|Publication number||US2912345 A|
|Publication date||Nov 10, 1959|
|Filing date||Aug 10, 1955|
|Priority date||Aug 14, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2912345 A, US 2912345A, US-A-2912345, US2912345 A, US2912345A|
|Original Assignee||Heberlein Patent Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (14), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
- Nov. 10, 1959 E. WEISS 2,912,345
PROCESS FOR METALLIZING TEXTILE} AND OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS THEREFROM Filed Aug. 10, 1955 INVENTOR. ERNST PV United States Patent 2,912,345 PROCESS FOR METALLIZING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS THERE- FROM Ernst Weiss, Wattwil, Switzerland, assignor to Heberlein Patent Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Application August 10, 1955, Serial No. 527,637 Claims priority, application Germany August 14, 1954 8 Claims. (Cl. 11737) This invention relates to a process for metallizing textile and other materials and products therefrom.
Vaporization in vacuum of metals and their deposition on surfaces of various materials is known.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a simple, efficient process for metallizing textiles and other materials to provide neweifects, especially new optical effects. The invention accordingly comprises the novel products as well as the novel processes and steps of processes according to which such products are manufactured, the specific embodiments of which are described hereinafter by Way of example and in accordance with which I now prefer to practice the invention.
In carrying out my invention I vaporize and flow a metal vapor onto the surface of a sheetlike article with a pronounced surface structure. The flow of vapor is conducted at an inclination to the surface so that a part-of the surface structure portion is coated with the metal relatively more than another part thereof. For this purpose the metal may be vaporized in a vertical direction with the surface of the sheetlike article held at any desired angle to the vertical, or any other relationship between the surface and the source of the metal vapor may be arranged so that the vapor is deposited on the surface at an angle to coat part of the surface structure relatively more than another part thereof. The vaporization of the various metals that may be employed is well known. Thus, in the case of aluminum the metal may be vaporized in a known manner at a temperature between 800 and 1000 C. in a high vacuum of 5.10- mm. mercury. case of copper the temperature employed may be at about 1000 to 1100" C. andwith respect to gold, at a temperature of about 1100 to 1200 C. Other metals may be similarly vaporized.
sheet-like textile articles such as fabrics in which, due to the folds formed when the fabric is being worn, there is a vivid interplay between color and metal or metallizings with different metals.
The process in accordance with the inventioncan be ap plied to sheet-like articles such as woven and knitted fabrics and the like as well as to plastic sheets, paper and leather. Textile fabrics of cellulosic fibers such as cotton, viscose rayon and acetate rayon, as well as animal fibers such as natural silk, may be employed. Textiles of synthetic fibers, for instance, polyamide fibers (nylon, Perlon), polyester fibers (Dacron, Terylene), and polyvinyl fibers (Orlon, i.e., polyacrylonitrile). Textile fabrics consisting of mixtures of the said types of In the i The oblique vaporization of the metal has the effect I 7 that only one side of the elevations and recesses of-the surface is metallized, in the same way as in the case of oblique illumination, so that only the surface portions facing the source of light are illuminated. By the partial metallizing of colored sheet-like articles, there is produced an interesting optical effect since either the metallizing or the color predominates depending on the side from Which the sheet-like article is viewed. Particularly attractive effects are obtained if the sheet-like article is 1 colored with dark shades which contrast strongly with the metal. Furthermore, several different metals, for instance two different metals, can be vaporized onto the sheet like article, one of them at an angle of 90 and the other obliquely. of all covered with the one metal and thereupon certain places are covered with the other metal. Finally, it is also possible to vaporize two different metals in opposite or oblique direction onto a colored sheet-like article.
In this connection, the entire surface is first When a suitable surface structure and suitable angle at which the vaporization of the metal is effected are employed, the one side of the elevations for instance will be covered here and there with the one metal while the other side will be covered here and there with the other metal,
whereby the recesses may not'be metallized at all. All of these effects are' of very particular interest in the case of fibers may also suitably be used.
The pronounced surface structure of the sheet-like article is preferably produced mechanically by embossing and can consist either of a fine ribbed or schreiner finish or of an undulated deformation (gotfering). However, there can also be used sheet-like articles which, like certain fabrics, for instance, rep, are themselves characterized by a sufliciently pronounced ribbed surface structure. Fabrics having a crepe character as well as fabrics which have been provided with an undulating pattern (puckered effects) by local shrinking with swelling agents, may also be used. By the useof cellulose fabrics, which, in addition to undulations produced by shrinking with caustic alkali, also have transparentized or-parchmentized places, the effect of my process can be still further increased. The angle at which the metals are vaporized and flowed onto the fabric must be adapted to the nature of-the surface structure and the effect to be obtained.
One embodiment of the processof the invention consists of producing a permanent embossing effect by means of resins on textile fabrics of natural or regenerated cellulose before the treatment with the metal vapor. The fabric in this case is impregnated in the customary manner with a water-soluble resin precondensate, embossed and then heated to an elevated temperature in order to harden the resin.
In general, textile fabrics however can also first of all be provided with a permanent or non-permanent embossing effect and thereupon be provided with a thin layer of a water insoluble natural resin, for instance shellac or rosin, or of water-insoluble resin produced by polymerization, for instance a vinyl resin, acrylic resin or methacrylic resin. The resin or plastic dissolved in an organic solvent is in this connection preferably sprayed onto the embossed surface. The metal which has been deposited on the surface which has been treated in this manner exhibits satisfactory adherence.
The following are examples of the manner in which I now prefer to practice my process. It is to be understood that these examples are illustrative and that the invention is not to be considered as restricted thereto except as indicated in the appended claims.
Example 1 Black dyed cotton percale permanently goffered by means of melamine formaldehyde resins is finished with a polyacrylic resin emulsion, dried and treated in a high vacuum with aluminum vapor, whereby the jets of aluminum molecules strike the fabric surface at an acute angle of 15-30". The material treated in this manner appears to be predominantly black or predominantly silver depending upon the direction in which it is viewed and the goffering design is very strongly evident. The article can be used for various fancy effects. Part of the golfer, namely on that side facing the metal flow, receives the coating whi h is substantially absent from the opposite side. i
Example 2 Cotton sateen provided with a permanent schreiner or ribbed finish by means of melamine formaldehyde resins is treated in a high vacuum first of all with silver vapor and thereupon with gold vapor, whereby the jets of silver molecules strike the fabric surface at an angle of 90 i.e. vertically and the jets of gold molecules strike the surface at an acute angle of 20 to 40.
The material treated in this manner has a metallic luster and appears to be gold or silver, depending upon the direction in which it is viewed, so that striking changeable effects are obtained.
Example 3 Natural silk rep dyed navy blue is treated in a high vacuum with aluminum vapor in such a manner that the jets of aluminum molecules strike the surface of the fabric transverse to the ribs at an acute angle of 15-45". Thus, the elevations of the ribs receive a coating on part thereof, namely on the side toward the metal flow, and substantially no coating on the other side.
The material metallized in this manner has a lustrous silver or navy blue appearance depending upon the direction in which it is viewed.
Example 4 Nylon toile which has been dyed green and embossed at 200 C. is treated in a high vacuum with aluminum vapor, whereby the jets of aluminum molecules strike the fabric surface, at acute angle of 1530.
On the fabric which has been metallized in this manner the embossing effect is either very striking or hardly perceptible depending on the direction from which it is viewed which makes the article particularly well suited in the novelty business.
Example 5 Purple dyed nylon toile is shrunk locally by the printing on of stripes of chloroacetic acid, whereby a so-called crinkle crepe is obtained, i.e. a fabric having an undulated surface. The fabric is then treated in a high vacuum first of all with copper vapor and then with gold vapor, whereby the jets of copper and gold molecules strike the fabric surface at an acute angle of to 50. By this treatment the crinkled crepe is imparted a striking ornamentation which very substantially increases its possibilities for use for fancy effects. Gne side of the crinkled effect is coated with metal.
Example 6 A dull white foil of polyvinylchloride, the surface of which has been finely ribbed is treated in a high vacuum with copper vapor, whereby the jets of copper molecules strike the surface of the foil, at an acute angle of -40".
The foil treated in this manner appears to be a lusterless white or to have a reddish metallic luster depending upon the direction in which it is viewed.
In the accompanying drawing forming part of this application:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation of an apparatus for practicing the invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary section of gofiered fabric receiving a coating of vaporized metal, and
Fig. 3 is an enlarged portion of goffered fabric with a thin luminous metal coating only on part of the raised portion of the goffer, such coating being substantially absent from one side of the raised gofiered portion.
Referring to the drawing, the numeral 1 designates a vacuum chamber through the side of which passes a length of fabric 2. In the bottom of the vacuum chamber is an electric resistance heating coil 3, above which is placed a trough 4 to support the metal to be vaporized. The trough containing the vaporizable metal is heated. Vacuum is applied through a conduit 6 causing the metal to vaporize in a nearly vertical stream 7 upwardly towards the conduit. The fabric 2, here shown as goffered, passes over guide rollers 5 and during such passage is guided at an oblique angle over the metal vapors 7 so passing.
The vaporized metal strikes the goffered fabric 2, as shown in Pig. 2, and deposits a thin metallic coating only on part of the raised golfer, and the coating is substantially absent from one side of the raised goffered portion.
In Fig. 3 the raised portion 8 is shown thus coated with metal, while the portion 9 has substantially no metal thereon.
What I claim is:
1. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of a pliable sheet with pronounced surface elevations at an inclination to said surface sufficient to metallize part of the surface elevations relatively more than another part thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
2. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of an embossed fabric at an inclination to said surface sufficient to metallize part of the embossed elevations relatively more than other parts thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
3. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of a ribbed fabric at an inclination to said surface sufficient to metallize one side of the ribs more than the other side thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
4. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of an embossed fabric at an inclination to said surface and vaporizing and flowing a second different metal in the opposite direction onto the so-treated surface at an inclination to metallize part of the embossed portion relatively more than another part thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
5. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of an embossed textile fabric, said metal vapor being flowed at an inclination to said surface suflicient to metallize part of the embossed portion relatively more than another part thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
6. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of a textile fabric with an embossing effect which is permanently fixed by resin, at an inclination to said surface suflicient to metallize part of the embossed portion relatively more than another part thereof to provide a contrasting optical effect between said parts of the article.
7. A process which comprises vaporizing and depositing a metal vapor onto the surface of an embossed fabric at about a angle and then depositing a second metal vapor onto said surface at an angle different from 90, and metallizing part of the embossed portion with said second metal vapor to provide a contrasting optical effect between said part and the coated fabric.
8. An embossed fabric having embossed raised portions on the surface thereof with a thin luminous metal coating only on part of said raised embossed portions, said coating being substantially absent from one side of the embossed portions while the metal coating on the opposite side is strongly evident.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 856,519 Deeks June 11, 1907 1,470,535 Kolb Oct. 9, 1923 2,121,374 Venner June 21, 1938 2,273,148 Schwartz et a1. Feb. 17, 1942 2,351,536 Osterberg et a1 June 13, 1944 2,622,041 Godley Dec. 12, 1952 2,630,620 Rand Mar. 10, 1953 2,865,787 Risch Dec. 23, 1958
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|U.S. Classification||428/179, 427/404, 428/176, 427/288, 427/250, 427/265|
|International Classification||D06Q1/04, C23C14/04, D06Q1/00, C23C14/22|
|Cooperative Classification||D06Q1/04, C23C14/04, C23C14/225|
|European Classification||C23C14/22D, C23C14/04, D06Q1/04|