 1-, 2 and 5. Each of the variable-speed driveunits ispro..- vided with a suitable control 76 for controlling the output speed of the corresponding variablespeed drive unit. The variable-speed drive units 75, 75- drive respective pulleys 81, 81-" fixed oncorresponding reducedends of 'the respective rolls 66, 51-.

The variable-speed drive units 75, 75 may be suitably secured to the upper portion of the inverted U-shaped frame member 21. It will be observed in Figures 1, 2 and 5 that corresponding reduced ends of the bottom rolls 51, 66 each has a gear 83 fixed thereon which meshes with a gear 84. The gears 84 are fixed on the corresponding reduced ends of the respective top rolls 50; 65. Since the rolls 65, 66 may serve as squeeze rolls, a suitable pan 85 may be provided beneath the lower squeeze roll 66 to direct any excess fluid back into the corresponding sealing chamber 35 through an opening 86' provided in the front wall 37 of the front sealing chamber 35.

The-tIeating'fiu-id may be fed into the main chamber 10 by any suitable means and, in the embodiment shown schematically in Figure 4, a means is provided for feeding thefluid froma fluid source 90 into either one or both oflthe sealing chambers 35, 35 and/or directly into the main" chamber 10; Of course, when the treating fluid is fed into the sealing chambers 35, 35, it may be caused to flow over the upper edges of the inner walls 36 36- of the respective sealing chambers 35, 35' and, thus, into the main. chamber 10 To this end; it will be observed schematically in Figure 4 that the fluid source 90 has a pipe-line or conduit 9-1 leading therefrom inwhich a suitable pump 92 interposed. The pipe-line 91 extends upwardlyin the .6 left hand portion or? Figure 4-and their inwardly and is communicatively connected to the sealingchanrber 35". A medial portion of the conduit or pipeline 9!- has a branch pipe or conduit 93 leading therefrom which communicates with theliquid sealing chamber 35, pref erably through-the front wall 37 thereof.

The conduit 91 has a suitable manually or automaticallly operable valve 94 interposed therein between the point at which abranch: pipe 97 is connected thereto and the sealing chamber 35 Thebranch conduit 93 also has a, similar valve 95: interposed therein; The branch pipe or conduit 97 leads fi om pipe- 91 to the main fluid chamber 1:0 and is preferably connected to end wall 13. A valve 98 is interposed inpipe 97-. Thus, it is apparent that the fluid may be pumped into the charm bers 35-, 35 and/or themain chamber I0.

suitable fluid level control means, shown schematically at. 96, may be provided in the chamber 10: for closing the corresponding valve or 95* autm rnatically upon the level of the fluid in the chamber, if in liquid form, reaching a predetermined maximum-L Level controlling devices such as may be used to serve the purpose of the device 96 are well lmown inthe liquid treatment of web materials and a detailedillustration and description thereof is thus deemed unnecessary. For example, a suitable liquid -level control apparatus is disclosed in: States Patent Nb: 1 ,978,536, dated October 30, 1 934. i 1

In order that the fluid may be-continucuisl'y circulated through the main chamber 1%), a return pipeline" 'or conduit 99 is connected to alower; portion of the main chamber 10 atone end thereof and leads to the fluid source 90; A suitable drain, embodied in a valve 1'60; is preferably provided at the lowermost portion of the arcuate bottom wall l l of the main chamber 10 for draining the contents of'themai'rr chamber 10 for clean ing or other purposes, when desired,

The temperature-controlling chamber 1-5 may-be maintained at the desired temperature, depending upon the character ofthe fluid and /or web-material W-being processed; byany suitable means. example of'such meansis illustrated schematically in Figure 4 wherein it will he-observed that pipe-lines or conduits 1510, III are detachably connected tothe endwall 13 and end Wall 1'7 for-communication with the upper andl-ower-port'ibns,

respectively; of the temperature controlling chamber 151 Corresponding ends of the pipe-lines H0, 1*1 1 are connectedto opposed portions of a temperature determining means-shownschern-a-tically at 1-1 2, iii-Figure 4. The ternperaturedetermining means may be i in theform of a heating device, a boiler for hot water or for forming steam, arefrigerator or merely a source of'cold or hot water, depending upon the temperature desired to be maintained-in the temperature control-ling chamber" 155 i and, in turn, the temperature at'wvhi'chthe fluid istd-be maintained.

Suitable valves 1 1-3; 114' maybe-provided in the respective pipe-lines 11:0; 111 for controlling or stopping the flow of fluid theretlirough; Althoughafluid-type of temperature regulating means is described herein; it is to be. understood" that the fluid inthe main chamber 10 may be maintained at arelativel'y high temperature by electrical or other means. without departing fromthe spirit ofthe invention. p

Means are. provided for vibrating or agitating. the fluid in; opposedfront and rear: portions of, the. main chamber, in Zonesv which preferably extend throughout the width. oh the? fabric. or other web material being processed, to thereby insure rapid and, thorough: penetration of the; web'- materialt bye-the: fluid. through which it passes. A. plurality of such zones is provided i-rt'each of the front and rear. portions or compartment's of. the main chamber 10:, the r resilientor; pliable: front and rear walls 12; 1 2' of? the main chamber lilibeinm-puor-iided for the specific purpose of facilitating the agitation or vibration of the fluid.

To this end, it will be observed in Figures 1, 3 and 4 that the inner or rear surfaces of the front pliable wall 12 of the U-shaped chamber has a plurality of vertically spaced substantially horizontally disposed plates, bars or rigid members attached thereto, there being four such rigid members indicated at 121 through 124 in Figure 4. A similar seriesof such rigid members, plates or bars is provided on the inner or front surface of the rear pliable wall 12', and these rigid members are indicated at 121' through 124'.

The rigid members 121 through 124 and 121' through 124' preferably extend throughout at least the entire width of the plane of the path of travel of the web material W. These rigid members 121 through 124 and 121 through 124 are fastened to the inner surfaces of the respective pliable walls 12, 12 and, preferably, the fastening-means therefor extends through the corresponding pliable Wall and is attached to a corresponding outer rigid member, which is shown in the form of a channel bar. The channel bars corresponding to the respective inner rigid members 121 through 124 and 121' through 124' are respectively designated at 125 through 128 and 125' through 128.

The bars 125 through 128 and 125' through 128' are preferably of substantially the same length as the respective inner bars or rigid members 121 through 124 and 121' through 124'. Each of the bars 125 through 128 has corresponding ends of a pair of connecting rods or links 131, 132 pivotally connected thereto and each of the outer bars 125' through 128 also has corresponding ends of a pair of connecting rods or links 131, 132, pivotally connected thereto (Figures 3 and 4). The links or connecting rods 131, 132, 131', 132 are caused to reciprocate at sonic speed by respective cams 133, 134, 133', 134'. The latter cams may impart reciprocatory movement to the corresponding connecting rods in any desired manner.

In this instance, it will be observed in Figure 3 that the cams 133, 134, 133, 134' are eccentrically secured on respective upright shafts 135, 136, 135', 136 and enlarged outer ends of the corresponding connecting rods 131, 132, 131', 132 loosely fit around or encircle the respective cams 133, 134, 133, 134' whereby rotation of the latter cams imparts inward and outward reciprocatory motion to the rigid members 121 through 124 and 121 through 124'. It should be noted that the cams 133, 134, 133', 134' in the ends of the connecting rods associated with the bars 125, 127, 125, 127 face in substantially opposite directions from cams associated with the intervening or other bars 126, 128, 126', 128' so that, as the bars 122, 122 and 124, 124' move outwardly with each reciprocation thereof, the rigid members or bars 121, 121 and 123, 123 move inwardly, and vice versa, so the waves or vibrations effected by adjacent rigid members move relatively in opposite directions.

Although the means for creating the waves or vibrations are illustrated herein as provided in the outer walls 12, 12 of the main chamber 10', it is apparent that similar means may be provided in the immediately opposite or inner walls 14, 14' respectively, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

'The shafts 135, 136, 135', 136' may be driven to rotate at the desired speed by any suitable means and it is preferable that the shafts 135, 136 are driven at substantially the same speed as the shafts 135', 136', although this may not be absolutely necessary. The front cam shafts 135, 136 are each journaled in a pair of vertically spaced bearing members 140, 141. The rear cam shafts are each journaled in a pair of vertically spaced bearing members 140', 141. The bearing members 140, 141, 140", 141' are each preferably in the form of pillow blocks of the usual type having wide-inner-race anti-friction bearings therein so the inner races of the bearing may be secured to the corresponding shafts to maintain the shafts in the desired positions.

The bearing members 140, 141 are suitably secured to the inner or rear surfaces of the respective transverse frame members 24, 25 of the frame 20 and the bearing members 141 are suitably secured to the respective upper and lower rear transverse frame members 24, 25'. The lower ends of the cam shafts 135, 136 each has a bevel gear 142 fixed thereon and the lower ends of the cam shafts 135', 136 each has a bevel gear 142 fixed thereon.

The bevel gears 142 each mesh with a corresponding bevel gear 144 and the bevel gears 142 each mesh with a bevel gear 144' (Figures 1 and 4). The bevel gears 144 are fixed on a common substantially horizontally disposed shaft 145 at the front of the apparatus and the bevel gears 144- are mounted on a common substantially horizontally disposed rear shaft 145'. The shafts 145, 145' are journaled in respective bearing members or blocks 146, 147 and 146', 147, the bearing blocks 146, 147 being carried by the front legs of the inverted U-shaped frame members 21, 21 and the bearing blocks 146, 147' being carried by the rear legs of the respective inverted U-shaped frame members 21, 21'.

Referring to Figures 1, 3 and 5, corresponding ends of the front and rear shafts 145, 145' are suitably coupled together by means of sprocket wheels 150, 150 fixed on the respective shafts 145, 145, and over which an endless sprocket chain 151 is entrained. The front shaft 145 is coupled, by means of a shaft coupling or clutch 152, to an output shaft 153 of a gear-reduction unit 154 containing suitable gearing, not shown, for transmitting rotation from an input shaft 155 to the output shaft 153 and whereby the output shaft 153 may rotate at a substantially greater speed than the input shaft 155.

The input shaft 155 has a v pulley 156 fixed thereon about which a V-belt 157 is entrained. The V-belt 157 is also entrained over an expansible or variable-speed pulley 160 driven by a suitable prime mover 161 shown in the form of an electric motor in Figures 3 and 5. The electric motor is fixed on a motor support 162 having downwardly projecting ears 163 thereon guided for longitudinal movement on guide bars or rods 164.

Opposite ends of the guide rods 164 are fixed in suitable standards or frame members 164 fixed upon the floor upon which the main frame 20 rests. The central lower portion of the motor support 162 has an adjustment shaft or screw 166 threaded therethrough whose opposite ends are journaled in the frame members 164 and one end of which has a hand-wheel 167 med thereon for adjusting the motor 161 toward and away from the gear-reduction unit 154 to correspondingly vary the speed of the gearreduction unit. The gear-reduction unit 154 is fixed on a suitable stand 170 which is also suitably secured to the floor upon which the main frame 20 rests.

It is thus seen that means are provided for feeding the web material W into and withdrawing the web material W from the main chamber 10 at predetermined speed while maintaining predetermined tension in the web material and while maintaining the fluid under pressure therein, wherein the web material is so guided through the fluid in the chamber as to be positioned in the desired proximity to the pliable walls or the zones in which the vibrations are created and, also, so the web material is maintained out of contact with either of opposed walls of each of the compartments defined between the walls 12, 14 and 12, 14. It is apparent that rotation of the cam shafts 135, 136, 135, 136 imparts reciprocatory in-and-out motion to the vibrating elements or rigid members 121 through 124 and 121 through 124' at predetermined speeds to thereby form zones of vibrational waves of predetermined frequency and wherein the vibrations created in the fluid F are relatively opposite with respect to the direction thereof with reciprocation of adjacent rigid vibrating elements.

Due. to; the mechanical elements involved in the form or apparatus heretofore described and illustrated in Figures 1 through 5 the extent of the frequency of the vibrational waves which are created: by the reciprocating vibrating-elements or rigid members 121 through 124 and 121" through 1124 should be limited to some extent, and it has been found desirable to drive the cam shafts 135, 136, 1'35, 136. so as to. create vibrational waves in the fluid F of from five cycles per second to no more than twoPhundred-fifty. cycles per second, a range offrom sixty cycles persecond to.one-hundred-twenty cycles per second being. preferred.

In impregnating woven or knit cloth or other textile materials in. webform, while continuously moving the same under predeterminedly controlled tension through a pressurized dye liquor in the main chamber it has been: found that the creation of vibrational waves in the dye liquor increases the speed at which the-fabric or web materialmay be passed through thedye liquor, as repre sented: by thefluid F, as much as ninety percent greater than has been possible heretofore. For example, whereas normal dyeing processes would require one hour in order to dye a given length of fabric, the present process, utilizing apparatus of. substantially thecharacter disclosed in Figures 1 through 5, requires approximately six minutes inw order-to dyesaid given length of web material, the latter-process beingcarried out while creating sonic vibrational waves in the bath of from sixty cycles per second to one-hundred-twenty cycles-per second.

In order to further insure that the web material. W ismaintained out of engagement withv either of the walls of. each compartment ofthe main chamber 10; a series of staggered guide rods may be provided in each of the opposed. compartments, A, B between which the Web passes, the guide rods in the. front portionor compartment- A of the main chamber 10 being indicated at 175 andtheguide rods in the rear compartment B- of the main chamberl0-being indicated at 175. These guide rods may be suitably attached atopposite ends thereof to the end walls 1-3; 13 andmay'remainstationary or may be-inthe form of idler -rolls.as desired.

The guide-rods1 75, L75 may be-desired; due to the distance between the two walls of each compartment of the main'chamber 10 since, as heretofore. stated, the walls 12', I4-and-1-2', 14 are preferably spaced from one inch to six inches apart to insure-that the vibrational waves do not materially diminish from the point at which they are-created before having agitated the full thickness or expanse. of the fluid between the adjacent walls. Also, inthe lower sonic frequencies, the vibrational waves are necessarily relatively large and diminish in size, but increase in intensityorforce, as they increase in frequency. Thus, the, larger vibrational waves effected at low frequencies may tend to move the cloth or other pervious web material at the particular zonesin which they are present to the extent that, if the guide rods I75, 175 were not provided, the web material might, be thrown against the oppositewallof the, corresponding. compartment.

Earlier in this context, an. example-of the process; of the present invention, has been givenas appliedto the dyeing of textile web material in a dye liquor However, the principles of the present process are also equally applicable in instances wherein the fluid may be of gaseous form, such as hot air, for the drying of'various types of web materials such as sheet paper pulp. The process is also applicable to apply a plastic material to a pervio-us web material; thesizing, washing, scouring-or dryingof textile web materials or to the application of caustic materials to textile web materials for mercerizing, or for desizing textile web materials to breakdown the starch in the textile web material. In other words, ina broad sense, the present method is; applicable to the treating ofany type of 'web material capable. of penetration by moisture or gas.

Although the apparatus shown in Figures 1 through 5 has been described as having a plurality of zones in which vibrational waves are created in the fluid, it" is apparent that there may be instances in which only a single zone of this character need be provided. Also, liquid? F in the sealing chambers 35', 35" serves as aliquid seal to maintain pressure in the main chamber 10; However, it should be understood that other sealing means may be used inprocessing with: a gaseous fluid in the main chamber, suchas hot or cold air.

Modified form of web treating apparatus As heretofore; stated, the. form of apparatus illustrated in Figures 1 through 5.; is limited, in the creation of vibrational Waves in the treating fluid, to sonic: frequencies which preferably do not exceed two-hundredsfifty cycles per second. A modified form of apparatus. suitable for use in practicing the process of the; present. invention: is shown. in Figures 6. through 9', this modified form of apparatus being particularly devised: for creating vibrational waves in the treating fluid which are ultrasonic. in frequency and which. may be effected at from. twohundred-fifty cycles per second, or less, to approximately sixy-thousand; cycles per second, it being preferable that the treating fluid. has. ultrasonic: vibrationalz waves created therein: at; a frequency of approximately twenty-six. thousand cycles: per second;

. With. the primary exceptions of: the outer walls. of the main. chamber being formed from rigid. material and having electrical transducers provided with resonating. or radiating surfaces thereon, the apparatus shown. in. Figtires 6: through. 9 may be substantially the same as the apparatus shown in: Figures 1?. through 5. The modified form of apparatus comprises: a; main chamber or tank 200. which is. preferably substantially UL-shaped', but need not: necessarily be so. The: apparatus shown in. Figures 6. through 9 also includes a: temperature controlling or auxiliary chamber, 201, and'apair of front andrear sealing chambers 202, 202' all of which are quite similar to.the respective chambers 10, 15, 35. and 35" of the first form oftheapparatus.

The main-fluid: treatment chamber 200is also adapted to: contain a. treating. fluid F4 and? includes a substantially semi-circular, curved or arcuate bottom wall 205 whichmerges witha pair of opposed substantially rigid outer or front and rear side walls 206, 206. Inner or front and rear auxiliary walls 207, 207 are spaced inwardly fromand extend between respective outer 'side walls 208, 208" of the main tank or chamber 200 and definethe auxiliary temperature controlling chamber (heating or cooling chamber) 20f therebetween, thetemperature controlling chamber 201'- being closed at its lower endby a plate 211" spaced above the bottom 205 of the main chamber 200; Since the main chamber 200 is substantially U-shapeththe, two legs, thereof form subchambers or compartments C, D. The plate211 extends between and" is connected to the inner wall members 207, 207" and temperature controlling chamber end wall members 210; 210" (:Figure 8).

The main chamber 200 is carried by a suitable frame 214 shown in the form of a pair of laterally spaced end frame members 215,215 which are of substantially U- shapedconfiguration for receiving the curved lower por tion orbottom 205iof'themain' chamber 200. The frame members 215, ,215'are bridged by stabilizing frame members, or tie rods, 216 whose, opposite, ends are suitably secured to the end frame members 215, 215'.

Like the end walls of the main chamber 10 of, the first form of the apparatus, the end walls 208, 208? of the chamber 200" are also substantially T-shaped and their upper portions serve asend walls to the sealing chambers 20 2, 202: The upper portions of the front andrear side walls 206, 206",o fthe main; chamber 200 also serve as the inner or proximal walls of the respective sealing chambers 202, 202". The bottoms of the sealing cham- 11 bars 202, 202 are indicated at 220, 220 and the outer or distal walls of the sealing chambers 202, 202' are respectively designated at 221, 221.

The lower portions of vertically disposed bafie plates 222, 222' terminate in spaced relationship above the bottoms 220, 220' of the respective sealing chambers 202, 202 and extend upwardly therefrom and preferably terminate above the level of the upper edges of the respective front and rear walls 221, 221'. Medial portions of the baffle plates 222, 222 have respective rests or projections 223, 223' thereon upon which front and rear edges of a cover plate or platform 224 normally rest. The cover plate 224 may be provided with one or more loop members or handles 226 thereon which may be engaged by a suitable lift mechanism, not shown, for raising the temperature controlling chamber 201 out of the main chamber 200 and to facilitate threading the web material W-l therethrough, it being noted that the upper edges of the walls 207, 207, 208, 20 8' of the temperature controlling chamber 201 are suitably secured to and suspended from the cover plate 224.

The modified form of apparatus shown in Figures 6 through 9 is also provided with a pair of upper and lower feed rolls or ingress rolls 230, 231 and a pair of upper and lower egress or squeeze rolls 232, 233, all of which are preferably covered with a pliable or resilient material for the reason given with respect to rolls 50, 51, 65, 66 shown in Figure 47 The rolls 230, 231 and 232, 233 are mounted in respective pairs of bearing blocks or stands 234, 235 and may be mounted in these bearing standards 234, 235 in exactly the same manner in which the reduced ends of the rolls 50, 51, 65, 66 are mounted in the respective pairs of bearing blocks or standards 70, 70 and 71, 71. Accordingly, a more detailed description of the manner in which the rolls 230, 231, 232, 233 are supported will not be given. It might be stated, however, that the bearing stands 234, 235 are suitably secured to corresponding end walls 208, 208' of the main chamber 200.

Since the egress rolls 232, 233 may serve as squeeze rolls, a suitable pan 236 is also preferably provided beneath the bottom squeeze roll 233 for returning any fluid which drains from the squeeze rolls 232, 233 into the front sealing chamber 202 through a suitable opening 237 provided in the front wall 221 of the front sealing chamber 202. It will be observed in Figure 9 that web guiding rolls 240 to 250 inclusive, are journaled in the opposed end walls 208, 208 of the main chamber 200 and are arranged in the identical manner to that in which the respective web guiding rolls 52 through 57 and 60 through 64 are arranged in Figure 4.

Thus, the web material W-l passes between the driven upper and lower feed rolls 230, 231, then over the roll 240 and downwardly through the liquid seal formed in the sealing chamber 202, beneath batfle 222', then over the upper edge of the wall 206' of the main chamber 200, then downwardly between and through the compartment or sub-chamber D, partially around the relatively large roll 245 in the lower portion of the main chamber 200, then upwardly through the sub-chamber or compartment C, over the upper edge of the front wall 206 of the main chamber 200, then downwardly through the liquid seal, and beneath the baffle 222, then upwardly out of the liquid seal and over the roll 250 where it is withdrawn by the squeeze rolls or withdrawing rolls 232, 233. Guide rods 252, 252' may be provided in the subchambers C, D (Figure 9) between which the web W-l passes in the manner described with respect to the guide rods 175, 175' in Figure 4. However, they may not be required when using ultrasonic waves in the processing fluid.

The rolls 230, 231 and 232, 233 are shown in Figure 6 as being driven in substantially the same manner in which the'respective rolls 50, 51, 65, 66 are driven in Figure that is, separate variable-speed drive units 255, 255' are provided for the respective sets of top and bottom rolls 232, 233 and 230, 231, respectively. The variable-speed drive units 255, 255 may be suitably secured to the upper portion of the substantially T-shaped end wall 208, and each of them is provided with a suitable control 256 for controlling the output speed of the corresponding variable-speed drive unit.

The variable-speed drive units 255, 255 drive respective endless belts 260, 260 which engage respective pulleys 261, 261' fixed on corresponding reduced ends of the respective bottom rolls 233, 231. It will be observed in Figures 6 and 7 that corresponding reduced ends of the bottom rolls 231, 233 each has a gear 263 fixed thereon which meshes with a gear 264. The gears 264 are fixed on corresponding reduced ends of the respective top rolls 230, 232.

As is the case in the first form of the apparatus the treating fluid may be fed into the main chamber 200 by any suitable means and, since such means is embodied in Figure 9 identically in the manner in which it is illustrated in Figure 4, the corresponding parts of the treating-fluid feeding means shown in Figure 9 will bear the same reference characters as like parts shown in Figure 4 with a small letter a aflixed thereto to avoid repetitive description. Of course, it is obvious that the upper portions of the pipelines 91a, 97a are communicatively connected to the respective liquid sealing chambers 202', 202.

A suitable fluid-level control means or pressure control means, shown schematically at 9611 in Figure 9, may be provided in the upper portion of the main chamber 200 for maintaining the fluid F-1 at the proper level or under the proper negative or positive pressure, depending upon whether the fluid is in liquid or gaseous from. The fluid-level control apparatus 96a may be of the same type as the fluid-level control apparatus 96 shown in Figure 4 and a further description thereof is deemed unnecessary. A drain, embodied in a valve 100a is also provided at the lowermost portion of the arcuate bottom wall 205 of the main chamber 200 for draining the contents of the main chamber 200 for cleaning or other purposes when desired.

The temperature controlling chamber 201 may be maintained at the desired temperature, depending upon the character of the fluid and/or web material W-l being processed, by any suitable means, such as that heretofore disclosed with respect to Figure 4. Accordingly, the elements of the temperature determining means shown in Figure 9 which correspond to elements shown in Figure 4 will bear the same reference characters with the small letter a afiixed thereto, to avoid repetitive description.

As heretofore stated, the outer or front and rear walls 206, 206' of the main fluid chamber 200 are made from a rigid or substantially rigid material, such as sheet metal, and each of the compartments or sub-chambers C, D has high-frequency vibrational waves (ultrasonic) created therein which are in zones extending transversely or laterally of the path of travel of the web material W-l. In this instance, two successive zones of high-frequency vibrational Waves are effected in each of the sub-chambers or compartments C, D of the main fluid chamber 200, which is preferred. However, a single lateral zone of high-frequency vibrations, or more than two successive zones of high-frequency vibrations may be effected in either or both of the sub-chambers C, D.

To this end, a pair of substantially parallel laterally extending or horizontally extending rows of closely spaced soundwave producing or resonating devices or transducers 270, 271 is provided on the front wall 206, and a similar pair of rows of transducers 270, 271" is provided on the rear wall 206', the transducers 271, 271 preferably being disposed in staggered relation to the transducers 270, 270' in the row thereabove in order that vibrational waves are created in the fluid F-1 throughout the entire width of the web material W-1 passing therethrough. The transducers 270, 271, 270, 271 may be of a type such as is is manufactured by Acoustica Associates, Inc., Glenwood Landing, Long Island, New York.

Each of the transducers 270, 271, 270', 2'71' may be of a type comprising a cup-like housing 272 having a flange 273 on its inner end which is penetrated by screws or other means 274 for securing the transducers to the corresponding walls of the main chamber 200. The transducers may each be of the magnetostriction or ceramic type which, by means of a coil 275 disposed within the corresponding housing 272, inaudibly vibrates a radiating or resonating face 276 oneach of the transducers 270, 271, 2701271. Each of the tra sducers 270, 271, 270', 271' contains a coil 275, onl one of which is shown schematically in Figure '9. I

Alternating current of the desired frequency is supplied tofthe coil 275 of each of the transducers by any suitable means such as a generator 277. Each coil then causes a material contained within the corresponding housing 272 to vibrate through a. rapid succession of changes in dimension, which vibrations are developed in the form of high-frequency sound vibrations at the radiating face 276 of each of the transducers 270, 271,270, 271. This results in cavitation bubbles being formed in the fluid F-l, which bubbles collapse and generate shock waves which can number several hundred thousand per second. In order tha t the high-frequency (ultrasonic) sound waves emanating from the radiating face 275 of each or the transducers 270, 271, 270, 271' are not restricted, the walls 206, 206 of the main chamber 200 each has openings or orifices 280 therein coinciding with the radiating face 275 of each of thetransducers. I

Due'to the heat developed by the high-frequency alternating currents passing through each of the coils 275, a Suitable circulating cooling 'meclium, such as cold water, flows through each 'of the housings 272. To this end, each of the housings 272 of transducers 270, 271 has an outlet and an inlet conduit connected thereto which are res ectively designa'ted at 281, 282. Each ofth'e housings 27 of transducers 270, '271' has respective outlet and inlet conduits 231', 282' connected thereto. The inlet and outlet conduits 281, 282 extending from the upper transducers 2'70, 27Q' are connected to respective common conduits '283, 284, 283, 284" and'the inlet and outlet conduits 2'81, 282 extending from each of the lower transducers 271, 271 are connected to respective common conduits 285 286, 285', 286'.

It will be observed in Figures 6, 7 and 8 tl 1 at the 'substantially horizontal inlet conduits 283, 233 are 'connected with the conduits 285, 285' which are, in turn, connected to a common inlet pipe or conduit 287. All of the substantially horizontal outlet conduits 284, 286, 284', 286' are connected to a common outlet conduit or ,pipe 290 (Figure 6). Corresponding ends of the conduits 287, 290 are connected to a suitable circulating source of liquid coolant or water, shown schematically at 291 in Figure 7.

It might be stated that the material disposed within each of the housings 272, which is vibrated by the flow of alternating current of the desired frequency through the corresponding coil 275, may comprise piezoelectric quartz crystals, piezoelectric ceramics and certain iron and nickel alloys which can be magnetically made to change dimension and the radiating face 275 of each transducer may be in the form of a pliable disc made from Teflon or other suitable material or it may be in the form of a disoshaped piston (resonator) projecting into the tank through the corresponding orifice or opening 280.

It is thus seen that each row of transducers 270, 271,

270, 271' 'creates a corresponding lateral zone of ultrajsonic ibi a'tions or pressure waves in the fluid PA, the inner walls 207, 207 being sufficiently closely spaced tofore stated, in cavitation. Cavitation not only creates high molecular velocity, but also stretches liquid, which can, for example, grind suspended particles to one onehundred-fifti'eth (V micron in diameter, can disperse them uniformly in the fluid within the confined thickness of the fluid or elfective field of the ultrasonic sources, and can open up pervious pliable materials, such as cloth.

It is thus seen that I have provided a novel method of processing continuous moving web materials as they pass through a treating fluid while creating a zone or zones of subsonic or ultrasonic vibrations in the treating fluid and in a lateral zone or lateral zones which preferably extend throughout the width of the web material being processed. It should be noted that the relatively narrow thickness of the fluid in each of the compartments in each form of apparatus disclosed herein minimizes the amount of fluid required to process the web material and, in the event that the web material need be heated, the amount of heating energy required to maintain the fluid at the proper temperature is minimized. It should be noted that it is only necessary to support some types of web material against movement with low-frequency or subsonic waves. The size of the waves diminish somewhat proportionally with increases in frequency so that it is normally unnecessary to support a web against movement of waves at ultrasonic frequencies.

In both forms of apparatus disclosed herein, it is to be understood that the distance between adjacent Walls of the chamber between which the web passes is substantially proportionate to the amplitude of the vibrational waves created at the source to insure complete agitation of the fluid medium, whether it be liquid or gas, and thereby insure rapid and thorough penetration of the pervious web so the web can be processed at a much faster rate than has been possible with prior processes. In the claims, the term amplitude is used with respect to the source of vibration to indicate complete and thorough agitation of the fluid throughout its thickness at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies, and to formation of cavitation bubbles throughout thickness of a fluid in which ultrasonic 'vibrational waves are created. The distance from each source to the opposite wall should be within the effective range of the means producing the vibrational waves in the treating fluid.

In the drawings and specification there has been set forth a preferred embodiment of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.

I claim:

1. Apparatus for the treating of web material including in combination a treatment chamber having first and second oppositely disposed walls adapted to contain a fluid therebetween and providing for passage of the web therethrough, means for continuously moving said web through the chamber, at least one of said walls being of a 'pliable material, and means for reciprocating a portion of said pliable material toward and away from the web at least throughout the plane of the width of the web for creating vibrational waves of predetermined frequency in the fluid.

2. A structure according to claim 1 wherein said pliable wall is provided with at least one additional means for reciprocating a portion thereof extending in substantially parallel spaced relationship to the first-named portion, and wherein said portions are moved relatively oppositely with each reciprocation thereof.

3. Apparatus for treating a continuously moving pervi'ous web material comprising a sealed chamber having spaced substantially parallel oppositely disposed walls providing for the passage of the web therebetween, at least one of said walls being made from a pliable material, at least one laterally extending rigid member carried by said pliable wall, and means for reciprocating said rigid member at predetermined sonic frequency of five to two-hundred-fifty cycles .per second at such amplitude as to insure vibrational waves imparted to the fluid of substantially uniform intensity throughout the fluid between said walls.

4. A structure according to claim 3 wherein means are provided for maintaining the fluid between said walls at a predetermined temperature.

5. Apparatus for the fluid treatment of pervious web material comprising a sealed treatment chamber having oppositely disposed substantially parallel walls providing for the passage of the web therebetween in spaced substantially parallel relation thereto, at least one of said walls being made, at least in part, of a pliable material, a plurality of spaced substantially parallel rigid members secured to said pliable wall and extending substantially laterally of the plane of the path of travel of said web, and means for imparting reciprocatory movement to said rigid members toward and away from the web at a predetermined frequency and at suflicient amplitude to effect vibrational waves in the fluid which are of substantially uniform intensity throughout that portion of the fluid between each rigid member and the other of said walls.

6. A structure according to claim 5 wherein adjacent rigid members move relatively oppositely with each reciprocation thereof.

7. A structure according to claim 5 wherein said oppositely disposed walls are spaced one to six inches apart.

8. Apparatus for the fluid treatment of pervious web material comprising a treatment chamber having relatively closely spaced oppositely disposed substantially parallel walls providing for-the passage of the web therebetween in spaced substantially parallel relation thereto and adapted to contain a fluid therebetween, at least one of. said walls being made, at least in part, of a flexible material, a plurality of spaced substantially parallel rigid members carried by said flexible wall and extending substantially laterally of the plane of the path of travel of said web, and means for imparting reciprocatory movement to said rigid members toward and away from the web at a predetermined frequency and at suflicient amplitude to effect vibrational waves in the fluid which are of substantially uniform intensity throughout that portion of the fluid between each rigid member and the other of said walls.

9. A structure according to claim 8 wherein adjacent rigid members move relatively oppositely with each reciprocation thereof.

10. A structure according to claim 8 wherein said 0ppositely disposed walls are spaced from one to six inches apart.

11. Apparatus for the fluid treatment of a pervious web material comprising an upright substantially U-shaped sealed chamber for containing a treating fluid therein and having spaced substantially parallel oppositely disposed walls defining therebetween a substantially U-shaped passageway, means for continuously feeding the web into and withdrawing the web from said passageway while moving the web in substantially parallel spaced relation ship between said oppositely disposed walls, means for heating said fluid at least one of said walls having a source of vibrational energy for creating vibrational waves in the fluid against the other of said walls, said source of vertically spaced vibrational energy comprising a plurality of substantially parallel rows of transducers extending substantially laterally of the corresponding wall with respect to the path of travel of the web, the transducers in each row having resonating faces arranged in closely spaced relationship, transducers in adjacent rows being disposed in staggered relationship so as to produce 16 vibrational waves throughout the plane of at least the width of the said web, and the amplitude of the vibrational waves created by said transducers being such rela-' tive to the distance between the transducers and the other of said walls that the waves are of substantially uniform intensity throughout the thickness of the fluid between said oppositely disposed walls.

12. Apparatus for the liquid treatment of web fabric comprising an upright substantially U-shaped chamber including closely spaced side walls forming a substantially U-shaped passageway for containing fluid therein, means for continuously feeding a web into one end of said passageway, means guiding said web through said passageway, means withdrawing said web from the other end of the passageway, means for feeding fluid into said passageway, means for heating said fluid, a pressure seal at each end of said passageway, vertically spaced vibrational wave producing means extending throughout a substantial portion of the width of at least one of said side walls and projecting vibrational waves at substantially right angles to the path of travel of the web, and said wave producing means having suflicient energy relative to the spacing of the walls so that the waves are of sub stantially uniform intensity throughout the fluid between the walls in the horizontal plane thereof.

13. A structure according to claim 12 wherein said wave-producing means comprises vertically spaced rows of transducers extending substantially laterally of the corresponding wall with respect to the path of travel of I the web.

14. A structure according to claim 12 wherein said wave-producing means is in the form of at least one substantially parallel and laterally extending rigid member secured to said one of said walls and extending laterally with respect to the path of travel of the web, said one of said walls being made from a resilient material, and means for imparting inward and outward reciprocatory movements to said rigid member relative to the web.

15. A structure according to claim 12 wherein said wave-producing means is in the form of a plurality of substantially parallel and laterally extending rigid members secured to said one of said walls and extending sub stantially laterally with respect to the path of travel of the web, said one of said walls being made from a resilient material, and means for imparting inward and outward reciprocatory movement to each of said rigid members relative to the web.

16. Apparatus for the fluid treatment of material comprising a. treatment chamber having relatively closely spaced oppositely disposed substantially parallel walls for containing a fluid therebetween and for receiving the material to be treated therebetween, at least one of said walls being made, at least in part, of a flexible material, a plurality of spaced substantially parallel rigid members carried by said flexible wall and extending substantially laterally of the material to be treated, and means for imparting reciprocatory movement to said rigid members toward and away from the material to be treated at a predetermined frequency and at suflicient amplitude to effect vibrational waves in the fluid which are of substantially uniform intensity throughout that portion of the fluid between each rigid member and the other of said walls.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,174,013 Schrey Sept. 26, 1939 2,612,860 Pendleton Oct. 7, 1952 2,650,872 Goldwasser Sept. 1, 1953 2,702,260 Massa Feb. 15, 1955 2,800,682. ,Dooley July 30, 1957 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No., 2,904,981 September 22, 1959 Wi star Wright Macomson It is hereby certified that error appears in the-printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column l5, line 62, after "beating said fluid" insert a comma; line 65, strike out "vertically spaced" and insert the same in line 66, before substantially parallel Signed and sealed this 29th day of March 1960 (SEAL) Attest:

KARL H ,AXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2174013 *Sep 26, 1935Sep 26, 1939Adolf SchreyDevice for and method of treating fabrics and yarns
US2612860 *Jul 13, 1949Oct 7, 1952Pyam L PendletonFluid processing apparatus
US2650872 *Oct 30, 1947Sep 1, 1953Lever Brothers LtdMethod and apparatus utilizing compressional wave energy in the upper sonic and supersonic range for washing textiles
US2702260 *Nov 17, 1949Feb 15, 1955Frank MassaApparatus and method for the generation and use of sound waves in liquids for the high-speed wetting of substances immersed in the liquid
US2800682 *Feb 23, 1954Jul 30, 1957American Viscose CorpPiezoelectric tube for applying liquid to running strands
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3083481 *Jun 5, 1961Apr 2, 1963Kamen Emanuel GeraldAutomatic towel machine
US3089790 *Jun 9, 1960May 14, 1963Cavitron Ultrasonics IncUltrasonic cleaning devices and method of cleaning
US3160896 *Jul 28, 1959Dec 15, 1964Hupp CorpPressurized chamber dyeing with personnel ingress into and egress from the chamber
US3177505 *Jun 5, 1961Apr 13, 1965Jet Stream Products IncJet washing process
US3183690 *Jul 9, 1963May 18, 1965Butterworth Mfg CompanyApparatus for treating web materials in fluids
US3203207 *Jun 27, 1963Aug 31, 1965Anciens Ateliers Victor CharpeWool-washing machine
US3263458 *Aug 14, 1963Aug 2, 1966Samcoe Holding CorpApparatus for dyeing tubular knit material
US3474509 *Apr 22, 1966Oct 28, 1969Lowenstein & Sons MApparatus for stretching fabric
US3647526 *Jul 17, 1969Mar 7, 1972Barnes Donald AMethod for treating textile materials
US3712085 *Mar 11, 1971Jan 23, 1973Advanced Patent Technology IncUltra-sonic dry-cleaning machine
US3739436 *Apr 22, 1971Jun 19, 1973Meier Windhorst A KgProcess and apparatus for the continuous treatment of pile fabrics
US4702092 *Dec 19, 1984Oct 27, 1987Gaston County Dyeing Machine CompanyApparatus for wet processing a continuous traveling web of material
US5016451 *Jul 31, 1989May 21, 1991Ishikawa PrefectureApparatus for treating carbon fiber fabrics
US5058611 *Mar 27, 1989Oct 22, 1991Sonicor Instrument CorporationProcess and apparatus for the ultrasonic cleaning of a printing cylinder
US5133376 *May 17, 1989Jul 28, 1992Samarin Igor ADevice for ultrasonic machining or articles in liquid medium
US5199125 *Apr 2, 1992Apr 6, 1993Milliken Research CorporationTank with oscillating member
US5478358 *Apr 20, 1994Dec 26, 1995Kato Research Institute Inc.Method for improving an animal fiber
US7568251Dec 28, 2006Aug 4, 2009Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Process for dyeing a textile web
US7674300Dec 28, 2006Mar 9, 2010Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Applying colorant to one side then moving through ultrasonic vibration system to improve penetration and enhance binding
US7740666Dec 28, 2006Jun 22, 2010Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Applying colorant to one side then moving through ultrasonic vibration system to improve penetration and enhance binding
US8182552Jul 12, 2007May 22, 2012Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Applying colorant to one side then moving through ultrasonic vibration system to improve penetration and enhance binding
US8632613Dec 27, 2007Jan 21, 2014Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Process for applying one or more treatment agents to a textile web
DE2540640A1 *Sep 12, 1975Mar 25, 1976Attilio BertoldiVorrichtung zur behandlung von gewebebahnen mittels einer behandlungsfluessigkeit
Classifications
U.S. Classification68/3.0SS, 8/159, 8/DIG.120, 26/1, 68/175, 204/157.62, 134/1, 68/22.00R, 204/193, 28/167, 366/154.1, 8/151.2, 26/18.5, 366/145, 68/9, 28/169, 38/2, 366/108
International ClassificationD06B13/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06B13/00, Y10S8/12
European ClassificationD06B13/00