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Publication numberUS2912605 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 10, 1959
Filing dateDec 5, 1955
Priority dateDec 5, 1955
Publication numberUS 2912605 A, US 2912605A, US-A-2912605, US2912605 A, US2912605A
InventorsTibbetts George C
Original AssigneeTibbetts Lab Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electromechanical transducer
US 2912605 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 10, 1959 G.c.T|BBr-:1'Ts 2,912,605

' ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCER Filed Dec. 5. 1955 ELECTROh/IECHANICAL TRANSDUCER George C. Tibbetts, Camden, Maine, assignor to Tibbetts This invention relates to electromechanical transducers such as piezoelectric devices having vibrating diaphragms, and more particularly relates to means for controlling or damping the vibration of the diaphragm as a function of frequency.

One type of piezoelectric device, shown in my United States Patent 2,403,692, comprises a plate of piezoelectric material such as Rochelle salt. Arched diaphragms are adhered on opposite sides of the piezoelectric plate covering the plate from edge to edge. As is well known in the art, mechanical vibrations applied through the diaphragm along an edgewise axis of the plate are converted by the plate into electrical variations between electrodes on opposite sides of the plate. Conversely electrical variations may be converted into mechanical variations.

Such a device has many applications, one example being its use as a phonographic pickup wherein the device converts needle vibrations in the audible range into audio frequency voltages. In this and like applications it is usually highly desirable that the device be responsive to all frequencies within the range concerned without excessive variations at particular frequencies within the range. In other applications it may be desirable to merely control the response at various portions of the frequency range.

Thus a principal object of the present invention is to provide means for controlling or modifying the frequency response of the above-described diaphragm actuated device.

According to the invention the piezoelectric device comprises a plate Which expands and contracts along an edgewise axis when subjected to electrostatic forces, a diaphragm extending across one side of the plate from edge to edge, means connecting the diaphragm to the plate at said edges, the diaphragm being arched relative to said axis so that when the plate rapidly expands and contracts along said axis the diaphragm vibrates in response according to the frequency or" plate expansion, and the diaphragm including a damper portion of increased thickness at least partly coextensive with an area of the diaphragm whereby the natural frequency response of the device is modified. As previously explained it may be the diaphragm which vibrates in response to expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric plate or it may be that the plate vibrates in response to vibration of the diaphragm. ln either case the diaphragm naturally tends to set up standing wave patterns of vibration which depend on the frequency, or range of frequencies imposed upon it. Preferably the portion or portions of increased thickness cover areas in which the curvatures or second derivatives of the vibration amplitude, with respect to directions lying in the diaphragm surface, are large comp pared to those in other areas, for a given standing wave the damper portion comprises a portion of plasticized Patented Nov. 10, 1959 organic material attached to the diaphragm, which exes and hence dissipates energy when the diaphragm vibrates.

For the purpose of illustration typical embodiments of the invention are shown in the accompanying drawing in which Fig. l is an isometric view of an assembled piezoelectric device;

Fig. 2 is an isometric View of a diaphragm having one form of damper;

Figs. 3 and 4 are sections on lines 3 3 and 4 4 of Fig. l;

Fig. 5 is an isometric view of a diaphragm having another form of damper;

Fig. 6V is a plan View of an elongate, rectangular diaphragm having still another form of damper;

Fig. 7 is an isometric view of the diaphragm of Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 is a section on line 8 8 of Fig. 6; and

Fig. 9 is a section on line 9 9 of Fig. 6.

As shown in Figs. l to 4 the piezoelectric device comprises a flat slab or plate 1 carrying electrodes 2 of metal foil such as gold and leads 3 connected to the foil and extending beyond the edges of the plate. On opposite sides of the plate 1 diaphragms 4 are attached at their rims or edges 41 along the edges of the plate by an adhesive. As fully set forth in my United States Patent '2,403,692 the diaphragms 4 are arched along the two mechanical axes of the plate 1 which coincide with the section lines 3 3 and 4 4, the diaphragm being outwardly arched along the axis 3 3 and inwardly arched along the axis 4 4.

An undamped diaphragm actuated device as so far described has a tendency to poor frequency response as a result of a natural characteristic which sets up standing waves of the vibration of the diaphragm, having widely changing patterns as the frequency of vibration is changed. Hence the sensitivity at various frequencies within the operating frequency range may be either depressed or exaggerated so that the over-all response of the device throughout the operating frequency range varies considerably. Whereas exaggeration or peaking at certain frequencies is not wholly undesirable, a depression or a tendency to null is highly undesirable and may be eliminated or controlled to the great advantage of the overall response characteristic of the device.

According to the present invention the peaks and depressions in the diaphragm actuated response characteristic may be eliminated or controlled by attaching to the active surface of the diaphragm a damper which effectively dissipates mechanical energy into the form of heat in selected areas of the standing wave pattern or patterns which are to be controlled. As shown in Figs. l to 4 the damper comprises a ring 5 of soft plasticized plastic sheet material such as Viscoloid which is cemented to the inner face of the diaphragm 4. While the ring-shaped damper is shown spaced from the rims or edges 41 of the diaphragm, an enlarged ring abutting the edges may be advantageously used.

As shown in Fig. 5 a modilied damper 51 has a rectangular outline and a circular opening 52. The outer edges of the damper '51 abut the edges 41 of the diaphragm.

In Figs. 6 to 9 is shown an elongate, rectangular diaphragm 42 having edges 43 like the edges 41 of Figs. l to 4. With such an elongate, rectangular diaphragm the character of the standing wave patterns apparently is modified such that it is oftentimes desirable to control standing waves extending lengthwise of .the diaphragm without heavily dam-ping standing waves extending along the width of the diaphragm. For this purpose triangular sheets 54 of Viscoloid are cemented to the diaphragm with their bases abutting the end edges 43 of the diaphragm and their apices directed toward 4the center of the diaphragm.

4quencies is the, greatest.

However it may be desirable 'to employ deliberately the damper portions both as damping means and as mass loading means, the latter for the purpose of depressing in differing degrees the frequency positions of the peaks and depressions in lthe frequency response. For example it has been found advantageous for some designs to employ a damper sheet covering entirely the active surface of the diaphragm, in whichcase the damper serves both to attenuate and to reduce the frequency positions of all peaks and depressions in the natural frequency response of the device.

It should be understood that the present invention is not limited to any one of the embodiments illustrated herein but includes all modifications and equivalents. For example, the damper may be located either inside the diaphragm as shown in Figs. 1 to 8 or outside.

I claim:

1. A piezoelectric device comprising a` plate which expands and contracts along an edgewise axis When subjected to electrostatic forces, a diaphragm extending across one side of the plate from edge to edge, means connecting the diaphragm to the plate at said edges, the diaphragm being arched relative to said axis so that when the plate rapidly expands and contracts along the axis the diaphragm vibrates in response according to the frequency of plate expansion, and a sheet of flexible material fast to the diaphragm throughout at least a part of the vibrating area of the diaphragm intermediate .said edges, thereby to modify the frequency response of 4the device.

2. A piezoelectric device comprising a plate which expands and contracts along `an edgewise axis when subjeeted to electrostatic forces, a diaphragm extending across one side of the device from edge to edge, means connecting the diaphragm -to the plate at said edges, ,the diaphragm being arched in said direction so -that when the plate rapidly expands and contracts along said axis the diaphragm in response vibrates so as naturally to exhibit a standing Wave pattern dependent on the frequency of plate expansion, and a sheet of plastieizedorganic material cemented to the diaphragm throughout `at least a part of the vibrating area of the diaphragm exhibiting said standing wave pattern, thereby to modify the frequency response of the device.

3. A piezoelectric device comprising a plate which V1. expands and contracts along an edgewise axis when subjected `to electrostatic forces, a diaphragm extending across one side of the device from edge to edge, means connecting the diaphragm to the plate at said edges, the diaphragm being arched in said direction so that when the plate rapidly expands and contracts along said axis the diaphragm in response vibrates so as naturally to exhibit a standing wave pattern dependent on the frequency of plate expansion, and a sheet of flexible material fast to the diaphragm throughout at least a part of the vibrating area of the diaphragm exhibiting said standing Wave pattern, ythereby to modifiy the natural frequency response of the device. Y

4. A piezoelectric device according to claim 1 characterized in that said diaphragm portion comprises a damper of soft, plasticized plastic adhered to said diaphragm.

5. A piezoelectric device according lto claim 1 characterized in that said damping portion forms a circular Opening at the central portion of the diaphragm.

6. A piezoelectric device comprising a plate which expands and contracts along an edgewise axis when subjected to electrostatic forces, ansquare diaphragm extending across one side of the Adevice from edge Ito edge,

means connecting the diaphragm to the plate at said edges, ythe diaphragm being arched in said direction so that when the plate rapidly expands and contracts along said axis the diaphragm in response vibrates so as naturally to exhibit a standing wave pattern dependent on the frequency of plate expansion, and a damper of soft plasti- 'cized sheet plastic having a circular opening therethrough and adhered with its outer edges abutting said diaphragm connecting means and with said circular opening substantially concentric with the center of the diaphragm, thereby to modify lthe natural frequency response of the device.

7. A piezoelectric device -according to claim 1 characterized in that said plate and diaphragm are of elongate rectangular shape and said damping portions are of triangular shape with their apices directed away from the narrow ends of the diaphragm toward the center of the diaphragm.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,270,167 Meissner lan. 13, 1942 2,386,279 Tibbetts Oct. 9, 1945 2,403,692 Tibbetts July 9, 1946 2,477,596 Gravley Aug. 2, 1949 2,487,962 Arndt Nov. 15, 1949 2,607,858 Mason Aug. 19, 1952 2,810,082 Tibbetts Oct. 15, 1957

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2270167 *Apr 20, 1939Jan 13, 1942Gen ElectricSound device with piezoelectric double plates
US2386279 *Jul 21, 1942Oct 9, 1945Tibbetts Raymond WPiezoelectric device
US2403692 *Dec 29, 1944Jul 9, 1946George C TibbettsPiezoelectric device
US2477596 *Aug 29, 1947Aug 2, 1949Brush Dev CoElectromechanical transducer device
US2487962 *Aug 29, 1947Nov 15, 1949Brush Dev CoElectromechanical transducer
US2607858 *Jun 19, 1948Aug 19, 1952Bell Telephone Labor IncElectromechanical transducer
US2810082 *Oct 29, 1954Oct 15, 1957Tibbetts Lab IncTransducer damping
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3173035 *Oct 17, 1960Mar 9, 1965Midland Mfg Company Division OMiniaturized piezoelectric crystal device
US3339091 *May 25, 1964Aug 29, 1967Hewlett Packard CoCrystal resonators
US3359435 *May 4, 1965Dec 19, 1967James E WebbHolder for crystal resonators
US3366748 *Sep 22, 1964Jan 30, 1968Artnell CompanyLoudspeaker diaphragm and driver
US3396287 *Sep 29, 1965Aug 6, 1968Piezo Technology IncCrystal structures and method of fabricating them
US3453458 *Apr 19, 1965Jul 1, 1969Clevite CorpResonator supporting structure
US3697790 *Dec 2, 1970Oct 10, 1972Tibbetts George CTransducers having piezoelectric struts
US3777192 *Mar 20, 1972Dec 4, 1973Dynamics Corp Massa DivA method for adjusting the resonant frequency and motional electrical impedance of a vibrating diaphragm electroacoustic transducer
US3846650 *Oct 8, 1970Nov 5, 1974Dynamics Corp Massa DivElectroacoustic transducer of the vibratile diaphragm type with controlled uniformity of performance characteristics and method for controlling uniformity
US4949316 *Sep 12, 1989Aug 14, 1990Atlantic Richfield CompanyAcoustic logging tool transducers
US4969197 *Feb 21, 1989Nov 6, 1990Murata ManufacturingPiezoelectric speaker
US5276657 *Feb 12, 1992Jan 4, 1994The Pennsylvania Research CorporationMetal-electroactive ceramic composite actuators
US5839178 *Feb 4, 1997Nov 24, 1998Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Method of making a energy-trapped type piezoelectric resonator
US7130436 *Sep 8, 2000Oct 31, 2006Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaHelmet with built-in speaker system and speaker system for helmet
EP0075302A1 *Sep 18, 1982Mar 30, 1983Egon GelhardSensor for measuring distances using ultrasonic echos
Classifications
U.S. Classification310/326, 257/417, 367/162, 381/190, 367/163, 310/333
International ClassificationG10K9/00, G10K9/122
Cooperative ClassificationG10K9/122
European ClassificationG10K9/122