US 2909361 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 20, 1959 Filed Jan. 31, 1955 L. G. DOTSON 2,909,361
ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK STRUCTURES 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Til-4o A? 23 4 fi' 12-h W Fig. 7 INVENTOR Leigh/0n G. Dafson BY ;WM
ATTORNEY Oct. 20, 1959 1.. s. DOTSON 2,909,361
ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK STRUCTURES Filed Jan. 31. 1955 2 Shegts-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Leighton C1. Dotson ATTCRNEY ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK STRUCTURES Leighton G. Dotson, Dallas, Tex.
Application January 31, 1955, Serial No. 485,119
2 Claims. (Cl. 256-21) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in ornamental ironwork structures such as porch and balcony railings, stair railings, fences and other ornamental ironwork.
It is one object of the invention to provide ornamental ironwork structures which are so constructed and arranged that all the elements necessary for erection of the desired structures may be produced in a factory on a quantity basis and transported to the place of installation in a knock-down or disassembled condition and then assembled and erected at the place of installation to fit the porch or other structures upon which the ironwork is installed and in an arrangement to suit the desires of the user.
Another object of the invention is to provide an ornamental ironwork structure of the character described which is so constructed and arranged that replacement is permitted of damaged elements after the original erection of the ironwork structure without requiring removal .and return of the entire structure to the factory for such replacement.
Another object of the invention is to provide, in an ornamental structure of the character described having .upper and lower rail members, pickets which extend be tween the upper and lower rail members and which have end portions extending at an angle fro-m the pickets by means of which the pickets may be easily and detachably secured to the rail members.
Still another object of the invention is to provide pickets of the type described, which may be economically formed from flat elongate members.
A further object of the invention is to provide a picket, of the type described, which is given an apparently great cross-sectional area thereby creating an effect of great strength and beauty by distortion of the flat elongate members into a spiral or other desired ornamental shape.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an ornamental ironwork structure, of the type described, wherein the upper and lower rail members have opposed longitudinal grooves into which the end portions of the pickets are forcibly deformed by fastening means whereby rotational movement of the pickets about their vertical axis is prevented.
Another important object of the invention is to provide an ornamental ironwork structure which is particularly arranged and adapted to be installed as an inclined railing, such as a railing for stairs, ramps and the like, and in which the end portions of the pickets may be angularly adjusted to fit the angle or rake of the ramp or stairway as the structure is inclined whereby the same rail members and pickets may be utilized to fit substantially any horizontal or inclined installation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a railing having upper and lower rail members and pickets extending therebetween and secured at their opposite ends to said rail members, said picket members being formed from elongate fiat strap material deformed between its ends to give an apparent great cross-sectional area or body, the ends of said pickets being secured with their large dimension or width disposed transversely of the longitudinal axes of the rail members whereby said pickets may be bent adjacent the point of connection of the ends of the pickets to the rail members to permit adjustment of the inclination of the railing.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the reading of the following description of a device constructed in accordance with the invention, and reference to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:
Figure 1 is a schematic side elevation of an ornamental ironwork structure constructed in accordance with the invention and illustrating the same as a porch and a stair railing,
Figure 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken on line 22 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 3--3 of Figure 2,
Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view similar to Figure 3 but showing one of the pickets of the inclined railing,
Figure 5 is a fragmentary elevation of the upper portion of :a modified form of the pickets,
Figure 6 is a fragmentary side view of the picket of Figure 5,
Figure 7 is a fragmentary side elevation of the upper portion of still another modified form of picket,
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view, similar to Figure 2, of another form of picket, showing the same welded to the rail members,
Figure 9 is a vertical sectional View taken on the line 9-9 of Figure 8,
Figure 10 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of the upper end of the picket of Figure 8, showing same bent and the railing inclined,
Figure 11 is a vertical sectional view, similar to Figure 2, showing a further modified form of picket,
Figure 12 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 12-42 of Figure 11,
Figure 13 is a view similar to Figure 12, showing the picket secured to the rail members in a slightly diiferent manner,
Figure 14 is a view similar to Figure 12, but showing the rail members inclined, and
Figure 15 is a view similar to Figure 14, showing the picket secured to the rail members in a different manner. in the drawing, Figure 1, the numeral 10 designates a newel post or column positioned at'the top of a rise of stairs and supporting a horizontal railing section 11 and an inclined railing section 12 of ornamental ironwork. The horizontal railing section includes an upper rail 13 and a lower rail 14 having secured therebetween cross members or vertical pickets 15. The inclined railing section includes an upper rail 15 and a lower rail 17 between which are mounted identical cross members or vertical pickets 15. The lower ends of the upper and lower rails 16 and 17 of the inclined railing section 12 are secured to and supported by a second newel post 18 positioned at the bottom of the rise of stairs.
The upper rails 13 and 16 each include a channel member 19 having a web portion 21) and upwardly extending sides or flanges 21 and 22, the upper open end of the channel member being closed by a cap bar 23 secured to the web portion 20. The web portion of channel member 19 has a longitudinally extending groove or trough 24- formed in its under side and providing a pair of spaced side ribs or ridges 25 and 26 extending along the edges of the lower side of the channel member.
The lower rails 14 and 17 are in the form of inverted channel members otherwise identical to the channel members 19 and having web portions 28 and downwardly extending sides or flanges 29 and 30, the web portion having a longitudinally extending groove or trough 31 formed in its upper surface and providing a pair of spaced side ribs or ridges 32 and 33 extending along the edges of the channel members forming the lower rails.
Each of the pickets 15 is formed from elongate rectangular fiat metal or strap metal and has an elongate intermediate or body section 37 and has end portions 35 and 36 which are bent to extend angularly from the intermediate body portions 37 and are disposed in the troughs or grooves 24 and 31 of the channel member 19 and the lower rails 14 or 17, respectively. The end portions of each picket are secured to the channel member 19 and the lower rails 17 by screws and nuts 38 which forcibly pull the end portions into the grooves thus distorting the fiat end portions, as shown in Figure 2, whereby the pickets are firmly secured to the rails against rotational movement about their vertical axes. However, if desired, the width of the grooves in the rail channels and the width of the end portions of the pickets may be substantially identical so that the end portions will fit in the grooves without bending, and the ridges at the sides of the grooves will prevent rotational movement of such pickets about their longitudinal axes.
It will be apparent that the end portions 35 and 36 of the pickets 15 of the horizontal section 11 extend substantially perpendicularly from their vertical intermediate sections 37 since the upper and lower rails are horizontally disposed.
The upper and lower end portions 35 and 36 of the pickets 15 of the inclined railing section 12 are inclined downwardly from the horizontal to abut the inclined rails 16 and 17, as clearly shown in Figure 4. The end portions of the pickets 15 may be bent to any desired angle, since the pickets are made of iron, so that only one type of picket need be made at the factory, the end portions being bent at the site of installation to any desired inclination to adjust the pickets for use with inclined rails of any pitch or slope. The bending of the end portions may be accomplished after the railing has been assembled, by forcing the upper and lower rails 16 and 17 up or down to the desired inclined position, the strap material from which the pickets are formed bending readily at the angular point of juncture between the end portions and the intermediate portion to permit such angular adjustment of the railing.
It will also be apparent that the use of channel shaped members enables the screws 38 to be concealed from view. Certain of the screws 39 may be used to connect not only the upper end portions 35 of the pickets to the channel members 19 but also to secure the cap bar 23 to the channel member 19.
The pickets 15 are formed from flat elongate members or straps for ease and economy of manufacture, but since the flat or strap shape of pickets would cause the pickets, in side view, to appear very thin and give a weak and displeasing appearance to the rail sections, the intermediate portion of the pickets is distorted into a spiral shape whereby the apparent width or cross-sectional area of the pickets is greatly increased, thereby creating a more aesthetically pleasing appearance.
While the flat straps or members from which the pickets are made can easily be twisted into spiral shape, as in the pickets 15 of Figures 1 through 3, they may also be distorted into other shapes to obtain the desired increase in apparent width or cross-sectional area. For example, the picket 40 of Figure may be bent into laterally undulating curves 41 which are disposed in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the end portions.
In Figure 7, the picket 511 is distorted into still another form by twisting or bending the fiat strap transversely as well as laterally into curves 51. In this form of the picket also the apparent width or cross-sectional area of the picket is increased by the distortion to which the flat strap is subjected.
While the end portions of the pickets 15 have been shown as parallel and extending in the same direction from the pickets, it will be obvious that the end portions at opposite ends of the pickets could extend in opposite directions if this were desired.
It will now be apparent that a new and improved ornamental ironwork structure has been illustrated and described which includes an upper rail, a lower rail, and pickets between the upper and lower rails. It will also be apparent that the pickets have end portions which extend angularly from the intermediate vertical sections of the pickets and are received in grooves in the upper and lower rails whereby rotational movement of the pickets about their vertical axes is prevented. It will also be seen that the angle at which the end portions extend from the intermediate vertical sections of the pickets can be adjusted at the site of installation to adapt the pickets for connection to inclined rails of any desired slope or pitch whereby all pickets may be economically manufactured in quantity in a factory, regardless of whether they are to be employed in a horizontal railing section or an inclined railing section.
It will also be seen that the intermediate vertical sections of the pickets are distorted, bent or twisted in vertical planes to increase the apparent horizontal crosssectional area of the pickets and thus give them a more pleasing and ornamental appearance. It will be noted that this distortion enables use of flat strap stock for the manufacture of the pickets, with resultant economies in cost of material and fabrication as compared with conventional pickets.
In Figures 8, 9 and 10, a modified form of picket 60 is illustrated as secured at its upper end by welds 61 in the groove or trough 62 of an upper channel rail member 63, and at its lower end by welds 64 in the groove or trough 65 of a lower channel rail member 66. The picket is formed of flat strap material deformed or distorted between its ends to give an apparent great body or crosssectional area, in the same manner as the pickets first described, but has no angularly bent end portions. The picket is secured or mounted with the larger cross-sectional dimension or width of its end disposed transversely of the troughs, and the smaller cross-sectional dimension or thickness of its ends extending along the trough and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rail members. Thus, when the railing is inclined to fit a stairway or ramp, the portions of the picket adjacent the point of connection of the ends of the picket to the rail members will bend readily as shown at 67 in Figure 10, to permit adjusting the pitch or rise of the railing to fit the stairway or ramp. Also, while welds 61 and 64 are shown on both sides of each end of the picket, it is believed obvious that a single weld on only one side may be employed at each end of the picket to adequately secure the picket to the channel rail members.
A further modification of the railing is shown in Figures 11 through 15, inclusive, wherein the picket member 70 is formed of flat strap material distorted intermediate its ends to give an apparent great body and having end portions or members 71 and 72 extending angularly at each end. The end portion 71 is disposed in the trough or groove 71 of the upper channel rail member 74 and is shown in Figures 11, 12 and 14 as secured to said channel rail member by a weld 75 at the outer end of the end portion. Similarly, the lower end portion 72 of the picket is secured in the trough or channel 76 of a lower rail member 77 by a weld 78 at the outer end of said lower end portion. The width of the troughs or grooves in the rail members is preferably such that the end portions of the picket may be readily received therein. In Figure 14, the railing is shown as inclined to fit a stairway or ramp, and the picket is shown as having been bent at the juncture of the end portions of the picket with the intermediate or body portions of said picket as at 85, to permit such inclination of the railing.
In Figures 13 and 15, the picket 70 is not only secured to the rail members by the welds 75 and 78 at the outer ends of the upper and lower end portions of the pickets, but is further secured to said rails by a weld 81 at the juncture of the upper end portion with the body of the picket and by a weld 82 at the juncture of the lower end portion with the body of the picket. This is a more rigid structure than that of Figures 11, 12 and 14, yet will also permit bending of the picket adjacent the connection of the picket to the rail member as at 85, so that the railing may be inclined to fit a stairway or ramp.
It will therefore be seen that the picket structure lends itself to ready assembled railings weherein the ends of the pickets may be welded or otherwise permanently secured to the rail members, yet still provides for adjustment of inclination of the railing.
The foregoing description of the invention is explanatory only, and changes in the details of the construction illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art, the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A balustrade structure comprising: an upper rail; a lower rail disposed a spaced distance beneath and substantially parallel to the upper rail; pickets extending substantially vertically between said rails, each of said pickets having a main body portion and end portions extending angularly from the main body portion, said end portions each abutting an adjacent rail, said pickets being flexible at the point of juncture of the end portions with the main body portion; and means connecting each of said end portions to the adjacent rail; said upper and lower rails each being in the form of an elongate channel member having longitudinally extending laterally spaced flanges and a web portion, and having an elongate longitudinally continuous groove formed in its web portion on the side thereof opposite the flanges, said rails each being disposed with its flanges extending outwardly away from and its groove facing inwardly toward the other rail; said end portions of said pickets each being disposed in the groove of the adjacent rail and being of a Width substantially identical to the width of said groove; said connecting means positively holding said end portions in said grooves with said end portions concealed from lateral view, the sides of said end portions engaging the sides of the groove in which they are disposed to prevent rotation of said pickets about their longitudinal axes between the rails.
2. A balustrade structure of the character set forth in claim 1 wherein the pickets are formed of flat strip stock and each have their main body portion spirally twisted along their longitudinal axis between said end portions, and a cover member is secured to the upper rail to close the open space between the upwardly extending flanges of said upper rail.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,376,150 Miller Apr. 26, 1921 2,655,345 Lindman Oct. 13, 1953 2,715,513 Kools Aug. 16, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 415 Great Britain AD. 1854 293,070 Great Britain July 2, 1928