|Publication number||US2907585 A|
|Publication date||Oct 6, 1959|
|Filing date||Jun 30, 1958|
|Priority date||Jun 30, 1958|
|Publication number||US 2907585 A, US 2907585A, US-A-2907585, US2907585 A, US2907585A|
|Inventors||Sornberger George E, Wakeman William R|
|Original Assignee||Moore Business Forms Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (33), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 6, 1959 G. E. SORNBERGER ETAI- 2,907,585
MANIFOLDING ASSEMBLIES Filed June so, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 BACK OF CAkBawsms'r INVENTORS W a W M Wm [a 94m ATTORNEYS Oct. 6, 1959 G. E. SORNBERGER ETAL 0 MANIFQLDING ASSEMBLIES Filed June 30, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS 9*"? W M BY ZPE7- 62%, M v flaw ATTORNEYS United States Patent MANIFOLDING ASSEMBLIES George E. Sornberger and William R. Wakeman, Niagara Falls, N.Y., assignors to Moore Business Forms, Inc., Niagara Falls, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Application June 30, 1958, SerialNo. 745,653
15 Claims. (Cl. 282-22) This invention relates to manifolding assemblies and more particularly to assemblies of this type which are adapted to be fed through Writing machines such as typewriters, tabulators, or the like, and to be folded in the usual zigzag fashion to form a pack.
Forms assemblies of this type are usually provided along one or both side margins with a continuous longitudinal row of accurately punched apertures within which the pins of the feeding roll or other similar feeding device of the writing machine, are adapted to engage for moving the assembly through the machine and maintaining accurate sheet-to-sheet register. Obviously the sheets of the assembly must be held together by some effective means not only while being fed through the machine but also during other occasions of handling and folding.
All known fastening devices now in use have given rise to difficulties in maintaining accurate register and preventing inadvertent tearing or breaking of the assemblies and some of these difficulties will be adverted to herein in explanation of the aims and purposes of the present invention.
When a multiplicity of sheets of paper are forced to bend around a feed roll or the cylindrical platen of a writing machine, the sheets unavoidably become fanned out from their normal position With respect to each other. This is readily understood since in every instance of folding or bending, the sheet on the outermost side of the assembly, being further from the center of bending or curvature, is of necessity folded over a greater distance than the inner sheets of the assembly.
Numerous attempts have been made to provide fastening means for the record sheets and carbons of the assembly, which is sufficiently flexible to permit this unavoidable fanning when warped around a feed or platen roller, and also permit the sheets to subsequently realign themselves to come back into register, so that the feeding apertures are in accurate alignment with each other not only for'satisfactory entry therein of the feeding pins but also for accurate sheet-to-sheet register in the written text. These prior attempts have not been entirely satisfactory.
7 One of the proposals has been to employ wire stapling means wherein the staples are only loosely applied, either by passing the legs of the staples through enlargedopenings, or clenching them through the assembly with room to spare, or pursuing both expedients. It has been found that loosely clenched staples are prone to catch in the mechanism of the writing machine as they pass through the very limited spaces afforded therein. This not only @causes record forms feeding difficulties but also results in mutilation of the forms and disengagement of the staples from the' sheets. When such disengagement occurs, serious trouble is encountered when the staples lodge within the mechanism of the writing machine and cause costly damage to, the mechanical and electrical parts of the device. The seriousness of this problem is magnified in the case of present-day unattended highspeed electronic tabulating and writing machines in which these difliculties are even more likely to occur. Also, from a production standpoint, stapling is generally an extra supplemental operation which is seldom practical to accomplish during the. prior continuous operations involved in the fabrication of the multiple part record form assemblies.
An obvious recourse from the unsatisfactory stapling procedure is fastening the record and transfer sheets to gether by gluing, but this hasalso introduced many other record forms problems for both the manufacturer and the user. i
Unlike the loose stapling procedure, the applied glue rigidly holds together the various parts of the record assembly and, even when applied only in small spaced spots, the flexibility of movement between. the form parts is not suflicient to freely permit the unavoidable fanning ofythe parts as they are forced around the cylindrical roll of the writing machine. The obvious result of this is the buckling of the sheets which in turn results in forms feeding diificulties in the writing machine. Then, too, the amount of glue to be applied is quite critical and presents a difiicult production control problem. This is especially true when only spots of glue are used, and it has been customary to apply a fine stream of glue along a longitudinal side margin of the record assembly.
The problems posed by the use of glue in assembling the forms are somewhat different depending upon whether a fast setting or slow setting adhesive is employed. A fast setting glue is generally preferred since the glue has time to set while the forms are in exact alignment for proper feeding and proper registry of the written mes sage, before the assembly is folded into a pack. However, When the folded pack is formed the inherent condition of fanning between the inner and outer parts is accentuated and this fanning is of course resisted by the assembly having been firmly glued together by a fast setting glue. When the fold is forced down in forming the pack, the assembly frequently breaks along-thetransverse line of perforations on which the folding usually takes place. Such breaksnot only cause machine feeding difiiculties but also invite further premature breaking or tearing of. the perforations across the form assembly.
When a slow setting glue is used, the glue does not finally set until after the folding of the forms into a pack takes place, and thus the folding is not resisted by the gluing and they are free to fan out when folded. This of course means that the forms and the feed holes along their margins are out of register when the glue finally sets. This out-of-register condition remains permanent and therefore the Written message will be permanently out of register on the copies and the feed holes will remain out of alignment and cause feeding difficulties in. the writing machine.
Another quite serious condition involved in the use of slow setting glue occurs when the forms areunfolded from the pack for feeding into the writing machine. This results in what is known as tenting and will be described as the Specification proceeds.
Thus it will be seen that these prior efforts, whether involving the use of loose staples orof continuous rigid gluing, have been unsuccessful in preventing the tearing of the forms along the line of cross perforations, muti1ation of the record forms, and complete stoppage of the writing operation, often with the loss of forms which, if consecutively prenumbered, can be very serious to the forms user.
Attempts at overcoming the problems just described by stopping the longitudinal glue stream along the forms and before it reaches the lateral perforation, and then starting thestream again at a point beyond the perforation line, has not been found practical production-wise,
and furthermore such attempts have not justified themselves in terms of the extent in which they overcome the other previously described .difiiculties.
. Thus, it .is the general object and purpose of the present invention :to provide means for securing together forms assemblies for use in writing machines of all kinds, which overcomes the problems described and which provides novel and improved, highly practical and eflicient means for providing glued record forms with a previously unattainable flexibility of movement between the record assembly parts, which is so necessary not only for satisfactory rapid and accurate production, but even more important, for trouble-free use of the forms assemblies under the most adverse conditions encountered in modern ultra high speed writing machines.
The present invention retains the advantages of the continuous glue stream application butprovides the necessary flexibility between the component parts of the assembly while warped around a feed cylinder, folded into a zigzag pack, or-transportedin continuous flat form; and any fanning out or non-alignment of the sheets during bending .or curving operations is permitted, but the natural registry of the sheets -is restored as soon as the bending stresses on the assembly have been removed.
The invention, in its preferred embodiments, contemplates the provision of alternate staggered lines of adhesive between the adjacent record sheet or record and transfer sheets and relief means adjacent these lines of adhesive for permitting the necessary flexibility of the margins of the assembly for successfully sustaining the warping and folding effects and maintaining proper reglstry.
In the most preferred forms of the invention, the relief means comprises a series of preferably diagonal slits disposed between the alternate lines of adhesive, and although it is preferred that the relief apertures be applied to all of the sheets composing the assembly, the novel provision has been found quite effective for some purposes if the transfer or carbon sheets only are thus slitted. V
Other objects and features of novelty will be apparent from the following specification when read in connection with the accompanying drawings in which certain embodiments of the invention are illustrated by way of example.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view partly in side elevation and partly in vertical section, showing the convolutions and bending to which a manifolding assembly is subjected during normal use;
Figure 2 is a View in perspective of a portion of a continuous manifolding sheet assembly of record sheets and transfer sheets, illustrating one embodiment of the invention;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary plan View of an edge portion of the assembly shown in Figure 2, but on a greatly enlarged scale, parts of certain of the sheets being broken away to reveal the underlying structure;
Figure 4 is a vertical transverse sectional view taken on line 44 ofFigure 2, looking in the direction of the arrows; Figure 5 is an expanded sectional View of the junction portion of the assembly as if the sheets were manually pulled away from each other, to reveal the novel connecting structure of both the record and transfer sheets;
. Figure 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a corner porand spaced feed apertures 30 and 3.1.
In Figure 1 of the drawings, there is shown at 10 a i fragmentary representation of a typical writing or sheet feeding machine through which a web 12 comprising a forms assembly is being passed. The particular means for feeding the assembly through the machine is dis closed for purposes of example, as the pin feed roll 13, which may also comprise the platen of the writing ma chine. From a supply (not shown, but usually a zigzag folded pack) the web assembly-12 is passed through the machine and then out through the guides 14 whereupon it may be folded into the zigzag pack shown at 15. Ohviously during such handling, the assembly of multiple sheets is fanned out during its bending around the cylinder 13 and also ;at the successive folds 16 when the web is led into pack formation. 7 j
A portion of the multiple forms assembly 12 is shown in Figure 2 and it will be seen that it comprises successive sets of printed forms 20 separated "by the transverse line of perforations 21. Naturally, the forms will be provided with intelligence conveying indicia or printed matter suggested broadly at 22, and the guide lines and columns as well as the printed :matter are usually reproduced exactly on each of the record sheets forming the assembly.
Referring also to Figures 3 and 4, it will be seen that the assembly 12 comprises a top record sheet 25 and successive lower record sheets 26, together with intervening carbon or transfer sheets 27.
Along the side margins of the record sheets 25 and Zdare punched the longitudinal row of accurately cut The apertures 31 on the right-hand margin of the sheets may be omitted for some purposes and reliance placed onthe apertures 35) along the left-hand margin for feeding and registering purposes. I
It is customary for most purposes to terminate the carbon or transfer sheets at the right-hand margin of the assembly somewhat short of the edge of the record sheets, as indicated at 33; and it is also desirable in certain instances to have the left-hand margin of the carbon or transfer sheets displaced inwardly of the margin of the pack as shown at 34. However, within the broad scope of the present invention the carbon or transfer sheets 27 could be contenninous with the record sheets 25 and 26; and when thus formed the pack or web assembly of record and transfer sheets findsits vertical equivalent in an assembly of continuous carbon-backed record sheets, or an assembly offNCR (no carbon required) sheets which impress a copy of 'thetyped or written material upon the next lower sheet by a pressure-induced chemical change.
Now referring more particularly to Figure 3 of the drawings, it will be seen that the left-hand edge of the carbon sheet 27 terminates approximately adjacent the longitudinally of theassembly just inwardly of the pera if forations 3h.
tion of a manifolding sheet assembly with certain parts broken away, andillustrating a second embodiment of the invention;
Figure 7' is a vertical transverse sectional view taken on line 77 of Figure 6,*and expanded as in Figure 5;
Figures 8 and 9, and Figures 10 and 11, are views corresponding respectively to Figures 6 and 7, but showing1 two further modifications of the inventive conc p an A longitudinal line of tear slits 38 passes through all of the sheets and this longitudinal line roughly delineates the margin of the coated portion of the transfer sheet 27 although the coating could terminate a short distance upon either side of this tear line.
In assembling the sheets the web of carbon or the transfer sheet 27 is brought into contact, along its uncoated marginal portion '35, with glue spreading means which impresses a narrow line of adhesive it? along the upper or uncarbonized surface of the sheet quite close to the margin o-f the coated portion, and a second lineof adhesive 41 is applied to the under or carbon coated side of the sheet 27 very close to the inner margin 34 of the sheet.
Each of the transfer sheet layers 27 is provided with narrow streaks of adhesive in the same way and it will thus be readily seen that the line of adhesive 40 serves to attach the particular carbon sheet 27 to the overlying record sheet, whether the original record sheet 25 or the copy sheets 26. On the other hand, .the line of adhesive 41 serves to secure the edge of the lower face of each carbon sheet to the underlyingrecord sheet 26 in laterally spaced relationship to the line of gluing 40.
In this embodiment of the invention, the assembled set of record and transfer sheets is slitted as at 45 prefer ably in the diagonal or herringbone fashion clearly in: dicated in Figures 2 and 3 of the drawings. These slits 45 pass through the sheets along a longitudinal line between the glue lines 40 and 41, and each slit prefer ably terminates at these streaks of glue, as indicated in Figure 3.
At this point, some of the beneficial characteristics of the assembly provided by the present invention may be enumerated. 7 Each record form 25, 26 has a detachable side margin which contains the form feeding holes, the gluing, and the longitudinal row of flexibility promoting slits. All of the carbon or transfer tissues extend into this detachable margin area and this portion of the carbon tissue is not carbonized. The streaks of adhesive are applied to opposite sides of the margins of the carbon or transfer sheets and spaced apart a short distance. In the illustrated embodiments the inner streak is applied to the top or uncarbonized face of the transfer sheet as at 40, and the outer streak 41 is applied to the under or carbonized side of the sheet. However, this arrangement of the streaks Y40 and 41 could be reversed if desired.
The longitudinal row of flexing slits are located between the two staggered lines of adhesive and preferably the cuts are made all at one time through the record sheets and carbon sheets as a final continuous operation after all record sheets and carbons are in their ultimate, adhesively attached, and assembled condition.
The staggered lines of gluing, combined with the longi tudinal row of flexing cuts, located between these lines, gives the assembly a natural hinging effect. which permits the needed substantial amount of free relative longitudinal movement of all of the parts of the assembly. Thus, the inherent farming of the assembly parts as they pass around a feeding or platen cylinder is not hampered by the fastening means and the assembly parts are capable of realigning themselves in registry so that the feeding pins are free to enter the feed apertures through all of the assembled parts and the record forms are back in exact register for inscribing. It is also to be notedthat the flexibility of this novel structure overcomes the previously mentioned tenting and the operating difficulties which result from that troublesome phenomenon. The flexibility of the structure particularly impresses itself upon the observer when the expanded condition shown in Figure 5 is examined.
In the slightly modified construction shown in Figures 6 and 7 of the drawings the parts are in general 6 struction possesses many of the qualities and advantages of the first described embodiment but may be somewhat more diflicult to manufacture.
In Figures 8 and 9 of the drawings a further modification isshown in which corresponding parts are designated by numerals having a subscript b. The record sheets are shown at 25b and 26b; the transfer or carbon sheets 27b are provided with uncoated margins 35b which are secured respectively to the upper and lower adjacent record sheets by means of the streaks of adhesive 4% and 41b. The feed holes are at 30b and the margins and carbons may be separated from the record sheets by tearing along the severance line 38b.
The distinctive feature of this embodiment is the form of the flexing slits. These slits are shown at 45b and comprise overlapping chevron-like slits, alternate ones of which face in opposite directions. Although useful for some purposes, this embodiment is less preferred than the one illustrated in Figures 2-5 of the drawings, where the slits extend all the way to the glue lines.
In Figures 10 and 11 of the drawings. there is illustrated a still further modification in which the corresponding parts are designated by similar reference numerals having a subscript c. The accessory features including the severance lines and adhesive application are the same as in the previously described embodiments. The distinction in this case is again the nature of the flexing apertures which are cut in the assembly between the lines of gluing. In this embodiment these apertures comprise circular holes 45c which may be of approximately the same diameter as the feed openings 300 but are positioned much closer together leaving strap or web-like bridges or ties 1450 between the openings. Again, this embodiment, while partaking somewhat of the generic nature of the invention is in practice somewhat less to be preferred than the embodiment illustrated in the earlier figures of drawing, this arrangement being somewhat inferior in respect to ease of manufacture and ruggedness forhandling.
With respect tothe phenomenon described above as tenting, all of the embodiments described herein are quite effective in preventing this occurrence, and it might be well to describe in some detail the deleterious effects of ftenting in the ordinary manifold assembly. This tenting is quite serious, especially when a slow setting glue is used, and it occurs when the assemblies are unfolded from the zigzag pack to be fed into the writing similarly constructed and the same reference numerals are applied thereto' with the addition of a subscript a. Thus the ribbon copy sheet is designated 25a and the remaining record sheets which receive impressions from the carbons are indicated at 260; the carbon or transfer sheets are designated 27a and are provided with a coated area 36a and an uncoated marginal area 3511. The feed apertures are indicated at 39a and the slitted severance line is designated 38a.
and not in the record sheets 25:: and 26a. This conmachine. A somewhat exaggerated illustration of tenting of a forms assembly is illustrated in Figure 12 of the drawings where the construction line 100 shows the location of the lateral line of severance which has been designated 21 in the illustrations of the present invention. When the glue sets, after the assembly has been folded into a pack, the forms parts are in fanned relationship of each other and are positioned out of register. In effect, the outer parts of the assembly are buckled to a successively greater degree than the inner ones and this humping or tenting of the forms presents a serious difiiculty in that the tented forms cannot pass freely through the narrow spaces of the writing machine. The result is torn forms at the tented areas, as well as jamming of the forms in'the writing. machine, which defects are added to the previously mentioned poor register of the written message and the feeding problems arising from the feed apertures being permanently secured out of alignment by the slow setting adhesive.
Because of the flexibility of movement between the forms parts which is afforded by the present invention,
all of these difiiculties and problems have been definitely prevented or minimized, and the novel features provide a superior product for the forms manufacturer and user whether the adhesive be of a fast setting or slow setting nature.
.Itis understood that wherever the term sheets is employed, this word refers to the several layers of the manifolding assembly, however elongated, and is to be considered the'equivalent of strips or webs. I
It is understood that various changes and modifications may be made in the embodiments illustrated and described herein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.
Having-thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In a manifolding forms assembly, a plurality of sheets disposed in superposed manifo'lding relationship, means for securing the sheets together along at least one side marginal area, said securing means comprising longitudinally extending means for individually securing adjacent sheets one to the other, alternate ones of said individual securing means down through the assembly being offset laterally a short distance from the next adjacent ones, whereby there is provided a narrow longitudinally extending area of each intervening sheet which serves as a linking hinge element between alternate'sheets; and a narrow stress-relieving zone provided in at least some of the sheets and extending along said side marginal areas thereof closely adjacent said securing means; such linking securing means and said stress-relieving Zone serving to afford sufficient lateral and longitudinal flexibility to prevent permanent distortion and mis-registry of the assembly, for example, as the result of folding the assembly or bending it about a cylindrical feed member. 2. In a manifolding forms assembly, a plurality of sheets disposed in superposed manifolding relationship, means for securing the sheets together along at least one side marginal area, said securing means comprising longiclaim 5 in which the stress-relieving apertures comprise tudinally extending means for individually securing adjacent sheets one to the other, alternate ones of said individual securing means down through the assembly being offset laterally a short distance from the next adjacent ones, whereby there is provided a narrow longitudinally extending area of each intervening sheet which serves as a linking hinge element between alternate sheets; and a narrow stress-relieving zone provided in at least some of the sheets and lying between the transversely spaced longitudinally extending individual securing means; such linking securing means and said stress-relieving zone serving to afford suflicient lateral andlongitudinalflexibility to prevent permanent distortion and mis-registry of the assembly, for example, as the result of folding the assembly or bending it about a cylindrical feed memher.
[being offset laterally a short distance from the next adjacentones, whereby there is provided a narrow longitudinally extending area of each intervening sheet which serves as a linking hinge element between alternate sheets; and a narrow stress-relieving zone provided in at least some of the sheets and extending along said side marginal areasthereof closely adjacent said-securing means, said stress-relieving zone embodying a longitudinally extending series of cuts made in selected ones of the linking hinge areas of the intervening sheets and corresponding conterminous areas of top and bottom sheets; such linking securing means and said stress-relieving zone scrving to afford sufiicient lateral and longitudinal flexibility to prevent permanent distortion and mis-registry of the assembly, for example, as the result of folding the assembly or bending it about a cylindrical feed member.
4. In a manifolding forms assembly, in'combination, a plurality of continuous strips disposed in superposed manifolding relationship, at least one stripe of adhesive applied between adjacent strips and extending continuously longitudinally thereof, said stripe of adhesive serving to connect said adjacent strips along the narrow line of the applied adhesive, the stripes of adhesive of alternate spaces between adjacent strips being offset transversely for a short distance, and stress-relieving cuts in at least some of the superposed strips, said cuts being applied in the area between the alternating or staggered stripes of adhesive, and. extending from one stripe to the other.
5. In a manifolding forms assembly, in combination, a plurality of continuous strips disposed in superposed manifolding relationship, a narrow stripe of adhesive applied between the strips of each adjacent pair along a line near a side margin of the assembly and extending continuously longitudinally thereof, the stripes of ad hesive between alternate pairs of strips being disposed at different distances from the side edge of the assembly, whereby adjacent succeeding stripes of adhesive down through the assembly are out of registry, staggered, and spaced apart a short distance; and a continuous longitudinally extending series of stress-relieving apertures formed in at least some of the superposed strips in the area between the offset lines of adhesive.
6. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in claim 5 in which the stress-relieving apertures comprise diagonally disposed slits.
7. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in claim 5 in which the stress-relieving apertures comprise overlapping chevron-shaped slits arranged sidewise and facing in alternate opposite directions.
8. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in circular openings disposed closely together and separated by narrow ties. I
9. In a manifolding forms assembly, in combination,
' a plurality of continuous alternating record and transfer strips disposed in superposed manifolding relationship, each transfer strip being secured to the record strip next above it by means of a narrow stripe of adhesive extending along a line spaced a predetermined distance from a side marginof the assembly, and each transfer strip being securedfto the record strip next below it by means of a narrow stripe of adhesive extending along a line spaced a different distance from the said side margin of the assembly, whereby the alternating stripes of adhesive are staggered and spaced apart a short distance; and a continuous longitudinally extending series of stress-relieving apertures formed in the, transfer strips only and disposed in the area between the laterally offset stripes of adhesive.
10. The manifolding forms assembly as. set. forth in claim 9 in'which the marginal areas of the transfer sheets, wherein he the stripes of adhesive and the stress-relieving apertures, are free of transfer coating.
11. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in claim 10 in which the overlapping margins of at least the record strips are provided with feed holes outwardly of the stripes of adhesive and with a longitudinal line of severance slits inwardly of said stripes of adhesive.
12. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in.
claim 11 in which the edges of the transfer sheets terminate short of the feed holes in the margins of the record strips and the longitudinal severance slits extend through all of the strips, and occur approximately at the margin of the coated portion of the transfer strips.
13. The manifolding forms assembly as set forth in claim 11 in which transverse lines of severance slitsare formed at intervals across the strip assembly to define the separable sets of forms, said transverse line of severance slits intersecting the continuous longitudinal stripes of adhesive and the series of stress-relieving apertures'at right angles.
14. In a manifolding forms assembly, in combination, a plurality of continuous alternating record and transfer strips disposed dn superposed manifolding relationship,
each transfer strip being secured to the record strip next above it by means of a narrow continuous longitudinal stripe of adhesive extending along a line spaced a predetermined distance from a side margin of the assembly, and each transfer strip being secured to the record strip next below it by means of a narrow continuous longitudinal stripe of adhesive extending along a line spaced a different distance from the said side margin of the assembly, whereby the alternating stripes of adhesive are staggered and spaced apart a short distance; and a continuous longitudinally extending series of stress-relieving apertures formed in all of the superposed strips in the area between the laterallyoffset stripes of adhesive.
15. In a manifolding forms assembly, in combination, a plurality of continuous alternating record and transfer strips disposed in superposed manifolding relationship, each transfer strip being secured to the record strip next above it by means of a narrow stripe of adhesive extenda narrow stripe of adhesive extending along a line spaced a different distance from the said side margin of the assembly, whereby thealternating stripes of adhesive are staggered and spaced apart a short distance; a continuous longitudinally extending series of stress-relieving apertures formed in the transfer strips only and disposed in the area between the laterally spaced stripes of adhesive; said stress-relieving apertures comprising diagonally disposed slits; the overlapping margins of at least the record strips being provided with feed holes outwardly of the stripes of adhesive and with a longitudinal line of severance slits inwardly of said stripes of adhesive.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,897,013 Sherman Feb. 7, 1933 2,143,622 Fulk Jan. 10, 1939 2,212,174 Brenn 0.. Aug. 20, 1940 2,300,255 Kerr Oct. 27, 1942
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|International Classification||B41L1/00, B41L1/32, B41L1/20|
|Cooperative Classification||B41L1/20, B41L1/325|
|European Classification||B41L1/20, B41L1/32C2|