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Publication numberUS2910989 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 3, 1959
Filing dateSep 16, 1958
Priority dateSep 16, 1958
Publication numberUS 2910989 A, US 2910989A, US-A-2910989, US2910989 A, US2910989A
InventorsMonica Russell
Original AssigneeMonica Russell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hair curlers
US 2910989 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1959 M. RUSSELL 2,910,989

HAIR CURLERS Filed Sept. 1a, 1958 IN VENT OR lflo/wcn A r/66:11

ATTORNEY Unimd States atent Ofiice 2,91%,989 PatentedNov. 3, 1959 HAIR CURLERS Monica Russell, Wallingford, Conn. Application September 16, 1958, Serial No. 761,375

15 Claims. (Cl. 13240) This invention'relates to a hair curling device and is particularly directed to a device which may be utilized in various manners to form curls such as pin curls. Conventional curl forming devices have required either complicated structures or special modes of use in order to grasp a strand of hair while forming a curler. Further, these conventional structures have required the use of separate structures to eflectuate the winding or twisting operation and subsequent introduction of fugitive devices to secure a pin curl in wound condition during the curl setting period. The prior structures in this art have further been characterized by shortcomings as to their adaptability to use on various lengths of hair.

As an object of this invention to provide a simple, easy to use device which is economical to produce and which will serve to grasp a strand of hair, to wind that strand of hair into a curl and thence to retain the resulting curl in its wound condition during the setting period.

It is a further object to provide a device as noted above which will frictionally engage a strand of hair during the entire winding operation, including the initial steps of the winding, the full curled position and during the setting period. Y

It is yet another object of this invention to provide a device which may be utilized in several manners to efiiciently and easily form curls in hair of any length.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide a curler having the above noted characteristics and which will, of itself, hold a curl in wound position during the period of treatment and setting of the curl.

These and other objects and advantages of the instant invention will be apparent from the following description and claims.

In the drawings, which illustrate by way of example the present invention:

Fig. 1 is an exploded view of a hair curler comprising a base-spindle member, a cover member and an operatinglocking ring; p

Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view looking downward of the hair curler of Fig. 1 when assembled;

Fig. 3 is a transverse cross sectional View of the curler of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 in use;

Fig. 4 is an exploded view of another hair curler com prising a spindle member and a cover member;

Fig. 5 is an assembled View of the curler of Fig. 4 further showing a securing device thereon as well as indicating the mode of threading a strand of hair through this curler;

Fig. 6, 7 and.8 are cross sectional views of hair curlers indicating, schematically, the various modes of curl formation obtainable through various means of utilizing the curlers of this invention, Fig. 6 indicating a curl formed subsequent to the mode of hair strand threading disclosed in Fig. 5;

Fig. 9 is an assembled view of another curler embodying this invention and further illustrating another method ofthreading a strand of hair through the curlers of this invention, this method resulting in the curl formation disclosed in Fig. 8;

Fig. 10 is an exploded view of the curler of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is a cross sectional view of the assembled curlers of Fig. 5 or 9.

The hair curlers embodying the present invention consist basically of a spindle member 10, 10a and 10b together with a cooperating cylindrical, thin walled, flexible cover sleeve 20, 20a or 20b. The cover sleeve is constructed and adapted to provide a close yielding fit between the cover sleeve and the spindle member.

The various examples disclosed each contain additional features recommending these particular units to certain advantageous modes of manufacture or usage or adapting them for efiicient operation in certain types of usage.

In the embodiment disclosed in Figs. 1 through 3, 10 indicates the spindle member which includes and may be unitarily formed with a base 11. Extending longitudinally through the spindle 10, including the base 11, is an opening or passage 12. Thus, the spindle 10 is of the general configuration of a cylindrical thin-walled sleeve. The spindle member 10 is formed with two slots 13 and i 14. Slot 13 is a radial opening through one wall of the spindle member and extending from one end of this member to the other, including the base portion. 14 is also a radial opening through one side of the spindle member but extends only from the end opposite the base to apoint 15 adjacent but displaced inwardly from the base or base edge of the spindle member. In this embodiment the 'base is preferably of a substantial radial width and both the base and the spindle may be formed with ventilating or hair treatment fluid application slots 16 and 17. In this embodiment, the'spindle member is formed with an annular groove in the outer surface thereof adjacent the end opposite the base, as at 18.

The sleeve 20 is basically a. cylindrical, thin Walled, flexible sleeve as aforenoted and is formed with slots 21 and 22 corresponding to the slots Band 14 in the spindle member. The slot 21 extends longitudinally from end to end of the sleeve while slot 22 extends longitudinally from one end to a point 23 displaced inwardly from the opposite end of the sleeve. This sleeve may be formed also with ventilating slots as at 24. The slot 21 is pref-' erably defined by curved outwardly diverging extensions 25 and 26 of the sidewalls of the sleeve. Immediately adjacent, or forming parts of, the sides of the slot 22 and extending outwardly from the end of the sleeve 20 are two locking knobs or extensions 27. In this embodiment a locking ring or disc 30 is provided'which may be of an annular configuration defining an inner opening 31. The opening 31 is of a size whereby it may be urged over the spindle 10 to provide a snap locking engagement between the inner periphery thereof and the groove 18 in the spindle 10. The annular area of the disc 30 is provided with openings 32 which are spaced to engage the knobs or extensions 27 on the sleeve 20.

The sleeve 20 should be formed with an inside diameter to provide a close fit with the outside of spindle 10. Further, the sleeve should be formed of a yieldable or elastic material to permit limited expansion of the sleeve when hair is engaged between the sleeve and the spindle. This expansibility of the sleeve 20 is aided by the formation of the various slots in the sidewalls thereof and particularly by the end to end nature of slot 21 and by the length of slot 22 which leaves a relatively short expanse of material between the end 23 thereof and the adjacent end of the sleeve.

In assembly for use, sleeve 20 is slid longitudinally over the spindle 10, the disc 30 is placed with two of the holes 32 in alignment with the knobs 27 and thence urged The slot downwardly over the end of spindle 10 and into snapping engagement with slot 13 as generally shown in Fig. 3.

Curved portions 25, 26 provide a smooth graduated opening to the slot 21 to aid and abet the entry of a strand of hair therein.

A fugitive operator 35 may be inserted through one of the holes 32 to serve as a handle-in rotatingthe disc 30 and the sleeve 29 about the spindle 10. This operator may also engage against one of the outcurved portions 25 or 26.

The embodimentillustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 is somewhat similar to the aforedescribed device but is of a considerably simplified construction; In this embodiment, only the spindle member a and a covering sleeve a are provided; The spindle-member like is without a base as such though a portion 11a may be referred to as the base end for reference purposes.

The spindle 10a is formed'with the longitudinal opening 12a'and slots 13a and 14a corresponding to parts 12, 13 and 14 of the embodiment of Fig. 1. Further, in this embodiment, the sleeve 10a is formed'with opposed notches 49a in the ends of the sidewalls.

The cover sleeve 20a is formed with slots 21a and 22a corresponding to the slots 21 and 22 of sleeve 20. This sleeve may or may not include outcurved portions corresponding to the lips 25 and 26 of the embodiment in Fig. 1. The sleeve 20a is also preferably constructed of a resilient material and is sized to provide a close I yieldable fit around the sleeve 10a.

and to seat snugly in notches 40adue to its own elasticity,

as shown in Fig; 5. Both the spindle and the cover sleeve of this embodiment may further be provided with -ventilation slots, notches or grooves similar to those disclosed in the embodiment of Figs. 1 through 3.

The embodiment disclosed in Figs. 9 and- 10 is quite similar to that of Figs. 4 and 5 except the spindle 10b is formed with a raised or enlarged base portion 45b on the base end thereof. This unit is formed with slots 13b and 14b corresponding to the slots 13, 13a, 14 and 14a of the embodiments described above. This spindle may also be formed with notches 481; corresponding to notches 4% in the embodiment of Fig. 4. The cover sleeve 20b is likewise formed with slots 21b and 22b corresponding with slots 21, 21a and 22, 22a described above. This embodiment may also optionally be formed with outwardly diverging guide members similar to 25, 26 of Fig. 1 adjacent the slot 2112. Both the spindle 10b and the cover sleeve 20b may be formed with ventilation slots or grooves as generally indicated in the cover sleeve at 24b. The spindle 10b is formed with a longitudinal opening 12b therethrough similar to openings 12, 12a of the embodiments described above.

The cover sleeve 2% is also constructed of a resilient material and is formed with an inside diameter substantially equal to the outer diameter of the spindle 10b to provide a close yieldable fit between the cover sleeve 20b and the spindle ltlb when the unit is assembled. A securing member similar to 41a may be provided for use as in the example of Figure 5.

It is to be understood that many of the features disclosed in connection with specific examples disclosed may Well be utilized on any or all other embodiments of this invention such as those disclosed herein or such as come within the inventive concept.

The ends of the various slots may be rounded as disclosed in the upper end of slot 131) in Fig. 9, the outwardly curved diverging guide portion 25, 26 of Fig. 1 may be embodied in the cover sleeve of any embodiment of this invention, various forms and sizes of ventilating slots may be provided, the various slots may be formed with radially outwardly diverging sidewalls and a plurality of slots such as 22, 22a and 22b may be provided in each cover sleeve.

Operation The device is peculiarly adapted to several methods of use, each one of which is peculiarly adapted to use in connection with a difierent length of hair. These methods will be set forth as methods A, B and C and are intended primarily for use on short (1" to 1 /2), long and medium length hair respectively. It is, of course, understoodthat these are only recommended usages and that any one of the methods may be utilized under specific circumstances on any length of hair and that there are other means of utilizing these devices to obtain a highly satisfactory curl. These methods will be explained in conjunction with the embodiment disclosed in Figs. 9 and 10 except as particularly noted, however, it is to be understod in most instances any embodiment of this invention is adapted tothe explained usages.

Method A The spindle sleeve 10!) is inserted into the cover sleeve 20b in the assembled relation of Fig. 9 with the full length slots 13b and 21b alignedand with the slots 14b and 22b aligned. The operator then separates astrand or wisp of hair from which she desires to form a curl and, usually after twisting this wisp once or twice to better hold it together, the assembled curler is brought into position with the full length pair of slots disposed outwardly from the users head and the assembled curler is then slid straddle of this wisp of hair with the hair strand received in-both of the pairs of aligned slots. The curler is positioned, adjacent the users scalp, with the root portion of the selected strand of hair approximately midway of the length of the curler. The user then slides the free end of the selected wisp of hair the remainder of the length of the'curle'r until it projects out the base end of the spindle member 13b. This threaded position is indicated in Fig. 5 wherein the wisp of hair extends into the central opening of the spindle member through the aligned slots 14a, 22a and thence via the central opening to the base end of the spindle and outwardly therefrom. A curl is then formed by holding the cover sleeve and rotating the spindle member. This results in a curl formation as illustrated in Fig. 6 with the hair being wound toward the inside of the curl. The free end of the hair which originally projected out through the central opening of the spindle will feed back inwardly therethrough and will be deposited as continuing inward spirals of the curl being formed. This method is particularly adaptable for use on short hair, that is, in the neighborhood of one to 1 inches long. It is to be understood that the securing device indicated in Fig. 5 is not mounted on the curler during the winding operation, and, in fact it is not utilized at all in connection with curls formed from shortv hair. The close fit between the spindle and the cover sleeve, together with the resilient nature of the cover sleeve gives a sufiiciently secure friction grasp of the wisp of the hair and the resulting curl to hold the curl and curler in position both during and subsequent to the winding operation. It is understood that this curler is preferably left in position to retain the hair in a wound condition during the usual treating and setting operation or merely during the setting period.

Method B On long hair the user proceeds as in Method A except that the curler is positioned toward the outer end of the selected strand of hair, that is within about 1 inch of the free end thereof. The cover sleeve is again held stationary and the spindle rotated as in Method A until the short free end of the strand of hair is wound into the inside of the curl as in method A and then the entire curler is rotated winding the remainder of the strand of hair around the outside of the curler until the entire strand stran e is taken up. A securing member such as 41a is then'utilized, engaging the notches on the opposin'gends of the device to hold the curler and hair in this wound condition. The securing device engages the notchesat one end of the curler, passes over the outside of the hair wound about the curler and on opposite sides of the curler, and engages the notches at the opposing end. I The general configuration of the resulting curl is indicated schematically in Fig. 7.

Method C The selected strand of hair is held taut and the curler, oriented with the base end toward and adjacent the users scalp, is held in longitudinal alignment withthe strand of hair. The curler is then positioned around the strand of hair by causing the strand of hair to pass radially through the aligned slots 13b, 21b to a position where the strand of hair extends longitudinally through the opening 12b. The free end of the strand of hair is then passed on through the aligned slots 14b, 22b tothe outside of the curler. This results in the general threaded configuration indicated in Fig. 9. The userthen holds the spindle stationary and rotates the cover sleeve thus winding the free end of the hair'in a continuing spiral on the outer side of the curl as indicated schematically in Fig. 8. It is to be noted that the embodiment disclosed in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 is particularly adapted for this method of use.

It is to be understood, throughout, that the relative size of the various members and theflexibility of the cover sleeves produces a friction grip of the strand of hair between the cover sleeve and the spindle but that the cover sleeve is sufliciently flexible to permit limited expansion as the curl is formed therebetween. Thus, the clearances disclosed in Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 11 are exaggerated for purposes of clarity, and it is understood that there would be substantially no clearance between the spindle and cover sleeve members until a strand of hair was forced therebetween thus urging the members apart radially.

The embodiment of Figs. 1 through 3 is provided with the operator 35 which is of particular advantage in beauty parlors or the like where the beauty operator may readily insert a device 35 (such as a pencil) to facilitate twirling the sleeve about the spindle.

There are, of course, other methods of utilizing applicants device such as by first mounting the spindle on a .strand of hair and thence mounting the sleeve in a re- Versed position. The above three methods are set forth as being illustrative of preferred methods of use. The :spindle member and the longitudinal opening therethrough may be of any desired configuration so long as :some portions thereof are'in close relation with the cover sleeve whereby the two members may form the desired yieldable friction engagement therebetween.

While the invention has been described in connection with difierent embodiments thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modification,-and this application is intended to cover any variations,.uses orfadaptations of the inventions following, in general, the principles of the invention and includingsuch departures from the present disclosures as come within known or customary practice in the art to which the invention pertains, and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, 'what I claim is:

l. A hair curler including an elongated spindle member and an open ended cylindrical thin walled cover :sleeve rotatably mounted on said spindle member; said spindle member having a base end and a second end, said spindle member formed with a coaxial longitudinal opening extending therethrough and with first and second longitudinal slots through the sides thereof, said first :slot extending the full length of said spindle member,

said second slot disposed diametrically opposite said first slot and extending inwardly from saidsecond end to a point adjacent said. base end; said cover sleeve being shorter than said spindle member and formed with longitudinal slots through the sides thereof, one of said slots extending the full length of said cover sleeve and another of said slots disposed diametrically opposite said last mentioned slot and extending from one end to a point adjacent the other end of said cover sleeve; said cover sleeve constructed of a resilient material and formed with an inside diameter only slightly larger than the outside diametric dimension of said spindle member'whereby a strand of hair may be frictionally and yieldably engaged between said spindle and said cover sleeve, and said spindle member and said cover sleeve formed with ventilating slots through the side walls thereof.

2. A hair curler as in claim -1 and wherein said base end is of a larger outside diameter than the inside diameter of said cover sleeve.

3. A hair curler including a spindle member and a cylindrical cover sleeve rotatably mounted on said spindle member; said spindle member formed with a longitudinal opening extending therethrough and with first and second slots through the sides thereof, said first slot extending the full length of said spindle member, said second slot extending inwardly from one end of said spindle member to a point adjacent the other end thereof; said cover sleeve being shorter than said spindle member and formed with a plurality of slots through the sides thereof, one of said slots extending thefull length of said cover sleeve and another of said slots extending from one end to a point adjacent the other end of said cover sleeve, the defined slots in said cover sleeve disposed in the same relative disposition as said slots in said spindle member; said cover sleeve constructed of a flexible material and formed with an inside diameter only slightly larger than the greatest outside diameter dimension of said spindle member whereby a strand of hair may be frictionally and yieldably engaged between said spindle and said cover member.

4. A hair curler as in claim 3 and wherein said cover sleeve and said spindle member are formed with ventilating openings therethrough.

5. A hair curler including a spindle member and a yieldable cover sleeve rotatably mounted on said spindle member; said spindle member formed with a longitudinal opening extending therethrough and with a plurality of slots through the sidesthereof, one ofsaid' slots extending the full length of said spindle member and at least one other of said slots extending to one end of said spindle member; said cover sleeve formed with a plurality of slots through the sides thereof, one of said slots extending the full length of said cover sleeve and at least one of the other of said slots extending to one end of said cover sleeve, the defined slots in said cover sleeve disposed in the same relative disposition as the defined slots in said spindle member and said cover sleeve having an inside diameter only slightly larger than the outside diameter of said spindle member whereby a strand of hair may be grasped between said spindle and said cover sleeve. g

6. A hair curler as in claim 5 and wherein said cover sleeve is formed of a resilient material.

7. A hair curler as in claim 5 and wherein said spindle member is formed with opposing notches in each end of said spindle.

8. A hair curler as in claim 7 and including a securing 7 member longitudinally circumscribing said curler and engaging said notches.

9. A hair curler including a spindle member and a flexible cylindrical cover sleeve rotatably mounted on said spindle member; said spindle member formed with a longitudinal opening therethrough; said spindle member and said cover sleeve each formed with a longitudinal slotthrough one side extending the full length thereof;

ae oesa said cover sleeve andssaid spindle member each .formedv with a second slot-through another sideextending from oneendto a point adjacent the, other end thereof; said slots in said cover sleeve disposedtintthe same relative disposition as, said slots in said spindle membenand said cover. sleeve formed with an. inside diameter substantially equalthe largest diametricdimension of-said spindle member.

10. A hair curlertaszin claim .9 and wherein said cover sleeve: is formed Ofyfl resilient material.

ll. Ahaircurlercomprising, in combination, a spindlemembena cylindrical thin walled coversleeve rotatably mounted onsaid-spindle: member andianend disc rotatably engaging said, spindle member; said spindle member comprising a -base and-aspindle, saidspindle having, a proximal end attached tosaid base-and a distal end; said-spindle member formedwitha longitudinal opening extending therethrough and with first and second slots through the sides thereof, said first. slot extending the full length of said spindle member, said second slot disposeddiametrically opposite said firstslot and extending inwardly from said: distal end to apoint-adjacent'said base; said spindle, formed with an annular groove therein adjacent said distal end; said cover sleeve being of a length substantially equal to the length of said spindle be tween sai' annular groove and said base and formed with longitudinal slots through the sides thereofione of said slots extending thefull length of said cover sleeve and another of said slots disposed diametrically opposite said last'mentionedslot and extending from one end to a point adjacentthe other end of said cover sleeve; said cover sleeve including outwardly diverging curvedportions definingthe edges of said full length slot and two upstanding knob portions on the end corresponding -to the open end of said other slot, said-knob portions disposed with one immediately adjacent each side of said other slot; said enddiscbeing of an'annular configuration and having an outside diameter substantially equal to the diameter ofsaid; base and an inside diameter less than the outside diameter of said spindle but greater than the lesser diameter; of said annular. groove, said end disc formed with openings through the annular portion thereof, said disc being of a width less than thewidth of; said annulargroove; said cover sleeve mounted; over said spindle, and said end disc mounted overthe distal end of said spindle with two of said openings therethrough engaging saidiupstanding knobs and withthe inner diam: eter: thereof in snapping engagement with said; annular groove; said cover sleeve constructed of a resilieniinateri-al and formedwith an inside diameter only slightly larger than the greatest diarnetric dimension (if said spindle portion whereby a strand of hair may be frictionally and yieldably engaged between said spindle and said cover sleeve 7 12, A hair curler-as;in;claim 11 and including anelongated operator having lateral dimensions less. than the dimensions, of said jopeningsthrough said end disc and said operator inseitedthrough one of said holes whereby saidend. disc;-and said cover sleeve may be rotated by lateral applicationof force to said operator;

13. A hair curler as in claim 11 and wherein said spindle memberand said cover sleeve are formed with ventilating, slots-, therethrough.

14. A haircurler comprising, incornbination, a spindle member, afiexible coyer sleeve mounted on said spindle member; and an en i disc engaginglsaid spindle member and saidmoverslee've; said spindle member having. a

base portion anda spindle portion; said spindle member iforrnedwitha longitudinal opening extending therethrough and with first and second slotsthrough the sides thereof, said first slot extending the full length of said spindle member, said second slot extending inwardly from the end of said spindle portion opposite said base portion to a-poinnadjacent;said base portion; said spindle porw i'iOllfOlFlTlfidwitha circumscribing groove in the outer. suriaee thereofi said cover sleeve being of a length less than-thelength oi said spindle portion between said circumscribing grooveand saidvbase portion; said cover sleeveformedwithslots through the sides thereof, one; of said slots 'extendingthe full length of said cover sleeve and another of said slots extending from one end to a point-adjacent the other end of said cover sleeve, said slots tin-saidlcover sleeve disposed in the same relative disposition; as; said slots in said spindle member; saidemlLdiSc being of an annular configuration and formed;-with-- an; inside diameter less than the outside, diameter-of, said spindle portion and greater than the least-diametric dimension of said circumscribing groove, and said end disc having a thickness less than the Width of said circumscribing-slot; said cover sleeve formed with an inside diameter substantially the same as the greatest diametriedimensionof said spindle portion; said cover SiiV=3 mQllntd;QV6If said spindle portion, and said end disc-mounted oversaid spindle portion in engagement with said circumscribing slot, and driving means detachably connecting said cover sleeve and said end disc..

15. A haircurler; comprising-a spindle member, a cylindricalfiexiblecovensleeverotatably mounted on said spindle member, and an; end disc engaging said cover sleeve fandrotatably mounted on said spindle member; said spindle member including a base portion and a spindleportion; said-spindle member formed with a longitudinal opening; extending theretnrough; said spindle member; andsaid cover; sleeve both having radial openingsthrough one; side -thereofiextending the full length thereof; said spindle member formed with another slot through one side thereof: extending inwardly from the end opposite said; base; portion to a point adjacent said baseportiomsaid cover; sleeve; formed with another slot extendinginwardly from one end thereof to a point adjacent tthe other; end; thereof; said. slot and said radial openinginsaid cover sleeve disposed in the same relative disposition as;v said slot; and said radial opening in said pin le. m mh rsmean fm ct c y engaging said end disc with said cover; sleeve and means for rot-atably securing said enddiselosaid spindle member; said cover sleeveformed with an inside diameter substantially equal to the greatest diarnetric dimension of said spindle portion whereby a strand of hair may be fiictionally and yieldably. engaged between said spindle and said cover sleeve.

No references cited.

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *None
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2999504 *Aug 20, 1958Sep 12, 1961Monica RussellHair curler
US3040753 *Oct 29, 1959Jun 26, 1962Monica RussellHair curler
US3080873 *May 24, 1960Mar 12, 1963Feist Mildred CHair curler
US4049008 *Jun 7, 1976Sep 20, 1977Brothers Richard VHair-curling device
US4502496 *Dec 21, 1981Mar 5, 1985Cornelia ThomasHair curling device
US4526184 *Feb 22, 1984Jul 2, 1985Richard CarusoSteamable hair curler
US4603706 *Mar 4, 1983Aug 5, 1986Richard CarusoHair curler
US5588449 *Jun 7, 1995Dec 31, 1996Falcon; William C.Hair roller apparatus and method for highlighting hair
US7971593 *Sep 17, 2004Jul 5, 2011Henkel KgaaHair rollers
US20080210255 *Dec 21, 2007Sep 4, 2008Dawn MollApparatus for styling hair
US20080236610 *Sep 17, 2004Oct 2, 2008Holger BartelsHair Rollers
USRE35287 *Sep 2, 1993Jul 2, 1996Caruso; RichardHair curler
Classifications
U.S. Classification132/252
International ClassificationA45D2/02, A45D2/24, A45D2/00
Cooperative ClassificationA45D2/02, A45D2002/025, A45D2/24
European ClassificationA45D2/02, A45D2/24