US 2910825 A
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Nov. 3, 1959 M. L. KIRKWOOD GEOGRAPHICAL TIMEPIECE Filed Jan. 16, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.
Nov. 3, 1959 M. 1.. KIRKWOOD 2,910,825
GEOGRAPHICAL. TIMEPIECE Filed Jan. 16, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.
Nov. 3, 1959 M. L. KIRKWOOD 2,910,825
GEOGRAPHICAL TIMEPIECE Filed Jan. 16, 1957 s Sheets-Sheet s FIG. '5.
IN V EN TOR.
' terline radius.
Figure 2 illustrates a timepiece arranged for perma-- hem use on the Pacific coast of the United States. This United States Patent GEOGRAPHICAL Merseman Lincoln Kirkwood; Van Nuys, Calif; Application JanuarylG, 1957, Serial No. 634,541
2 Claims. (C15 5M3) My invention relates to improvements in timepiece dial face components, and to combinations arranged to produce new and novel results.
The first object of my invention is to provide means to select and display the time of any standard time zone, any mid-Zone, or any odd-time zone on a nearly normal appearing timepiece; which may be used generally as a normal local timepiece without interference, or confusion, from the display of. a multitude of geographical tirnesj The second object is to provide means'for converting existing clocks and watches to geographical timepieces: with or without alteration of the said existing timepieces, and without defeating the first said object. V
A complete disclosure is given herein, and in the accompanying illustrations, in which:
Figure l is a frontal elevation of my timepiece dia arrangement which may be used either attached or unattached to a wall clock, or may be used, 'with or without clockwork, as a time finder for the solution of time problems.
'mounting the various dial com onents.
Figure 5 is a partial section across any of twelve radii, of the time zone dial 1', having a standard time zone.
Figure 2 is best suited to illustrate the general principle of operation. The zone dial 1 has place names of opposed hemispheres arranged in se arate and concentric annular groups. Geographical" pla e-names whose times differ by twelve hours are located on the same radius. The Zone dial 1 is adjustable, rotatably, to permit an local time zone, where the clock will 'beused permanently, to be positioned and secured on the upper cenany time zone desired to cause that z'ones time to be or the screws 12 press the dial firmly tofthe brackets 2,910,825 Patented Nov. 3, 1959 ice 2 displayed on the large selector-hour-dial 2. When this isdone, the local time will be shown on the small auxiliary hour dial 4, for comparison purposes. The principal advantage in having the large hour dial 2 rotatably mounted will be explained in the rules for solving time problems. Gther advantages in selecting and displaying the time of other time zones will be apparent to radio operators, commercial airlines, commercial communication companies, and to military and naval services.
With the timepiece arranged as illustrated in Figure 2, to determine and display the time at New York it is only necessary to rotate the selector-hour dial 2 until the twelfth hour is radially abreast of New York; one fourth revolution to the left. The hour pointer 6 will then be indicating 12, the minute pointer 5' wil lfbe as shown on the upper centerline radius, the 60th minute,
'and the displayed time would be 12 oclock. Wereit then desired to display the time of Venezuela, the twelfth hour would be moved to that place-name, onehalf zone more to the left, the hour pointer 6.would then be midway between hours 12 and l, and the minutes past 12 would be read on the central minute dial 8, as indicated by the small auxiliary minute pointer 7; which is integr al with and diametrically opposite to the large minute pointer 5. The standard time zones on dial 1 are distinguished by radial lines. When the twelfth hour of the selector-hour-dial 2 is positioned radially coincident with a standard time zone, the minutes of time will always be indicated by the large minute pointer 5. When the twelfth hour of the said dial is positioned radially coincident with amid-zone, or odd-time zone, the minutes of time will always be indicated'by the small minute pointer 7. The odd-time zones have a small correction factor printed with their place-name's. The small plus or minus factor is applied to readings of minutes when determining the time of those places.
In Figure 2, the smallauxiliary hour dial 4 is integral and rotatable in unison with thepivotable hour pointer 6, and having its twelfth hour always radially coincident with the hour pointer 6 thereby showing the hours elapsed since it was 12 oclock, noon or midnight, in any of thetirne zones. This very greatly aidsin determining the proper am. or pm. suflix to the time determined in any time zone.
A distinct advantage of my invention is the, ability of a timepiece, as illustrated in Figure 2, to display local daylight saving time without the necessity of re-setting the hour pointer 6 and the minute pointer 5. It is only necessaryto rotate the hour dial 2 to the left, counterclockwise, as many hour or zone positions as the local time is to be advanced. Furthermore, the fact that my timepiece was set to daylight saving time, or to any other than local standardtime, would'be instantly apparent as the twelfth hour of the selector-hour-dial 2 would be off center.
The second object of my invention may be accomplished by rearrangement of various components .as illustrated in Figures 1 and 3. In Figures 1 and 3, the component parts having primed numbers perform similar functions as similarly numbered components which are unprimed in Figure 2. The zone dial 1' is in the former a ring disc. It is heldfirmly to the three brackets 13 by the three screws 12, which are in contact with the inner periphery of thering disc zone dial 1'; the heads 13, 'Ihe'three screwsll, in similar manner, press the 3 inverted minute dial 8 firmly against an offset portion of the brackets 13. The s'elector-hour-dial 2' is also in the form of a ring disc, the inner periphery, of which, is in contact with the three screws 11; the ring disc hour dial 2' being retained by the heads of the screws 11, which may be left slightly loose to allow dial 2 to be manually rotatable. The three brackets 13 may be fastened to a wall as at,14, retaining the assembled members'in front of any Wall clock 15', but not attached to the clock in any manner. A watch may be suspended as'illustrated in Figure 3; appearing frontally as in Figure 1.
" A pocket time finder, for solving time problems, may i and 3, as will be explained in detail. The notable difference of operation of the Figure l timepiece being that the displayed minutes of time, differing by thirty simultaneously, is accomplished by the minute pointer 5' in conjunction with the clock or watch minute dial 3' and the inverted minute dial 8'. Minutes of time of any standard time zone are indicated by the minute pointer 5" on the minute dial 3'. Minutes of time of any midtlme zone, or odd-time zone, are indicated by the minute pointer 5' on the inverted minute dial 8'; with the correction factors for odd-time zones being applied as explained before.
In Figure 1, the dove-tail grooves 9 hold the placename plates 10, and extend radially on, or parallel to, the time zones on the zone dial 1'. Figure 5 is a partial "section across any one of the standard time zones, showing two grooves 9, and two place-name plates, in sec t on. The plates 10 may be shifted to other zones, or other place-names may be substituted, as desired or as may become necessary. For instance, all Russian time zones are advanced one hour, permanently, and should they elect to change this condition, the place-names affected may be shifted to other zones.
In Figure 1, the standard time zones, with parallel grooves thereon, have been numbered consecutively to the westward from G.M.T. (Greenwich mean time), or London. The clock 15 is represented as showing 11:30
at New York, Panama, Hai-Nan, "and Bangkok. As- Isuming the 11:30 sufiix to be am, in New York and Panama, then qitispm. in Hai-Nan and Bangkok. is 1630 G.M.T., because thehour pointer 6' is past the The shaft 25 may be turned by clockwork, which is not shown.' The minute dial 8 is retained stationary on the base plate 28 by three screws, as 29. The base plate 28 is secured to the clock case 23 by screws, as at 30.
A new and novel result of the use of my selectorhour-dial arranged in combination with other features illustrated and described is the simplicity and rapidity with which time problems may be solved; the rules for doing so follow:
(1) Flight time problems.The time of a distant place, upon arrival in the zone, may be determined in advance by knowing the zone of departure, the hour of departure, the flight time to the point of arrival, and the zone of arrival. From the hour of departure, count otf the hours of flight time, clockwise, and note the point of end of counting; call it X. As the flight is being made, the hour pointer 6 will be moving from departure hour to X. Now, rotate the twelfth hour of dial 2 to the place name representing the zone of arrival, then note the hour at X; which will be the hour of arrival in the distant place. Zone time changes are automatically done on this timepiece regardless of the total of flight time hours, or the direction.
(2 Time to place a telephone call.The local time to place a telephone call to a distant place, to have the call received at a desirable hour, may be found by rotating the selector-hour-dial 2 to position the twelfth hour sixteenth standard time zone and the minute pointer 5' is; indicating the 30th minute position on the minute 'dial 3. The twelfth hour on the selector-hour-dial 2 has been rotated to a point radially abreast of Singapore to find their time. Since the hour pointer 6' is indicating the twelfth hour on dial; 2', the minute pointer 5' indicates the 60th minute on the minute dial 8, and it is pm. in Bangkok, then it is 12 oclock pm. in Singapore.
dial 3 cast, or m achined, thereon. The hour dial 2 is mounted on the bezel 22, where it may be freely rotated 'by hand, and where it is retained by the bezel flange, in front, and in back by the retainer ring 27, which is threaded onto the clock case 23. The hour pointer 6 has the small auxiliary hour dial 4 integral therewith.
The hour-pointer 6 is mounted on the rotatable sleeve 24, which may be rotated by clockwork; which is not Qshown. The minute pointers 5 and7 are integral, and are retained on the rotatable shaft 25 by the screw 26.
radially abreast of the place-name representing the zone of reception, or distant place, then note the radial position of the desired hour for reception; call it X. The hour pointer 6 will be at X at that time. Rotate the twelfth hour back to the local zone of point of call, and note the hour to place the call; abreast of X.
(3) Time to receive a call.The time to receive a telephone call that is to be placed at a given hour, in a distant place, may be found by rotating the twelfth hour to the zone of origin of the call. Note the position of the hour, there, that the call is to be placed; call it X. Rotate the twelfth hour back to the zone of re- .ception, and note the hour to expect the callr-abreast of X. When crossing the 180th meridian westward advance the date, when crossing eastward retard the date.
1. An apparatus of the kind described comprising, in combination, a rotatably adjustable time zone dial and means for securing the same in a stationed position for operation, said dial having standard time zone indicia arranged annularly thereon with half zone indicia arranged therebetween as required, a bezel surrounding said dial and having an annular face for indicating minutes of time differing by thirty simultaneously, a selector dial having hour indicia arranged annularly on it and surrounding said bezel, a minute pointer pivoted centrally of said bezel and co-operating therewith, a central minute dial, an auxiliary minute pointer carried by said minute pointer and projecting. diametrically opposite therefrom to co-operate with said central minute dial, and mounting means retaining said. selector dial normallyturnable. for adjustment in substantially the same plane with said zone dial,
said. bezel forming a part of said mounting means and concentrically spacing apart said time zone dial and se lector dial.
2. An apparatus of the kind described comprising, in-
combination, a rotatablyadjustable time zone dial having standard time zone indicia arranged annularly thereon with half-time and odd-time zone indicia arranged therebetween as required, said odd-time zones having correction factors indicated therewith as required, a selector dial having-hour indicia arranged annularly thereon, means for retaining said selector dial manually turnable in substantially the same plane with and concentric to said zone dial, a bezel havingan annular face for indicating minutes of time-differing by thirty simultaneously, said bezel being located between the aforesaid two dials, a pivoted hour pointer having an integrally attached hour-circle with annularly arranged hour indicia thereon, the twelfth hour of said hour circle being radially coincident with said pivoted hour pointer, a minute dial surrounded by said hour circle, and an auxiliary minute pointer carried by 5 said hour pointer and projecting oppositely therefrom to cooperate with said minute dial.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 27,006 Mofiet Ian. 31, 1860 6 Stanbitz Nov. 1, 1887 Barrett May 27, 1890 Conner Aug. 13, 1907 Giusto Oct. 22, 1929 Russo Sept. 12, 1933 McNair Feb. 9, 1937 Braaten Dec. 30, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS Switzerland June 7, 1898 Germany May 27, 1909 Italy May 16, 1934