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Publication numberUS2908443 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 13, 1959
Filing dateApr 26, 1955
Priority dateJun 7, 1949
Publication numberUS 2908443 A, US 2908443A, US-A-2908443, US2908443 A, US2908443A
InventorsFruengel Frank
Original AssigneeFruengel Frank
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ultrasonic carburetor
US 2908443 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 13, 1959 F. FRUENGEL ULTRASONIC CARBURETOR Filed April 26, 1955 IN VEN TOR.

fie/vA/tfezxwaz United States Patent Ofiice 2,908,443 Patented 13, 1959 ULTRASONIC CARBURETOR Frank Fruengel, Hamburg-Rissen, Germany Application April 26, 1955, Serial No. 503,950

Germany June 7, 1949 Public Law 619, August 23, 1954 Patent expires June 7, 1969 6 Claims. (Cl. 239-102) This invention relates to engine carburetors and more particularly is concerned with the application of ultrasonic vibration for intensifying atomization of fuel mixtures.

As well known in the art, it is possible to atomize by intensive ultrasonic vibration liquids whenever the amplitude of vibration of the ultrasonic transducer surface is so great that the thereby produced alternating pressure causes cavitation phenomena within the liquid under treatment. By readily evaporating liquids such as, for instance, motor fuel gasoline, such cavitating action begins at ultrasonic energy outputs of one watt per square centimeter. Since the fuel dispersion and droplet distribution created by conventional carburetors is not completely satisfactory, particularly not in high efficiency engines and for low fuel consumption, the application of more intensive atomization means is very desirable.

Therefore, it is the primary object of this invention to provide a carburetor which utilizes ultrasonic vibration for better atomization of the fuel mixture.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of some preferred embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawing in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic longitudinal section through a preferred form of a carburetor according to this invention;

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic showing of a carburetor nozzle body provided with a coil for ultrasonic excitation;

Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically a carburetor nozzle body of modified construction also provided with a high fre quency coil;

Fig. 4 is a cross-section on the line 44 of Figs. 2 and 3 showing a longitudinal slot in the nozzle body filled with insulating material for reducing eddy currents;

Fig.5 is a diagrammatic showing of an arrangement employing an ultrasonic generator actuated by the exhaust gases of the engine.

Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, there will be noted inlet tube 1 through which, controlled by valve {2, engine fuel at a desired rate enters in droplets into the carburetor. These fuel droplets fall upon the carburetor plate 3 which actually is an ultrasonic transducer vibrating at ultrasonic frequency. This vibrator causes complete atomization of the fuel which then is carried by the intake suction in the intake manifold 4 under admixture of air, as in conventional carburetors, into the cylinders ofthe internal combustion engine. The excitation of transducer 3 is provided by electric connection to a high frequency circuit not shown.

In an embodiment as shown in Fig. 2, the dispersing action of a common fuel nozzle is retained and ultrasonic atomization is additionally applied for intensifying the fuel mixture preparation. To achieve this end according to this invention, the nozzle body 5 is preferably made of magnetostrictive material. When excited by ultrasonic frequency, the nozzle 6 vibrates together with nozzle body 5. Excitation is derived from coil 7 which is fed from a high frequency generator 8. Premagnetization, if necessary, is effected by coil 9 energized from a battery 10. Ultrasonic influence is thus substantially restricted to the small area of nozzle 6. In order to obtain a larger area for ultrasonic action, or better, a larger atomization area, an arrangement according to Fig. 3 can be employed. It will be noted that here the nozzle 6.has a funnel-like extension 11 in front of'nozzle 6. Such shape with its increased outlet area causes additional atomizing of the fuel, because ultrasonic energy is radiated in the direction of the arrows and thus into the combustible mixture 12. For highest efficiency it is advisable to calculate the configuration of the funnel outlet according to acoustic laws and give it a shape that assures within the combustible mixture the desirable direction of ultrasonic radiation. A further increase in effectiveness of atomization can be gained by designing extension 11 so that its natural frequency is in resonance With the ultrasonic frequency imparted to nozzle body 5.

In order to avoid unnecessary eddy current losses in nozzle body 5 it is advisable to employ a construction in which the nozzle body is partly or completely slotted as indicated at 13 in Figs. 2 and 3 and as shown in section in Fig. 4-. This slot is preferably filled with an insulating material. The nozzle body in this instance is preferably made from a material as generally used for the construc tion of magnetostrictive devices, such as 'Invar or nickel. It will be understood that for exciting the nozzle it is also possible to employ a suitable separate transducer as commercially obtainable. Moreover, the disclosed construction lends itself to a design in which the nozzle proper is of another material as the nozzle body. This is to be preferred, because at high loading known magnetostrictive materials are too soft to Withstand the great forces imposed on them by cavitation phenomina. Thus it is advisable to use for the nozzle 6 a hard metal, such as the tungsten carbide material known under the trademark Widia, or the like, and such material is referred to when reciting hard metal in the specification and the claims. However, in such construction it is of importance that the nozzle is intimately joined to the nozzle body 5 by brazing or otherwise in order to assure ultrasonic passover from one part to the other without substantial losses.

Still another method of obtaining the benefit of ultrasonic atomization of engine fuels is depicted in Fig. 5. Here an ultrasonic generator actuated by compressed air or by the pressure of the exhaust gases of the engine is employed. The exhaust gases leave outlet 14 under high pressure, impinge upon the edges of resonator 15 and excite the resonance space 16 to forceful ultrasonic vibration in a manner well known in the art. Ultrasonic vibration spreading in directions of the arrows reaches to a considerable extent the reflector 17 and is converged by this reflector so that ultrasonic energy is concentrated at 18 in front of nozzle 6. The combustible mixture entering through nozzle 6 is thus exposed to high-amplitude ultrasonic vibration and is atomized by this vibratory action. g

In order to prevent the exhaust gases from entering the carburetor chamber and disturb orderly progression of the pressure phases within this chamber or cause premature ignition, it is advisable to arrange the ultrasonic generator in a space separated from the carburetor by a partition 19 provided with an aperture 20. This aperture in turn is preferably closed by a diaphragm 21 of sheet mica or aluminum foil, or another material having little mass and high tensile strength and being very thin in order to avoid as much as possible loss of ultrasonic energy. The separation of the ultrasonic source from the carburetor chamber may take other forms and very effective is a diaphragm consisting of two foil sheets of material suitable spaced whereby the space therebetween is filled with a suitable gas, preferably under pressure, so that the diaphragm unit assumes the shape of a lens and assists in focusing the penetrating ultrasonic radiation in point 18.

Practical experiments have shown that by applying ultrasonic atomization as provided by this invention, the droplet size of the so atomized engine fuel is considerably smaller than after dispersion by a carburetor of conventional construction.

The present invention has been described as utilized for atomizing engine fuel, but it is to be understood that this is only one field of application and that its teachings can be made useful for other purposes as well, for instance, in connection with spraying devices for lacquers and paints and in other fields where atomization of liquids into fine mists is essential.

Ultrasonic vibration causes not only atomization of liquid droplets, but it becomes also effective in condensing fogs and mists when the vibration is of the proper condensing frequency. Thus it is possible to atomize liquids into a finely distributed spray by the means shown in Figs. 1 to 4 and then to condense this spray by an arrangement somewhat similar to that shown in Fig. 5. Such procedure can be made useful in applying finishes to surfaces by spraying, in that ultrasonic energy concentration is focused at a point near the surface to which the finish is to be applied and which lies within the spray. Then, if the ultrasonic vibration is of the proper frequency the spray will readily be condensed on the surface. When using compressed air spray guns of conventional construction it is possible to drive an ultrasonic generator as shown in Fig. 5 from the same compressed air source and to arrange this generator adjacent to the spray nozzle such that the ultrasonic radiation emanating from it is concentrated at a point where quick condensation of the sprayed liquid is desirable.

From this description of a few embodiments of the invention it will become apparent that other modifications are possible which do not depart from the true spirit and scope of this invention as limited only by the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a carburetor for ultrasonic atomization of engine fuel, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with in sulating material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free passover of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize engine fuel passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

2. In a carburetor for ultrasonic atomization of engine fuel, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with insulation material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free passover of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, said nozzle having an outward extension for directing ultrasonic energy radiation into the space in front of said nozzle, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize engine fuel passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

3. In a carburetor for ultrasonic atomization of engine fuel, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with insulation material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free passover of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, said nozzle having an outward extension whose natural frequency is in resonance with the ultrasonic frequency imparted to said nozzle body, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize engine fuel passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

4. In a device for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with insulating material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free pass-over of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize a liquid passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

5. In a device for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with insulation material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free pass-over of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, said nozzle having an outward extension for directing ultrasonic energy radiation into the space in front of said nozzle, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize a liquid passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

6. In a device for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid, an intake nozzle body of magnetostrictive material being provided with a longitudinal slot filled with insulation material, a nozzle of non-magnetostrictive hard metal intimately joined to said nozzle body for free pass-over of ultrasonic energy from said nozzle body to said nozzle, said nozzle having an outward extension whose natural frequency is in resonance with the ultrasonic frequency imparted to said nozzle body, a coil surrounding said nozzle body and adapted to be energized by high frequency electric energy for imparting magnetostrictive vibration to said nozzle body and nozzle whereby to atomize a liquid passing therethrough, and means for connecting said coil to a high frequency electric energy source.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,939,302 Heaney Dec. 12, 1933 2,414,494 Vang Jan. 21, 1947 2,436,570 Hancock Feb. 24, 1948 2,453,595 Rosenthal Nov. 9, 1948 2,454,900 Vang Nov. 30, 1948 2,532,554 Jocck Dec. 5, 1950 2,704,535 Magui et al Mar. 22, 1955

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1939302 *Apr 12, 1929Dec 12, 1933Edward B BenjaminApparatus for and art of carburation
US2414494 *Sep 23, 1942Jan 21, 1947Vang AlfredMethod and apparatus for carburation
US2436570 *May 12, 1942Feb 24, 1948William T HancockSuppression of detonation in engines
US2453595 *Aug 27, 1943Nov 9, 1948Scophony Corp Of AmericaApparatus for dispensing liquid fuel
US2454900 *Jul 15, 1943Nov 30, 1948Vang AlfredMethod and means for carbureting air for fuel mixtures
US2532554 *Jan 29, 1946Dec 5, 1950Thomas D JoeckMethod for atomizing by supersonic sound vibrations
US2704535 *Jan 29, 1951Mar 22, 1955 Method of and device for improving carburetion
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3070313 *Mar 5, 1962Dec 25, 1962Astrosonics IncApparatus for the acoustic treatment of liquids
US3081946 *Jul 9, 1962Mar 19, 1963Astrosonics IncSonic spray nozzle
US3084868 *Jul 9, 1962Apr 9, 1963Kolene CorpSonic nozzles
US3103310 *Nov 9, 1961Sep 10, 1963Exxon Research Engineering CoSonic atomizer for liquids
US3145931 *Feb 19, 1960Aug 25, 1964Babcock & Wilcox LtdLiquid atomizers generating heat at variable rate through the combustion of liquid fuel
US3162368 *Jul 6, 1961Dec 22, 1964Exxon Research Engineering CoSonic energy transducer
US3186392 *Dec 23, 1963Jun 1, 1965Bran F GregoricApparatus and method for improving combustion in an internal combustion engine
US3189280 *Dec 14, 1961Jun 15, 1965Gen Motors CorpVibratory atomizer
US3209447 *Mar 12, 1962Oct 5, 1965Aeroprojects IncTransducer coupling system
US3281859 *Aug 20, 1964Oct 25, 1966Dick Co AbApparatus for forming drops
US3281860 *Nov 9, 1964Oct 25, 1966Dick Co AbInk jet nozzle
US3375977 *Mar 12, 1965Apr 2, 1968Philips CorpUltrasonic atomiser
US3381895 *Dec 21, 1965May 7, 1968Alvin J NassarMethod and means for utilizing transducers to break up liquids into minute particles
US3533606 *Feb 6, 1968Oct 13, 1970Arthur K ThatcherUltrasonic carburetor system
US3613649 *Jun 1, 1970Oct 19, 1971Plessey Co LtdFuel injection systems for internal-combustion engines fed with a fuel-and-air mixture
US3730160 *Jul 1, 1971May 1, 1973Energy Sciences IncEnergization of the combustible mixture in an internal combustion engine
US3815565 *Aug 21, 1972Jun 11, 1974W StelterSonic-wave fuel air homogenizing device
US3834364 *Aug 24, 1972Sep 10, 1974Bartholomew DHigh efficiency-low pollution emission engine
US3907940 *Sep 25, 1970Sep 23, 1975Arthur K ThatcherSonic carburetor system
US3938932 *Feb 4, 1974Feb 17, 1976Luciano BenzanProcess for improving the combustion of solid
US3976726 *Feb 11, 1974Aug 24, 1976Electro Fuel, Inc.Fuel activation apparatus
US4013223 *Jul 15, 1975Mar 22, 1977Plessey Handel Und Investments A.G.Fuel injection nozzle arrangement
US4029064 *Mar 18, 1976Jun 14, 1977Irving J. GraceCarburetion system for internal combustion engines
US4100896 *Jul 3, 1975Jul 18, 1978Thatcher Arthur KComputer controlled sonic fuel system
US4121549 *Jan 14, 1977Oct 24, 1978Plessey Handel Und Investments AgApparatus for metering fuel and air for an engine
US4167158 *Jan 14, 1977Sep 11, 1979Plessey Handel Und Investments AgFuel injection apparatus
US4176634 *Jul 13, 1977Dec 4, 1979Plessey Handel Und Investments AgFuel injection system
US4267976 *Mar 10, 1978May 19, 1981Chatwin Francis RApparatus for vaporizing and atomizing liquids
US4352459 *Dec 3, 1979Oct 5, 1982Sono-Tek CorporationUltrasonic liquid atomizer having an axially-extending liquid feed passage
US4674286 *Apr 16, 1985Jun 23, 1987Arthur K. ThatcherSonic dispersion unit and control system therefor
US4697738 *May 9, 1986Oct 6, 1987Vdo Adolf Schindling AgElectrically actuatable fuel-injection valve for internal combustion engines
US4725003 *May 9, 1986Feb 16, 1988Vdo Adolf Schindling AgElectrically actuatable fuel-injection valve for internal combustion engines
US6732720May 29, 2003May 11, 2004Monroe R. KelemenckyUltrasonic liquid fuel introduction system
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/102.2, 261/1, 123/198.00E, 239/546, 239/4, 261/DIG.480, 241/1
International ClassificationF02M27/08
Cooperative ClassificationF02M27/08, Y10S261/48
European ClassificationF02M27/08