US 2905031 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 22, 1959 G. H. APPEL EI'AL 2,905,031
DI E ACTUATION MEANS OR FORGING' MACHINES Filed Aug. 16, 1956 4 sheets -shee t 1 INVENTOR. GERHARD H. APPEL ERICH TLAKER em 5 am ATTORNEYS p 1959 s. H. APPEL ETAL 2,905,031
DIE ACTUATION MEANS FOR FORGING MACHINES Filed Au 16, 1956 v 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 I E- a be a"? I 4| QE' [L /44 we. v s 42 '15 5 5' W I IINVENTOR.
GERHARD u. APPEL l 4; y amcn TLAKER MwQM ATTORNEYS Sept. 22', 1959 s. H. APPEL ETAL 2,905,031
DIE ACTUATION MEANS ,FOR FORGING MACHINES Filed Aug. 16, 1956 4 sheets -shet 3 GERHARD H. APPEL BY ERICH TLAKER Qumm Q- W ATTORNEYS Sept. 22, 1959 G. H. 'APPEL ETA 2,905,031 DIE ACTUATiON MEANS FOR FORGING MACHINES Filed Aug. 16, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 as mD T R M M W Rm gm ,Q
United States Patent'Of 2,905,031 DIE ACTUATION MEANS FOR FORGING MACHINES Gerhard H. Appel and Erich Tlaker, Windsor, Ontario,
Canada, assignors to Appel Process, Ltd., Windsor, ntario, Canada, a corporation of Canada Application August 16, 1956, Serial No. 604,374 4 Claims. (Cl. 7821) This application relates to die actuation means and particularly to such means employed in forging machines.
It happens that in a prior application, Serial No. 450,-
500, filed August 7, 1954, there is discloseda forging 1 of forging sets arranged around the workpiece axis on radial axes transverse to the workpiece axis. The radial axes define paths of forging movement of the dies. Each forging set includes a set of drivers, each having driver cams on its opposed faces, rollers for the cams, a backing element, a die mover, and a die. The machine has means for reciprocating the drivers in paths transverse to the radial axes so that their cams bias their rollers along the radial axes against the backing elements and against the die movers to cause the latter to move the dies radially for forging.
In this application, there is disclosed an improvement which comprises a multiplicity of rollers and cams in each forging set whereby the force between the drivers and a die is divided among two or more cam and roller sets within a single forging set. Since the surface stresses of the cams and rollers limit the forces, we can, by distributing the loads over several cam-roller sets, increase the loads without exceeding the allowable loads (surface stresses) for each cam-roller set. I
One such improvement relates specifically to the provision of a plurality of cam and roller sets between the driver sets and the dies.
Still another improvement is in the provision of an articulated construction for each driver end so that compensation for oblique movements of the drivers is effected.
Another improvement is an arrangement wherein each driver set includes two drivers, each driver having on each face two spaced cams, and each cam having a roller, there being thus eight cams and eight rollers for each die.
Still another improvement is an arrangement wherein each driver has its end articulated to include a yoke pivotally mounted on the driver normal to the radial axis on which the corresponding die mover and die moves, and normal to the path of reciprocation of the driver, each yoke carrying one set of cams.
A still further improvement is an arrangement wherein one driver end overlaps the other driver end, and wherein a cam of one such driver end is in surface al-inement with a cam of the other driver end.
A still further improvement is an arrangement wherein one driver end is forked and the other is tongued to fit inside the forked end of the other driver end, and wherein thefork includes four cams and the tongue includes two cams, with the cams of the tongue being in transverse surface alinement with those of the fork.
A still further improvement is an arrangement wherein the separated and spaced cams are on opposite sides of the radial axis of each forging set.
The foregoing and other improvements forming part of the invention will be best understood upon reference to 2,905,031 Patented Sept. 1959 the appended drawings disclosing several preferred forms of the invention.
In these drawings: f
Fig. l is a diagrammatic end view of a forging machine looking along the axis of the workpiece;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary schematic view showing a multiplicity of rollers provided between a driver set and a die mover and backing element;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view of the driver set per se, as if on line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
- Fig. 4 is a view like Fig. 2 but showing an increased number of rollers between the driver set and the die mover and also showing anlarrangement for articulating the end of a driver;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view of one driver end as if on line 55 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a view like Figs. 2 and 4 but showing a fork and tongue arrangement of driver ends;
Fig. 7 is an exploded view as if on lines 7-7 of Fig. 6 but with the driver ends separated for purposes of clarity rather than nested as would ngrmally be the case.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view of the machine as a whole.
Referring to the drawings and particularly to Figs. 1 and 8, it will be seen that these figures show a forging machine diagrammatically. The machine comprises a head, not shown through which may be axially passed a workpiece 10, the axis of such workpiece being shown at W. A plurality of dies 11 are arranged symmetrically on radial axes R transverse to the axis W for forging the workpiece 10 which may, if desired, longitudinally travel along the axis W. For each, die there is a die mover 12 anda driver. set referenced generally at 13 witheach set comprising two opposing drivers with the driver sets being arranged to reciprocate on axes D transverse to theradial axes R. The driver ends 14 are between the die movers 12 and rigid backing elements 15 and there are two driver ends 14 between each die mover and its backing element.
Each driver end is formed with a plurality of cams 16 in the form of concave-recesses and these cams are on the spaced opposing faces of the driver endsfacing the corresponding die'mover and backing element, A plurality of rollers 17 are disposed between the driver ends and the backing elements and between the driver ends and the die mover.- The backing elements are also concavel-y recessed as shown at 18.
Particularly as shown in Fig. 8, the drivers 14 terminate in eccentric rings 101 which surround stationarily mounted rotating shafts 102. These rings 101 and the shafts 102 interconnect the drivers at point 19 and also reciprocate them oppositely. Shafts 102 are journaled in a housing 103 and form hubs for pinions 104 meshing with a ring gear 105 also journaled in the housing and rotated by a pinion 106 driven by a motor M.-, As the motor M rotates it will rotate the pinion 106 to rotate the ring gear 105 and thus rotate the pinions 104 and shafts 102. This causes the eccentric rings 101 to move in such a way as to reciprocate the driver rods-'14 on. axes D and to move the cams 16 on axes D and thus move the dies 11 radially on axes R.- v
Within each driver set the 'drivers-are'so arrangedas to be out of phase as shown by the arrows in Fig. 2. Thus, the drivers will move towards each other simultaneously as shown in the full line arrows and away from each other simultaneously as shown in the dotted. line arrows. Springs 20 located between the' dies 11 and the die movers 12 maintain the dies in contact with the workpiece.
As the drivers move towards and away from each other they spread apart the roller sets and thusmove the dies radially on axes R towards the axis W for forging the workpiece.
The foregoing is a general description of the operation of the machine and of the construction and operation of dies and their actuating means or driver sets, roller sets, and backing elements.
The specific improvements which form the subject matter of this application will now be described first by reference to Figs. 1, 2, and 3. Thesefigures diagrammatically show the provision of'four cams'16 on the radially spaced opposing faces of the drivers facing the corresponding die mover and backing elements and also shows the provision of four rollers 17 adjacent to the cam 16.
In the construction disclosed in'Figs. 1,2, and 3 the .force transmitted by the driverstow a die is divided. and spread over two sets of cams and rollers .per die by virtue ofthe provision of two sets of rollers or four rollers -in all for'thetwo drivers and for a single die, and this .is accomplished without increasing the size of the machine or the travel ofthe drivers.
Figs. 4 and 5 show a construction wherein there are eight rollers and eight camsifor each driver set and for .each die and backing element. This is accomplished by --forming fourcams on each driver end, the cams being on opposite faces of. the driver end and also spaced longitudinally of 'the driver.
In addition Figs. 4 and 5"disclose'anarticulated form of driver which will now be described. Each driver end 40 isformed with transverse trunnions 41 alined with the earns 42 andthesetrunnions pivotallysupport a U- .shapedmember or 'yoke .44 within which -isa block 45 having its upper and lower faces formed as cams -46.
Suitable 'means'not'shown are'provided forfirmly anchoringtheblock 45 in-the-yoke-44. The yoke 44 with the block 46 anchored-thereto and thus with the cam faces 46 rigidly -fixed in relation to the yoke 44-may pivot on the trunnions 41 a slight amount for articulation'and "thus"compensate for oblique movements of the drivers and guided for movement on a driver axis transverse of the radial axis of member movement, and means for guiding and reciprocating the two driver rods along the driver axis simultaneously and oppositely, with both driver rods moving simultaneously towards or both moving simultaneously away from the radial axis; each driver rod having, adouble acting concave camfaciuglthememher and a roller between .theccam and member whereby reciprocation of the driver .rods oppositely will cam-bias the member-radially under thef'forceof bothcams simultaneuosly; the several 'pairs of driver rods beingrelatively transversely arranged to intersect and thus form a polygonalcage of the several pairs of driver rods around the members, the mechanism:further-including rotary shafts and eccentrics interconnecting the several pairs of driver rods where they intersect; there being at least three rel- :atively transverse pairs of driver. rods, and at least three rotary eccentric shafts connected to and connecting and driving thedriverrods, each eccentric shaft having eccen- -Irics whichwperate two relatively transverse driver rods; .thezzcamconconen'od.,beingseparated and spaced along -thC,diYCE axis-fronrthe cam of the other rod serving the same-members.
,2. Drive mechanism for a machine having at least vthree'force applying members equally spaced and radially .arranged around a central axis-on at least three radial .axes transverse t0 said,central axis, and guided to move 7 -,along such'radial axes, there being for each member two in--response to the action of eccentrics located at connections 19 which connect the drivers in'a manner described in my earlier application. The pivotal arrangement for the yoke 44 which anchors cam faces 46 on blockprovides an articulation and compensating effect which is desirable particularly where a large number such -as eight cam faces and rollers'are employed with a single die and backing-element as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, and
where the parts are spaced longitudinally of the-drivers.
*Figs. 6 and'7 showa construction wherein one-driver end overlaps the other so that aconsiderable economy of space is elfected within the machine whereby a large number of cam faces and rollers may be' employed with less longitudinal travel of the'drivers. One of the driver ends '-50-is forked bya yoke 51 of H shape for such overlapping as shown in Fig. 7 to receive the other driver end 52-whichis tongued by a yoke 53 of Y shape and the cam faces 54-55 and the rollers 56 are thus arranged in transversesurface alinement rather than spaced longitudinally of the drivers with a resultant economy of space-and travel. The drivers-also have cams 57-55 androllers 59- which'arenot in transverse surface aline- -ment. The rollers 56 which cooperate withcams 5455 are'of three part construction, as shown at Fig. 17 in my 'prior'application Serial No. 450,500. The sum of the lengths of cams 54 and rollers '56 ismade equal to the lengths of cam 55 and roller 56A to equalize the tangential force components in the-arrangement shown.
Nowhaving'disclosed several embodiments of the in- "inventionfreference should be had to the claims which follow.
1. A mechanical movement for amachiue having force applying members arranged on radialaxes equally spaced around and transverse to a central axis, and guided for movement along such radial axis, said movement com- -prising,-for each membery-two oppositely and simultaneously reciprocating-push-pull driver rods arranged on oppositely :and simultaneously reciprocating push-pull ;driv,er rods formoving that member radially towards the :central axis, .said driver rods for each member'being'aranged-on and guided for movement on a driver axis transverse to the radial axis ofmovement of the member, -means for guidingand reciprocating the two driver rods along the driver axis simultaneously and oppositely, with .both driver rods moving simultaneously towards or both moving simultaneously away from the radial axis, the at least three pairs of-driver rods being relatively transverse and intersecting-to form a polygonal cage of driver rods around the members and the central axis, the machine including at least three rotary shafts and eccentrics interconnecting the atleast three pairs of driver rods where they intersect, all the driver rods being in substantially the same plane, and each eccentric shaft having eccentrics .which operate two relatively transverse driver rods; each driver rod having a double acting concave cam facing the member and a roller between the cam and member whereby reciprocation of the driver rods oppositely will cam-bias the member radially under the force of both cams simultaneously; the camon one rod being separated and spaced along the driver axis from the cam of the other rod serving the same member.
3. A construction according to claim 1 wherein each driver rod has its end articulated to include a yoke pivotallymounted on the rest of the driver rod, each yoke carrying the cam of the driver rod of which it is a part.
4. A construction according to claim 1 wherein one driver rod end is bifurcated so that its bifurcated end portions receive between them the other driver rod end, and wherein a cam of one such driver rod end is in alinement with a cam of the other driver rod end.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS