US 2912753 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. '17, 1959 R. s. HENRY 7 2,912,753
AIR-OPERATED RAZOR Filed March 12, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
205527 6. HE 'QY 4 a/e/veY Nov. 17, 1959 R. s. HENRY AIR- OPERATED RAZOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 12, 1956 INVENTOR. 05527 5. f/E/VQY 0m A7702 IVEYS United States Patent fiice AIR-OPERATED RAZOR 7 Robert S. Henry, New Hartford, N.Y.
Application March 12, 1956, Serial No. 570,815
' 3 Claims. 01. 30-43 This invention relates to hair cutting devices, and more particularly to a mechanical razor which is operated by a vacuum.
An object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved vacuum-operated razor which is simple in construction, which is safe to use, and which employs a novel, highly eflicient Cutting action. This application is a continuation-in-part of my prior application Serial No. 505,744 filed May 3, 1955, now abandoned.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved vacuum-operated razor which involves inexpensive components, which is durable in construction, which is self-sharpening, and which is smooth in operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved razor utilizing a novel principle wherein the straight edge of a transverse slot, a partial vacuum in said slot, and a rotary cutter are employed'in cooperation with each other, the shavers skin forming a 'seal by contact with the perimeter of the slot, and the partial vacuum causing the skin to expand and fill the slot; since the transverse distance between the edges of the slot is less than the width of the skin drawn into the slot, the skin is stretched taut at the cutting point, providing a considerably more efficient cutting action than has been heretofore obtainable.
A further object is to provide a new method of shaving wherein a predetermined datum or reference means is used in place of the human body as the reference, from which the cutting is accomplished.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved vacuum-operated razor which provides close shaving action without discomfort or injury to the user, which requires a minimum amount of servicing, and which may be operated either by an electrically driven vacuum blower 'or by a vacuum blower driven by any other suitable means, such as by-h'ydraulic means.
A still further object of'the invention is to provide an I improved power driven suction blower adapted to be 'liead constructed inaccor'dance with the present inven- Figure 2 is a transverse vertical cross sectional view taken on the line 2 2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an enlarged. cross sectional detail view taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 2.
Figure 3(a) is a cross sectional view similar to Figure-3 of another form of blade.
Figure 4 is a transverse vertical cross sectional view taken on the line 4- -4 of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is an enlarged transverse vertical cross sec tional view taken through the casing of the razor head of 2 Figures 1 to 4 and showing the. configuration of the longitudinal slot in the casing, .whereby the surfaces of the slot define an outwardly concave trough-like recess of substantial depth in which the users skin is held during the use of the razor;
Figure 6 is an elevational view, partly in vertical cross section, ofthe shaft of the varied rotor employed in the vacuum-operated razor of Figures 1. to5.
Figure 7 is an elevational view showing the manner in which the razor head is connected to an electrically operated suction blower, said suction blower being in turn detachably secured to a support by suction cups on the suction blower.
Figure 8 is an enlarged front elevational view, partly in vertical cross section, of the electrically driven Fsuction blower of Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a transversevertical cross sectional view taken on the line 9 9 of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is an elevational view, partly in cross section, of a hydraulically driven suction blower suitable for use with the vacuum operated razor in place of the electrically driven suction blower of Figures 8 and 9, said view being taken on the-line 10--10 of Figure 11.
Figure 11 is a transverse vertical cross sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of Figure .10.
Figure 12 is a fragmentary cross sectional detaillview showing an alternative structure which may be employed to secure the end of the 'shaft of the varied rotor of the razor to the end wall of the razor casing.
Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to Figures 1 to 7 and 12, 11 generally designates a vacuum-operated razor assembly constructed in accordance with the present invention, said assembly comprising the razor head 12, the vacuum 'conduit 13, and the vacuum blower 14, the conduit 13 being fiex'ible and being arranged to connect the head 12 to the air intake port-.of the vacuum blower 14. The vacuum blower 14 "may be ,oper.- ated either electrically, or hydraulically, as will be presently described, and is provided with a plurality of suction cups 15, 15, whereby the vacuum blower, may be releasably secured to its support during the operation of the razor. Thus, where a vacuum blower? of-the "elec trically operated type, asshown in Figures-8 and;9, is employed, the suction cups 15, 15 ,may'be located on opposite sides of electrical prongs 16,. 16wh'ich' project from the face of the blower and which are'engageable in a suitable electrical receptacle, the cups 15, 15 en- .fgaging the face plate of the receptacle to, secure the blower thereto. In the case of the hydraulically driven vacuum blower of Figures '10 and 11, the suction cups 15, 15 are arranged to secure the blower to the surface of a sink so that the blower will be supported in a proper position to be supplied with water for operating the blower.
The razor head comprises the generally cylindrical casing 17 which tapers slightly in diameter from-the end wall 18 thereof to the smaller end wall 19 thereof, whereby the inner wall surface of the casing likewise tapers in diameter from end wall 18 to end wall 19 and the sleeve 27 having vanes 31 mounted thereon, which together form a rotor element within the casing '17-.
,De'signated at 20 is an axial shaft which is provided with the enlarged opposite end portions 21 and 22, the opposite end portions 21 and 22 being eccentrieally secured to the respective end walls 19 and 18by respective fastener elements '23 and 24. The fastener elements 23 and '24 may comprise screws, such a-sshown in Figure 4, which are threadedly engaged in the. ends of the shaft 20 and which thus rigidly secure the shaft between the end walls 19 and 1 '8. Alternatively, they fastening elements may comprise integral rivet portions, such as the rivet portions 24' shown in Figure 12, which extend Patented Nov. 17, 1959 through central apertures in the end walls of the casing and which may be upset or otherwise suitably deformed to define retaining heads, shown in dotted view at 25 in Figure 12, whereby the shaft is securely fastened to the end walls of the casing. As shown in Figure 12, the deformable rivet portions 24 are provided with suitable end recesses 26 to facilitate the deformation of the rivet portions to the final configurations thereof shown at Designated at 27 is a cylindrical sleeve member which has secured in its opposite end portions the respective bearing bushing elements 28 which rotatably engage and are supported on the respective enlarged end portions 21 and 22 of the shaft 20.
Mounted on sleeve 27 are a plurality of cutting blades or vanes 31 which form therewith a rotating element or rotor within head casing 17. Vanes 31 extend outwardly "and substantially tangentially from sleeve 27 (see Figure 4) and have generally the corrugated cross section shown in Figure 3. This configuration facilitates the turbine-like rotation as will be described herein and also provides a shearing action at the cutting edges 32. in co operation with the slot 34. Alternatively it is sometimes advantageous to make the blade or vane segments helical in cross section to facilitate the turbine fiow of air. Figure 3(a) shows this configuration. With either blade configuration a shearing action is obtained across the cutting slot 34 in casing 17 which facilitates the cutting of the whiskers.
Slot 34 extends longitudinally across the head casing 17 to form the datum line or cutting reference line for the shearing of the whiskers from the face. Unlike other shaving methods which rely on the variable human skull as a reference againt which the cutting blade is moved I provide a fixed and constant shearing support regardless of the portion of the face being shaved. Slot 34 includes specially designed opposing lip elements 35, 35 at its longitudinal edges, said lip elements having convergent outer longitudinal wall surfaces 36, 36 defining an outwardly concave, trough-like recess of substantial depth leading to the interior of the casing. As will be understood, one of the longitudinal edges of this slot 34 is slidably engaged by the cutting edges 32 of the vanes or blades 31.
As will be apparent from Figure 5, the trough-like recess defined between the surfaces 36, 36 is shaped so that users skin may be comfortably drawn thereinto and may be held closely adjacent to the slot 34 so that the users whiskers may be accurately and cleanly severed from the skin without injury to the operator. Thus, in a typical embodiment of the invention, the over-all transverse width of the trought-like recess defined by surfaces 36, 36 is approximately .164 in., and the radius of the transverse cross section of the recess is approximately .094 in., the width of the slot 34 being .054 in., as illustrated in Figure 5.
Formed at the intermediate portion of the casing 17 is the suction conduit housing 38, said housing being of generally spiral shape, as shown in Figure 2, and being provided with the cylindrical conduit portion 39 formed with the tapered end 40 to which is connected the flexible conduit 13. The portion of the wall of casing 17 enclosed by the spiral conduit housing 38 is formed with a plurality of air outlet apertures 41 establishing communication between the vacuum conduit 13 and the interior of the casing 17. The casing 17 is formed at its opposite end portions with air inlet apertures 42, the apertures 42 being suitably staggered with respect to the apertures 41 so that air entering the casing at the opposite ends thereof through the apertures 42 will provide an impeller reaction on the vanes 31 to produce rotation of said vanes. Thus, the suction produced in the flexible hose 13 causes air to be forced into the end apertures 42 of the casing at high velocity and to react with the vanes 31, producing rotation of said vanes at a sufficient speed to provide the desired cutting action. The air leaves the casing 17 through the apertures 41 thereof and passes into the conduit housing 38, and thence to the vacuum conduit 13.
The apertures 41 and 42 are advantageously spaced at intervals of approximately 72 degrees. This helps ensure that the razor will start when suction is applied. Also it should be noted that apertures 42 may take the form of miniature nozzles which give directivity to the air entering therethrough to facilitate the turbine-like operation of the rotor. The air entering apertures 42 impinges upon the canted end portions of the blades 31 and is directed toward the center of the head 17 in the well known turbine manner. This imparts a rotary push to the rotor and the air then exists through the next adjacent apertures 41 into the suction housing 33.
This configuration permits a very high speed operation, for instance in the neighborhood of 10,000 revolutions per minute, in a highly eflicient manner. The inrushing air tends to cool the razor head which facilitates shaving particularly in hot weather and also permits rapid, essentially frictionless rotation.
Secured to the ends of sleeve 27 are a pair of sizing disc members 29 and 30, the disc member 29 being slightly smaller than the disc member 30 in accordance with the tapered shape of the interior of casing 17. ,It will be noted that a clearance 43 is provided between a small disc element 29 and the end wall 19 of the casing 17 and that apertures 44 and 45 are provided in end wall 18 and disc 29 respectively whereby the rotor may be urged toward the smaller end of the casing by atmospheric air pressure acting on the larger rotor end disc 30. The aperture 45 prevents the building up of any pressure between the smaller disc 29 and the end wall 1? that would oppose the unbalance of pressure obtained on the rotor disc 30 by the provision of aperture 44. Thus a sufficient unbalance of pressure is obtained to continuously urge the rotor toward the smaller end of the casing, automatically compensating for wear on the cutting edges 32 of the blades 31 and providing a self-sharpening action for said cutting edges.
It will be understood that the bearing elements 28 of sleeve 27 are slidably as well as rotatably mounted on enlarged shaft portions 21 and 22 whereby the rotor may be free to move longitudinally toward the smaller end of the casing under the unbalance of pressure produced at the larger disc 30 by the provision of the aperture 44 in the end wall 18 of the casing.
It will be apparent that in using the device, the shaver holds the trough-like receptacle defined by the surfaces 36, 36 in contact with the portion of the skin to be shaped, however unlike in other methods of shaving, no pressure against the face is required nor does the skin of the face have to be drawn tight over the bone structure of the head to permit close, clean shaving of the whiskers. On the contrary, the vacuum within the shaving head 17 draws the skin into the trough of the slot 34 until it is stretched taut so that the whiskers extend outwardly therefrom and can be engaged between the blades 31 and the edge of the slot 24 very closely adjacent the shavers skin. It should be understood that the dimension of the slot 34 and the lip elements 35 are chosen such that the skin is stretched approximately ten percent from its normal position. It will also be noted that the contour of the slot 34 and lip elements 35 is such that the skin is held firmly thereacross in substantially a tangential manner so that the whiskers may be removed without injury to the shavers skin.
Thus a uniform close shave will be obtained on all portions of the face regardless of whether or not there is solid bone structure therebeneath to form a smooth shaving support. This results in a faster, smoother and more comfortable shave all in a manner heretofore unknown.
Referring now to Figures 8 and 9, 14 generally designates an electrically driven blower comprising a cylindriest housing 46- formed with me central intake conduit 47 Which is adapted to be connected to the flexible conduit 13. As shown in Figure 9, the eiid wan 48 of the housing 46 is generally conical in shape, flaring. outwardly and defining anoutwardly flaring space" 50 between the end wall 48 and the flat transverse wall 51 of arotor chamber 52 secured in the housing 46. Designated at 53 is a rotor which is axially journaled in the chamber 52, being rotatably supported on an axial shaft element 54 secured in said chamber 52. The rotor 53 includes an electrical armature portion 55 which is in cooperative relationship with an electrical fieldportion 56, the field portion 56 being electrically connected to the-contact prongs 16, whereby said field port-ion may be energized by inserting the contact prongs in the receptacle apertures of a conventional elect-rica-l socket, the motor action thusdeveloped causing rotation ofrotor 53.
As shown in Figures 8 and 9, the inner blower chamber 52 has secured therein the respective segment plates 57 which are secured to the peripheral wall of the housing 46 parallel to the axis of said housing to define portions of varying radius in the housing, the rotor 53 having slidably secured thereto a plurality of flat vane elements 58, said vane elements being slidably retained in grooves 75. The grooves 75 define guideways for the vanes 58 extending in planes normal to respective radii of the rotor 53, whereby the vanes 58 are urged outwardly by centrifugal force responsive to the rotation of therotor 53. The outer edges of said vanes are thus slidably engaged with the inside surface of the periphery of the chamber 52 and also slidably engage the plates 57 to produce reciprocation of the vanes 53 responsive to the rotation of the rotor 53.
The plates 57 define spaces 59 which communicate with spaces 60 between adjacent plates 58 by apertures 61 formed in the plates 57. The spaces 60 communicate with the outer end portions of the space 50 by apertures 63, as shown in Figure 8, whereby air may be sucked into the spaces 60 through the apertures 63 responsive to counterclockwise rotation of the plates 58, as viewed in Figure 8. Apertures 61 in the plates 57 are normally covered by pressure-responsive, normally closed resilient flap valves 65 secured on the plates 57 in the spaces 59. It will be understood that as the vanes 58 pass along the plates 57, pressure is built up ahead of said vanes, and
' the pressure rises sulficiently to open the valves 65, allowing the air thus compressed to be discharged into the spaces 59.
The inside wall 66 of the chamber 52 is formed with apertures 67 allowing the air from spaces 59 to discharge into a bristle collection space 69 in housing 46 and to pass through an annular screen 70 to an air outlet passage 71 provided in the wall of the housing 46, as shown in Figure 9.
The housing 46 is preferably made in the form of segments including the detachable segment 72, which may be removed to provide access to the collection space 69 and to the screen 70 so that said collection space and screen may be cleaned out whenever necessary.
Referring now to Figures and -11, 14' designates a hydraulically operated suction blower which may be employed in place of the electrically operated suction blower 14. The blower 14 is generally similar in construction to the electrically operated blower 14 except that in place of the armature element 55 and field 53 of the electrically operated blower, a water injection nozzle 56 is secured in the blower housing extending tangentially with respect to a plurality of reaction cups 55 secured to the periphery of a disc 57 co axially secured to the rotor 53. As shown in Figure 10, the water injection nozzle 56' enters through the top of the blower housing and is directed so that the jet therefrom impinges on the cups 55, producing rotation of the rotor 53. The blower housing is formed at its bottom portion with a downwardly extending discharge spout 58"whieh allows the spent water to dischargeiro'rnv the housing into the sink in which the device is mounted. Aspreviou'sly explained, suction cups 15am provided on either. of the two types of blowers above described to' detachably secure the blowers in proper position. for operation thereof; In the case of the hydraulically operated blower of Figures 10 and 11, the nozzle 56' is connected by a suitable conduit to a source of water, such as the household water supply, wherebywater under pressure will be available to' drive the rotor 531- of the hydraulically operated blower 14.
It will be noted that in the hydraulically operated blower of Figures 10 and 11', an exhust passage, shown at 69' receives the air and the bristles carried thereby from the discharge apertures 67 of the spaces 59 and that the air and bristles are conveyed through thedischarge passage 69', along with the spent water, directly to the discharge spout 58', wherehy'the bristles are flushed outof the blower and whereby no cleaning of the inter ior of the blower is required.
While certain specific embodiments of an improved vacuum-operated razor have been disclosed in the foregoing description, it will be understood that various modifications within the spirit of the invention may occur to those skilled in the art. Therefore it is intended that no limitations be placed on the invention except as defined by the scope of the appended claims.
1. A vacuum operaed razor comprising in combination a generally airtight cylindrical casing having one end slightly larger in diameter than the other, a generally cylindrical roto-r member having one end slightly larger in diameter than the other and a length less than said casing, a circular end wall of a diameter smaller than but corresponding to the respective casing end wall mounted on each end of said rotor member, bearing mem bers journaling said rotor in said casing for rotary and axial movement of said rotor member in said casing, a plurality of radial vanes mounted generally tangentially on said rotor member, said vanes having a somewhat corrugated cross-section, a longitudinal slot of concave cross-section provided in said casing, one edge of said slot being cooperatively associated with said vanes to shear off hairs extending into said slot, an aperture in the larger diameter end wall of said casing, air-inlet openings adjacent each end of the cylindrical wall portion of said casing but spaced inwardly a distance suifi cient to open into said casing between the end wall members of said rotor member, and vaccum means connected to said casing adjacent the mid-point thereof.
2. An air-operated razor of the rotary turbine type comprising in combination a generally airtight cylindrical outer casing, one end of said casing having a larger diameter than the other, a longitudinal slot having a length less than the length of said casing provided therein, a small aperture in the larger diameter end wall of said casing, a rotor member having a length less than said casing journaled in said casing for rotary and longitudinal movement therein, said rotor member comprising a sleeve and a plurality of cutting blades extending in a generally radial manner from said sleeve into engagement with the inner surface of said longitudinal slot to cut hairs extending therethrough, a circular end plate mounted on each end of said rotor member, one of said end plates being of smaller diameter than the other and both being of smaller diameter than the corresponding end of said casing, a plurality of small inlet openings provided in the cylindrical wall portion of said casing at spaced intervals about the circumference thereof on each side of the center of said casing, a plurality of exhaust apertures provided in said casing adjacent the center thereof and offset from the line of said inlet openings, said cutting blades when stationary extending from adjacent said inlet openings toward said exhaust apertures to direct the inrushing air thereto, and suction means connected to said plurality of exhaust apertures in said casing whereby the skin to be shaved is drawn partially into said slot to a stretched condition and said rotor is rotated even when said slot is sealed by the skin to be shaved.
3. An air-operated razor of the rotary turbine type comprising in combination a generally airtight cylindrical outer casing, a longitudinal opening having a length less than the length of said casing provided therein, a rotor member having a. length less than said casing journaled in said casing for rotary movement therein comprising a sleeve and a plurality of cutting blades extending in a generally radial manner therefrom into engagement with at least a portion of the inner surface of said outer casing, means urging said blades into contact with said portion of the inner surface of said casing to compensate for wear thereof, a plurality of spaced small air inlet openings provided in the cylindrical wall portion of said casing toward the ends thereof, a plurality of exhaust apertures provided in said casing adjacent the center thereof, said cutting blades When stationary extending angularly from adjacent said inlet openings to- Ward said exhaust apertures and suction means connected to said plurality of exhaust apertures in said casing whereby the skin to be shaved is drawn partially into said slot to a stretched condition and said rotor is rotated even when said slot is sealed by the skin to be shaved.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,251,925 Scheithe Jan. 1, 1918 1,262,536 Martin Apr. 9, 1918 1,730,889 Haberecht Oct. 8, 1929 2,183,442 Blackwell Dec. 12, 1939 2,233,349 Lightfoot et a1. Feb. 25, 1941 2,238,148 Zahn Apr. 15, 1941 2,239,279 Tremolada Apr. 22, 1941 2,362,666 Sarver Nov. 14, 1944 2,638,310 Merriman May 12, 1952