US 2913407 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2,913,401 7 TEXTILE LUBRICANTS Knapel F. Schiermeier, Alton, Ill., assignor to Shell Development Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application July 29, 1957 Serial No. 674,557
Claims. (c1. zsz-snj 'positions, for use in processing nylon fibers, which are stable, non-corrosive, prevent staining and size build-up,
and which possess good scourability properties.
nited Stats atent It is. common practice in the art to use as textiler';
lubricants for natural fibers such as wool, cotton, silk and the like as well as some synthetics such as rayons or cellulose nitrates, mineral oils containing small amounts of soaps or sulfonates or mixtures of soaps andfats, fatty acids and esters thereof or esters of polyhydric alcohols and long-chain fatty acids and alkylene oxide derivatives thereof and the like. Such textile lubricants are generally suitable for processing fibers of the above types. However, they have been found to be poorfor processing nylon fibers due to their tendency to cause staining, size build-up and their poor scourability properties. Also, such lubricants tend to form gummy deposits on machinery surfaces, and cause corrosion particularly of non-ferrous metals such as brass and copper.
It is a principal object of this invention to prepare an inexpensive and improved textile lubricant particu-v ricinoleic acids.
any of the above alcohols include saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of from 12 to 18 carbon atoms,
such as lauric, myristic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and These partial esters are preferably used in an amount of from 1 to 2.5% by weight.
Specific esters derived from simple alkanepolyols and long chain fatty acids include glycerol monooleate, glycerol monostearate, glycerol monoricinoleate, pentaerythritol monoand dilaurate, pentaetrythritol monoand dioleate, pentaerythritol monoand distearate, mono-, di-, and triethylene glycol monooleate, propylene glycol monoricinoleate, ethylene glycol monooleate, triethylene glycol monostearate, sorbitol monolaurate, mannitol monooleate, mannitol dioleate, sorbitol dioleate, etc,
The third essential additive is a material which is a blend or mixture of an ester of a monohydric aliphatic alcohol of from 2 to 8 carbon atoms and a fatty acid of from 1 to 5 carbon atoms and an alcohol including the normal and branched-chain alcohols having from 2 to 8 carbon atoms such as ethyl, propyl, butyl, amyl, hexyl, octyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, isoamyl or iso-octyl alcohols. The acids used to make the esters include fatty acids of from.1. to 5 carbon atoms such as formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric or valeric acids. Specific examples of esters of this class include, propyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, butyl proprionate, isobutyl acetate, amyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, amyl butyrate, amyl valerate, and the like. Specific examples of the esteralcohol mixture in amount indicated above include isopropyl acetate-isopropyl alcohol, butyl acetate-butyl alcohol, isobutyl acetate-isobutyl alcohol, amyl acetate-amyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate-isoamyl alcohol and mixtures The fourth essential additive is an oil-soluble alkyl phenol e.g. diand trialkyl phenols, for instance 2,4-,
7 2,35 2,6- and 3,5-diamyl or dihexyl phenol, 2,4-dimethyllarly applicable for processing of'synthetic fibers such as nylon. Another object of this invention is to prepare a stable, non-corrosive nylon textile mineral oil base which possesses good scourability.
1 -It has now been discovered that an excellent textile lubricant, particularly suitable for processingnylon, is
iprovided by a highly refined light mineral oil containing an additive combination, in critical amounts, of from,
about 0.25% to about 3%, preferably from about 0.5% to 2,5%, each of (1) an oil-soluble alkali metal (e.g.
- Na or K) petroleum sulfonate, (2 a partial ester derived from simple alkanepolyols and fatty acids of at least 12, preferably 14-18 carbon atoms, (3) a mixture of (a) from 60% to 90% of an ester of a monohydric aliphatic alcohol of from 3 to 8 carbon atoms and a fatty acid of from 1 to 5 carbon atoms and (b)'from 10%. to 30% of afree alcoholof the same class and (4) an oil-soluble alkyl phenol.
5' lubricant which is resistant to size build-up, staining and The oil-soluble alkali metal petroleum sulfonates are well known' in the art and are prepared by reacting a mineral oil with concentrated or fuming sulfuric acid to form oil-solublesulfonic-acids which are then recovered 'by treatment with analkali metal base such as sodium #hydroxide followed; byxextraction. These oil soluble soaps are available as 30% to 70% concentrates .in mineral oil and are used preferably in an amount of 0.5 to 1.5% by weight.
The second essential additive is a partial ester of a simple alkanepolyol and a C1248 saturated or unsaturated fatty acid. The alkanepolyols include alkylene glycols e.g. ethylene or propylene glycol, glycerol, erythritol, pentaerythritol, sorbitol, mannitol and the like. The acids which can be used to make the partial esters from o-tert-butyl phenol, 2,6 ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and mixtures thereof. These alkylphenols are preferably employed in an amount of 0.25 to 0.5% by weight.
The liquid mineral oil is a light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction in the viscosity range of from about 40 to about 200 SUS at F., preferably from about 60 to about SUS at 100 F. Petroleum fractions of this type can bederived from any type of crude such as asphaltic, naphthenic or paralfinic type crudes. It is preferred to use a refined light lubricating oil such as a selective solvent-refined'raffinate having a viscosity of 100 SUS at 100 F.
The following examples illustrate compositions ofthis V invention. The mineral oil in such example was a, raffinateobtained by a phenol extraction, using West T exa Ellenburger base stock. I i
Mineral oil (100 SUS at 100 F.) Balance EXAMPLE III Percent weight Sodium petroleum sulfonate (oil-soluble) 0.5 Pentaerythritol monooleate 2.25
Mixture of isomeric amyl acetates and amyl alcohols (ester content 85%) 1.50 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol 0.5 Mineral oil (100 SUS at 100 F.) Balance EXAMPLE 1V Percent weight Sodium petroleum sulfonate (oil-soluble) 0.25 Glycerol monoolea 1.2 Amyl acetate-amyl alcohol mixture (85% esters) 0.75
Compositions of the present invention were compared with a number of textile oils including a commercial textile oil (Composition A) for stability (Dornte oxidation test and storage stability), corrosion toward brass and copper at 212 F., scourability, size build-up and staining while processing nylon and the results are shown in Table I.
4 to 8 carbon atoms portion (a) being 60-90% and portion (b) being 10-30% of mixture (3) and (4) an alkyl phenol.
2. A textile lubricating composition for knitting of nylon fibers, consisting essentially of a major amount of mineral oil containing from about 0.25% to about 3% each of (1) oil-soluble sodium petroleum sulfonate, (2) a partial ester of glycerol and a fatty acid having from 12 to 18 carbon atoms, (3) a mixture of (a) esters of an amyl alcohol and a fatty acid having from 1 to, 5 carbon atoms and (b) amyl alcohols the ester portion of the mixture being 60-90% and the alcohol portion of the mixture being 10-30% and a polyalkyl phenol.
3. A textile lubricating composition for knitting of nylon fibers, consisting essentially of a major amount of mineral oil containing from about 0.25% to about 3% each of (1) oil-soluble sodium petroleum sulfonate, (2) glycerol monooleate, (3) mixture of amyl acetates and. amyl alcohols the ester portion of the mixture being 60- 90% and the alcohol portion of the mixture being 10- and (4) 2,6 ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol.
4. A textile lubricating composition for knitting of nylon fibers, consisting essentially of a major amount of mineral oil containing from about 0.25% to about 3% each of (1) oil-soluble potassium petroleum sulfonate, (2) glycerol monooleate, (3) mixture of amyl acetates and amyl alcohols the ester portion of the mixture being 60-90% and the alcohol portion of the mixture being 10-30% and (4) 2,6 ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol.
Table I Dornte Siz e On and Composition Oxidation Storage Stability Scoura- Staining of Build Brass (250 F., (Room Temp.) bility fiber Up Corromin.) sion Example I 1, 680 1 month (excellent) Exeellenh None (nylon) None... None. Composition A 1 480 -do oor Heavy Heavy Heavy. Composition B a 275 1 month (rancid) l do do..-" do Do. Composition 0 3 1,000 1 month (good) do Medium.. do. None.
1 Composition A-eommereial textile oil comprising a mineral oil containing a soap, fatty oil, fatty acid and a sulfonated vegetable oil.
3 Composition B-mineral oil containing 10% lard oil.
3 Composition C-inineral oil containing 0.5% Na petroleum sulfonate+2% glycerol monooleate.
Compositions of Examples II to V when subjected to 5 5. A nylon textile lubricating composition having the the above tests gave comparable results to the composition of Example I. 7
Example I was used as a needle oil in a mill machine making nylon seamless hose. The machine was in excellent condition and no size build-up occurred after months of operation. However, when an oil composition D (mineral oil+0.5% Na petroleum s'ulfonate +2.25% glycerol monooleate+0.5% 2,6 ditert-butyl-4- methyl phenol) similar to Example I was used as a needle oil, but from which the amyl acetate-amyl alcohol mixture was omitted considerable staining and size buildup occurred and the operations had to be stopped after a few days.
I claim as my invention:
1. A textile lubricating composition consisting essentially of a major amount of mineral oil containing from about 0.25% toabout 3% each of 1) an oil-soluble alkali metal petroleum sulfonate, (2) a partial ester of a simple alkanepolyol and a fatty acid having from 12 to 18 carbon atoms, (3) a mixture of (a) an ester of a monohydric aliphatic alcohol having from 2 to 8 carbon atoms and a fatty acid having from 1 to 5 carbon. atoms and (b) a monohydric aliphatic alcohol having from 2 formula by weight:
' Percent Oil-soluble sodium petroleum sulfonate 0.5 Glycerol monon 2.25
Mixture of isomeric amyl acetates and amyl alcohols (15%) 1.50 2,6 ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol 0.5 Mineral nil Balance References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,575,382 Duke et al. 'Nov. 20, 1951 2,644,766 Levine July 7, 1953 2,730,464 Winsor Jan. 10, 1956 2,807,864 Head Oct. 1, 1957 2,810,694 McLean Oct. 22, 1957 OTHER REFERENCES Phenolic Antioxidants for Parafilnic' Materials, article by Morawetz, Ind. Eng. Chem., July '1949, pp. 1442-46. 1