US 2909814 A
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J. W. SCHWARTZ MULTIPLE PANEL GLAZING UNITS Filed Dec. 5, 1956 IN VEN TOR. JAMES (SCHWARTZ placed thereon. means, the panels are free to adjust their position with United States Patent Q l MULTIPLE PANEL GLAZING UNITS James W. Schwartz, Princeton, NJ. Application December 5, 1956, Serial No. 626,520
3 Claims. (Cl. 2056.5)
the panel unsightly and accelerating erosion of the sep arator means. It has also been proposed to use a sepator means having a limited number of holes therein in combination with alarge amount of a desiccant in the space between the panels. Such a proposal has the d1sadvantage of making the glazing unit more bulky and more expensive, while only temporarily solving the problem until thedesiccant becomes ineffective.
Another proposal is to provide an air-tight seal between the panels a nd the separator means and to exhaust the air space. therebetween. Such a proposal produces improved insulating properties and prevents moisture from depositing in the exhausted space. However, such units are Very expensive because the seal must be specially made, usually at high temperatures. Such seals have to be air tight and also resistant to continuing mechanical stresses, as from changes in ambient temperature and atmospheric pres- :It is an object of this invention to provide improved multiple panel glazing units.
Another object is to provide multiple panel glazing units which are simple and inexpensive to manufacture. A further'object is to provide multiple panel glazing units which do not require special seals or evacuation,
and in which moisture does not deposit and wherein mechanical stresses on the spacer-panel bond are substantially reduced.
In general, the multiple panel glazing units of the invention comprise a pair of panels, such as glass panes,
arranged in'spaced face-to-face relationship, and bonded to the panels along the margins thereof, separator means maintaining said panels in spaced relationship and enclosing'the space therebetween. The space therebetween is at substantially atmospheric pressure.
One feature of the invention is a special separator means which provides a continuous clamp around and along themargin of each of said panels, and also provides a bellows in the portion between said panels. By providing a clamping separator means, the bonding means between the panel and the separator means is relieved of a' substantial portion of the mechanical stresses ordinarily By providing a bellows in the separator respect to one another after the air space therebetween *is sealed. This further reduces the mechanical stresses on the bonding means and also permits the use of lighter, I more easily fabricated spacers.
One type of special separator means of the invention 2,909,814 Patented Oct. 27, 1959 includes a flange extending outwardly and in a plane parallel to one of the panels of the unit. Such flange adapts the unit for mounting in conventional single panel frames.
The special separator means of the invention comprise side sections and corner sections overlapping said side sections. Whereas previous units required spacers especially made for specific unit sizes, the spacers of the invention are easily provided in any size by simply cutting standard side spacer strips to the desired length. Accordingly, the fabricator need only carry a stock of side strips and standard corner sections.
Another feature of the invention is the use of a selfcuring resin, such as an epoxy or a polyester resin, as the bonding means. The separator means of this invention relieves the bonding means of a substantial portion of mechanical stresses ordinarily applied thereto. Accordingly, resin bonding means may now be used; The self-curing resins have the advantage that they may be applied at room temperature or at any selected temperature and may be cured as quickly or as slowly as desired.
The invention is more completely described in the following detailed description when read in connection with the drawing wherein:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a multiple glazing unit of the invention, I
Figure 2 is an elevational view of a section 2 -2 of the multiple glazing unit of Figure 1, and
Figure 3 is an elevational view of a section similar to 22 of the multiple glazing unit of Figure 2 but having also a flange adapting said unit for mounting in conven tional single panel window frames.
Figures 1 and 2 illustrate a preferred multiple glazing unit of the invention. It is made up of a pair of doublestrength glass panes 21 and 23 approximately 0.120 inch thick. The panes 21 and 23 are maintained in spaced face-to-face relationship by stainless steel side sections 25. Corner sections 27 overlap adjacent side sections 25. An adhesive 29, preferably a cured self-setting epoxy resin, bonds the sections 25 and 27 to each other and to thepanes 21 and 23.
The sections 25 and 27 are fashioned to form a bellows portion 31 between the panes '21 and 23 permitting the panes 21 and 23 to change their positions with respect to one another with changes of ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Thus, the sections 25 and 27 and bonding means 29 are subjected to less mechanical stress than in previous units. Note also that although the space between the panes 21 and 23 is at atmospheric pressure, there is no need for free access to the atmosphere. When sealed, moisture does not condense in the space. As an additional precaution and to take care of moisture present at the time of fabrication, a layer 39 of desiccant, preferably calcium sulfate, is painted on the inner surface of the side sections 25. The desiccant may of course be painted on any of the inner surfaces of the side sections.
The side section 25 is fashioned to provide a clamp 35 along the margins of the panes 21 and 23. Thus, the side section 25 clamps to the panes 21 and 23 reducing the required bond strength on the adhesive 29. The clamp 35 has a bevel 37 to simplify sliding the pane 21 or 23 into its respective clamp 35.
A multiple panel glazing unit may be prepared according to the following procedure.
Glass pane is obtained of a desired thickness, cut to the desired size and the surfaces thereof, especially the inner surfaces, are cleaned. While a transparent doubleweight window pane is used in the example, other panels may be used. Thus, the panel may be transparent, translucent or opaque. The panel may be glass, plastic, or other material. The panel may be any thickness commensurate with the properties and strength desired. The panel may be square, rectangular, or other shape.
The side and corner sections 25 and 27 are now provided. The sections are preferably of stainless steel although other metals such as cold roll steel, copper-base alloys or aluminum-base alloys, fibrous materials and laminates may be used. The thickness of the strip may also vary, being determined by the size of the unit and the desired strength.
The side sections 25 may be prepared in strip form as by rolling or extruding in the conventional way. The strip may then be cut to desired length and bevel to provide the side section. The length of the side section 25 is such to permit the corner section 27 to overlap the side section 27. It will be appreciated that, at least in the case of square and rectangular units, any size can be made with equal ease. Present commercial glazing units come in standard sizes. Other than standard sizes must be especially constructed. One reason for this is that the spacer of present commercial glazing units must be prepared especially according to size.
The corner sections 27 may be prepared from metal strips also. These may be made by cutting and soldering side section strips to the desired angle. They may also be prepared by stamping in a corner die. Note, however, that while the corner sections may be a standard size, glazing units ofan infinite number of lengths and widths may be prepared merely by altering the length of the side sections 25.
Corner sections may be omitted if the side sections are properly fitted to one another. However, such procedure is ordinarily diflicult and expensive. By using corner sections, the glazing units of the invention may be prepared easily and with a minimum of skill. The corner sections provide a seal between the side sections. Other means and materials for sealing the side sections to one another may be used.
The shape of the sections 25 and 27 are dictated by the thickness of the panels 21 and 23 and the desired spacing. The clamps 35 of the sections 25 and 27 should fit the panel to be inserted. Thus, for an 0.120 inch thick panel, the clamp should leave that space or a slightly larger space. A bevel 37 at the entry to the clamp is preferred so the panels may be slid into the clamp easily. The clamps of a single section may, of course, be different sizes to accommodate two panels of different thicknesses. A bellows 31 is formed between the clamps and approximates at least a W (with rounded corners). There may be several extra bends to provide additional flexibility.
An unsealed unit becomes filled with water with changes in ambient temperature, pressure and humidity. A sealed unit does not become filled with water but the spacerpanel bond or one of the panels is often broken due to changes in ambient pressure. The bellows 31 permits the unit to be sealed against moisture and compensates for differences in pressure between the inside and outside of the unit by permitting the panels to change their positions with respect to one another. Thus, lighter and cheaper spacer-panel bonds and spacers may be used.
The inner surface of the bellows is now coated with a desiccant. The desiccant may be applied to more or less of the bellows surface as desired. It is preferred to mix the desiccant with a vehicle and then to paint the mixture on the inside of the bellows and permit it to dry. Suitable mixtures are calcium carbonate in ethyl alcohol, activated alumina in ethyl ether, or calcium sulfate in methyl alcohol. Other methods of applying the desiccant may also be used.
The side sections 25, corner sections 27, and panels 21 and 23 are now assembled and bonded together with a self-setting resin, such as an epoxy resin or a polyester resin. The resin itself is usually a clear, syrupy liquid. The resin is mixed with what is sometimes called a catalyst or a hardener which links and cross-links the molecular chains of the resin converting the uncured resin to a hard, strong material without evaporation or drying. The rate of such hardening may be rapid or slow as desired.
One suitable epoxy resin is Araldite CN502 mixed with Hardener HN951 marketed by Ciba Chemical Company, New York, N.Y. The Araldite and Hardener are mixed according to the manufacturers instructions and painted on the inside surface of the clamps of the side sections 25 and on the overlapping portion of the side and corner sections 25 and 27. As shown in Figure l, the side sections 25 are slid onto the panels. Then the corner sections 27 are slid into place. According to another embodiment, one may reverse the order so that the side sections 25 overlap the corner sections 27. Capillary action distributes the epoxy resin evenly over the interface between the clamp and the panel. The assembly is then permitted to stand until the epoxy resin has set.
Certain types of materials have previously been used to seal the panels to the separator means. Previous materials fall into one of three general classes. Class I includes materials which are applied at high temperatures. These include solders and ceramic glazes. Class I materials are expensive and difiicult to apply. The materials of this invention are applied at room temperature with a minimum in cost, equipment, and skill. Class II includes materials which remain plastic throughout their life. Class II materials do not possess any mechanical strength and consequently other provisions must be made to impart sufficient strength to the glazing unit with increased cost and skill required. The materials of this invention provide a high degree of strength and do not require other provisions to supplement it. Class III includes materials which harden by the evaporation of a. solvent. Class III materials do not harden quickly enough because there is little surface through which the solvent may evaporate. Some of the solvent also evaporates into the sealed space in the unit. The materials of this invention avoids these difiiculties by eliminating the use of a solvent completely.
Figure 3 illustrates a modified spacer 25a which especially adapts the unit for mounting in conventional single panel frames. The spacer 25a is the same in every respect with the spacer 25 of Figure 2 except that a flange 33 extends outwardly and in the same plane as one of the clamps. The flange is an integral part of the unit. It is the thickness of a single panel and extends outwardly the distance required to hold the panel in the frame. Whereas previous multiple panel glazing units require special frames, the flange 33 of Figure 3 permits conventional frames to be used with multiple panel glazing units of the invention.
There have been described improved multiple panel glazing units. The units are simple and inexpensive to manufacture and do not require special seals or evacuation. Moisture does not deposit within the unit and mechanical stresses on the spacer-panel bond are substantially reduced.
What is claimed is:
1. A multiple panel glazing unit comprising (a) a. pair of transparent panels arranged in substantially parallel relationship, (b) separator means maintaining said panels in a self-adjusting spaced relationship and enclosing the space therebetween, said separator means comprising side sections and corner sections overlapping said side sections, and providing a continuous clamp around and along the margins of each of said transparent panels and (c) bonding material sealing said sections to each other and to said panels along the margins thereof, said bonding material comprising a hardened resin, curable at ambient temperature and having the properties of'self curing resins selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins and polyester resins.
2. A multiple panel glazing unit comprising (a) a pair of rectangular glass panes arranged in substantially parallel relationship, (b) separator means maintaining said glass panes in a self-adjusting spaced relationship and enclosing the air therebetween, said separator means comprising side sections and corner sections overlapping said side sections, and providing a continuous clamp around and along the margins of each of said glass panes and also providing a bellows in the portion between said glass panes, (c) dehydrating material bonded on at least a portion of the inner wall of said separator means between said glass panes, and (d) bonding material sealing said sections to each other and to said panes along the margins thereof, said bonding material comprising a hardened resin curable at ambient temperature and having the properties of self-curing resins selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins and polyester resins.
3. The multiple panel glazing unit of claim 2 wherein said separator means includes a flange extending outwardly in an essentially coplanar relationship with one of said panes, said flange being adapted for mounting in 5 conventional window pane frames.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS V