US 2914815 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
De- 1, 1959 v. c. ALEXANDER 2,9145'815 INTERLOCKED FLOORING AND METHOD Filed Aug. 17, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORS VfkA/A 600K Amma/V051J QuNfGaL' ATTORNEYS Dec- 1, 1959 1 v. c. ALEXANDER 2,914,815 I INTERLOCKED FLOORING AND METHOD Filed Aug. 17, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 El g- 7 zo l l I 2lb IOGZ l im, M1061 my', |02 al 0^ 10%,( 2"
f ZIT 7 X u- 2?/ INVENTOR.- a\\\\\llwvwwvmm Cook ALEXANf/v l. BY nm v w ET gw-8 27 ATTORNEYS Dec. 1, 1959 v. c. ALEXANDER INTERLOCKED FLOORING AND METHOD 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 17, 1955 6 m 1 m P V/ m M A NAW/mm .2 W WA w l A y mf/ A K n m A m MUA/m Q A 6 N R WHI W., W
ATTORNEYS Dec. 1, 1959 v. C. ALEXANDER 2,914,815 I INTERLOCKED FLOORING AND METHOD Filed Aug. 17, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEYS United States Pat@ 2,914,815 nsrERLocKnD rLooRmG Mnrnon `vel-im cook Alexander', not spring, Ark. ApplicationzAugusf 17, 1955, serial No. 528,903
z` claims. (ci. nfs) pieceof material and a basemember secured to the block v at the factory,l and which `units may =be subsequently unitedin a nished flooring in 'an efficient manner with,
a minimum ofclort.
It' is another object of this invention to provide a licoring ofthe type described which may. be Prefabricated into panels of any desired size and shape at the factory' to facilitatethe subsequent laying of theiinished oor.
It is `another object of this invention to provide a floofringinade` up of individual units each comprising a block anda base member secured to the block wherein the base member may be of a sufficient thickness to constitute a built in sub-floor, and each of 'said units` being formed in lsuch a configuration that they may interlock with adjoining units to forman integral iioor.
`It'is'still'another object of this invention to provide a ilooringtmade up of individual units leach comprising a block and a base member wherein each of said units are adapted to interlock with adjacent units to form an integ'ral floor, and wherein the base members of said units are formed from a stable material so as to minimize swelling or shrinkage after the iloor has been laid. Any tendency of the iinished iloor to swell or shrink willV result in the entire floor moving as a unit rather than opening upin spots as frequently occurs in flooring heretofore 1n use. i
It` will be readily recognized by those skilled in the art that it is extremely important that all corners of the blocks of ooring be firmly tied down. Otherwise, sandingl of the floor may result in one of the cornersv of a block popping up with the result that the mastic in which 'the' floor is laidtbegins to bleed through the iloor. There is no satisfactory remedy for this occurrence and when the mastic begins to bleed through the floor the entire Hoor should be taken up. It is, accordingly, an object of this invention to provide a flooring of the type described wherein the units are interlocked in such a manner that all of the corners of the block of each unit are securely tied down to either the base member of its respective unit or tothe base vmembers of adjacent units.
Although the unitsof the present invention are described herein and throughout the specification as being adapted for a oor, it is to be understood that the invention is also adapted for use inl furniture, counters, wall paneling, or any similar product wherein it, is desired to integratey a plurality of units in interlocking fashion. Also, in addition to the Wood, the unitsmay be formed from any othery suitable material such as asphalt4 tile, vinyl, cork or berboard.
Aiiiatentecl Dec. 1, 1959 l stated,t other objects will appear as the description proceeds, when taken in connection with` the accompanying drawings, in which:A v
Figure l is a fragmentary top plan view of aroom showing a panel of flooring, constructed in accordance with one form of the invention and laid on a concrete slab, and showing the walls of the room in section;
FigureV 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken substantially along the line 2 2 in Figure l;
FigureV 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 takensubstantially along the line 3-3 in Figure l;
Figure 4 is an exploded isometricA view showingthe assembly of a unit of ilooring according to one form of the invention and showing the manner in which adjacent sides of the block may be provided with tongue and groove if desired; j
Figure 5 is anl enlarged isometric view looking upat the bottom of a unit assembled as shown in Figure 4' but showing the use of a solid block and omitting the tongue and groove;
Figure 6 is an enlarged isometric View looking at. the top of a unit assembled as shown in Figure 4 but omitting the tongue and groove; f
Figure 7 is a reduced sectional plan View taken substantially along the line 7--7 in Figure 2 and showing a portion of the finished floor in the lower left-hand corner; f
Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary plan view looking at the lower left-hand corner of Figure 7 and, showing` portions of the base members in dotted lines; i v
Figure 9 is a view similar to Figure l but showing a modified form of the invention laid on a sub-floor;
Figure 10 is an enlarged vertical sectional View taken substantially along the line 10;-10 in Figure 9; l
Figure 11 is a View similar to Figure 10 taken substantially along the line 11-11 in Figure 9,;
Figure 12 is an enlarged isometric view looking in the direction o f the arrow 12 in Figure 9 and showing the assembly of one of the units of Figure 9; t
Figure 13 is a View similar to Figure l2 looking in the direction of the arrow 13 in Figure 9 and showing the assembly of another of the modified units of Figure 9;
Figures 14 and 15 are enlarged isometric views of the units shown in Figure 9 and showing the manner in which adjacent sides of the block may be provided with tongue and groove if desired;
Figure l5 is a View looking in the direction of the arrow 15 in Figure 14; f
Figure 16 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along the line 16-16 in Figure l() and showing a portion of finished flooring in the lower left-hand corner;
Figure 17 is an enlarged fragmentary plan view'of the lower left-hand corner of Figure 16 showing the base members in dotted lines.
Referring more specifically to the drawings, there Vwill be observed in Figures 1 through 8 one formv of the invention wherein the numeral l@ broadly indicates an individual unit of the improved flooring. Each of the units lil comprises a base member 11 and` a block `12, the block 12 being destined to become wearing surface of the floor. w
The block ,12 may be made up of a plurality of individual strips 13" or may comprise a single solid piece of wood or other suitable material such as indicated at 14, in Figure 5. lf strips of flooring such as indicated at 13 are used to make up the block 12, the strips maybe formed from Waste strip ilooring or plank flooring, suitably secured together in blocks, or may be formed from edge or end grain material which has been laminated in 1% inch strips and cut into blocks of a desired size and thickness.
Although it is the base 11 of each unit 10 which interlocks with adjacent units to hold the nished ilooring together, the block 12 may, if desired, be provided with integral wood tongues 1S` and 16 along two adjacent sides of the block for engagement respectively with complemental grooves 17 and k13 in adjacent blocks when assembled to form a panel. However, the tongue and groove is not necessary to the invention and where waste strip flooring is used that already has the tongue and groove on it, the tongues may be cut off the outside edges of each block unit before assembling the blocks, or they may be left on as shown in the drawings.
It will be appreciated from the foregoing and following descriptions that the nature of the wearing surface which may be made up from blocks 12 is not material to the practice ofthe present invention, and it should be noted that although the invention is particularly adapted for use in laying parquet flooring that it may be satisfactorily employed in the laying of other types of flooring such as strip ooring by merely securing strips of ooring to prefabricated panels of the base members 11 at the factory and subsequently assembling these panels at the site t form a finished floor.
The base members 11 are preferably formed from laminated or any other suitable material such as cork or wood waste which has been ground up and manufactured into a hardboard and cut to a desired uniform thickness to lessen the tendency of the iinished iioor to become misshapen through swelling, shrinkage or warping. The thickness of the base members depends upon the type of iioor to be laid. For example, the base members 11 may be of suicient thickness to permit the base members 11 to serve as a built in sub-floor. If the improved flooring of the present invention is to be used in connection with a conventional sub-oor such as disclosed in Figures and 11, or if the improved flooring is to be laid directly upon a concrete slab such as shown in Figures 2 and 3, the width ofthe base members 11 may be approximately equal to the width of the block 12, as shown in the drawings.
As most clearly seen in Figures 4 and 5 each of the base members 11 of the form of the invention shown in Figures 1 through 8 includes a single centrally disposed longitudinal member or rib 20 having a plurality of longitudinally disposed projections 21 extending transversely therefrom in opposite directions. Although the base members 11 are shown in the drawings as having only two transverse projections 21 on either side of the longitudinal rib 20, it is to be understood that the base members 11 may be elongated by lengthening the ribs 20 and providing a larger number of equally spaced transverse projections 21. In any event the endmost projections 21 are spaced inwardly from the ends of the rib 20 to deline tongues or projections 22 extending axially from the rib 20. The transverse projections 21 are spaced apart a distance at least equal to the width of the Atongues 22 to dene notches or grooves 23 therebetween.
The blocks 12 are shown in the conguration of perfect squares so as to coincide with the area encompassed by the transverse projections 21 on the base members 11. However, if the base member 11 is elongated and additional projections 21 are added the size of the block -12 should be increased correspondingly so that all of the central portion of the rib 20, the projections 21, and the notches 23 therebetween may be covered by the block 12, leaving only the tongues 22'protruding from beneath the block 12. The blocks 12 are trmly secured to the base members 11 in the manner shown in Figure 4 by a suitable bonding agent under pressure to form an integral ilooring unit 10 as shown in Figures 5 and 6.
A plurality of units 10 may be assembled in interlocking relation to each other to form a panel such as shown in Figure 1. A plurality of such panels may be assembled at the factory and subsequently erected in interlocking relation to each other at the site to form the finished oor, or the individual units may be assembled at the site to form the iinished tloor. In either case the units are assembled in an identical manner and for purposes of illustration the manner in which the units are assembled at the side will be explained.
Portions of the slab or sub-oor on which the ooring of the present invention is to be laid are first coated with a suitable mastic or adhesive in which the individual -units are laid to tightly bond the units to the slab. It will be observed in Figures 7 and 8 that unit 10a has been positioned in the lower left-hand corner of a room so that its longitudinal rib 20a extends vertically in the drawings and in spaced parallel relation to a wall 26 of the room. The tongue 22a of the units 10a adjacent wall 27 is sawed off tlush with the lower edges of the transverse projections 21a so the unit 10a may be placed closely adjacent wall 27. The entire floor is preferably spaced a slight distance from the walls of the room to provide for expansion and prevent buckling. This space between the peripheral edges of the finished flooring and the walls of the room is subsequently covered by a moulding, not shown.
Unit 10b is then positioned immediately above unit 10a so its longitudinal rib 20b extends from left to right in the drawings. The tongue 22b of the unit 10b adjacent the wall 26 is sawed off as was the tongue 22a of unit 10a adjacent the wall 27. The tongue 22a which extends upwardly from the unit 10a is coated with a suitable adhesive immediately prior to the unit 10b being moved into position. The unit 10b is so positioned relative to the unit 10a that the upwardly extending tongue 22a on unit 10a mates with the cavity formed beneath the block 12b by the notch 23 between the lowermost transverse projections 2lb on unit 10b. In this manner the lower surface of the block 12b of unit 10b which extends over notch 23 is adhesively secured to the tongue 22a of unit 10a. I
Unit 10c is then placed immediately above unit 10b so rib 20c of unit 10c extends vertically in alinement with the rib 20a of unit 10a. The lowermost tongue 22e of unit 10c is coated with suitable adhesive and tted in the cavity between the uppermost transverse projections 2lb and beneath the block 12b of unit 10b. This process is repeated until the left-hand row of units has been laid.
The second and subsequent rows are llaid in an identical manner so that the tongues of the units in one row fit within the cavities of adjacent units in the manner described. For example, in Figure -8, the tongues 22d of unit 10d tit within the cavities of adjacent units 10a and 10g, while the cavities of unit 10e are engaged by tongues 22b and 22h of units 10b and 10h respectively.
The tongue 22a which has been sawed ofI" the lower end of unit 10a may be positioned in the notch or cavity between transverse projections 21a adjacent wall 26 and glued in place. In a like manner all of the tongues which have been sawed oi adjacent the walls of the room form ready-made plugs for the cavities adjacent the walls. For example, the sawed off tongue or projections 22b has been inserted in the cavity between the projections 21d of unit 10d adjacent wall 27 (Figure 8).
Modified form Referring now to the form of invention disclosed in Figures 9 through 17 it will be observed in this instance that the floor is made up of individual units designated at 40 and that each unit comprises a block 12 which may be identical to the block 12 heretofore described. Since this form of the invention is also particularly adapted for parquet 'ooring, the block 12 has been shown in the drawings as made up of individual strips of wood 13', although it is to be understood that the block 12 may likewise be formed from a solid piece such as indicated at 14 in Figure 5 and as described in connection with the first form of the invention. In any event the block 12' is defined by side edges 41, 42, 43 and 44. k
base member 50 is of the same configuration and dimenv sions as the block 12 and is defined by side edges 51, 52, 53 and 54. Base member 50 is adhesively secured under pressure and in off set relation to the under surface of a block 12' to form a unit 40.
Referring to Figures 12 and l3there`will be observed units 40 identified by the letters V and H; respectively. The units V are'formed by securing the block 12 and base member 50 together in sucha manner that the-strips 13 of the block 12', or grain thereof in the event the block 12' comprises a solid piece of wood 14, extend vertically in the drawings when the units 40 are assembled. The unit H is so formed that the strips 13 extend hori- Zontally in the drawings. Thus the base member 50 and block 12 of unit V are secured together in off set relation so that the side edges 52 and 53 of the base member 50 project outwardly beyond the side edges 42 and 43 of the block 12. Since the block 12 and base member 50 are of the same dimensions, this will result in the side edges 41 and 44 of the block 12' projecting outwardly a like distance beyond the side edges 51 and 54 of the base member 50.
`Unit H differs from unit V in that the block 12' of unit H has been rotated a quarter of a vturn and secured to its base 50 so that side edges 52 and 53 project from beneath edges 41 and 44. Thus, the grain of the wood in one block runs in right-angular relation to the grain of the wood in the blocks of 'adjacent units. This arrangement is readily apparent in Figure 9. j
The units 40 may be assembled into panels yat the fac- Y tory or may beassembledv and laid in a suitable mastic at the site to form the finished flooring. In either event, the units are assembled in interlocking engagement by first positioning the units 40 in such a manner that the side edges 5,2 of the base members 50 in both of the units V and H extend upwardly in the Vdrawings and so that `the side edges 53 extend to the right in the drawings (Figuresg16 and 17).
The exposed upper surfaces of the base'member 50 y defined by the side edges 52 andf53 are then coated with a suitable mastic or glue and, as most clearly seen in Figure 17, the side edge 52V of the base member of unit V-l is slid within the cavity beneath the side edge 43h of the block of unit H-l so that the edge 52v abuts the edge 54h on the base of unit H-l.` This process may be carried yon until the left-hand vertical row of units is laid. The
next adjacent row to the right may be laid by starting with the block I-I-l' in Figure 17. The side edge 42h' of the block of unit H-l is positioned over the exposed upper edge 53v of the base of unit V-l to thereby unite the under surface of the block on the unit H-l to the i the base of unit V-1. l
This arrangement results in the lblock of the unit V-l' being firmly united to the bases .of the units H-l, V-l
and H-1. This process may be carried OI.; 11.11.111 the completed panel as shown in Figure 9 has been erected, or until the complete floor has been laid.
The protruding edges on the base members of the units which define the marginal edges of the floor opposite the walls 26 and 27 may be sawed off so the blocks of said units may be positioned closely adjacent the adjacent walls. These sawed off projections form readymade inserts to fit within the cavities beneath the marginal edges of the finished fiooring blocks adjacent the walls 26 and 27.`
It is to be understood that although the units 10 and `40 in both forms of the invention have been described tate the laying of the floor at the site, or in the alter-l native, may be laid in units at the site if only a small `area is to be laid.
In the drawings and specification there has been set forth a preferred embodiment of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only, and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.
l. In a flooring comprising a plurality of interlocked units, each of said units including a block and a base, said block being laminated to the base and defining the wearing surface of a portion of the ooring, the base in each of said units including a single centrally disposed longitudinal rib and a plurality of projections spaced longitudinally along sad rib and extending trans-y versely therefrom in opposite directions, the rib in each of said units extending outwardly beyond opposite edges of the block to define tongues, and the transverse projections on either side of the rib being spaced apart a distance equal to the width of the tongues whereby the tongues on one unit may be positioned between transverse projections on adjacent units to interlock said units.
2. In a flooring comprising a lplurality of interlocked units, each of said units including a wearing surface and a base, the base in each of said units including a rib and a plurality of projections spaced longitudinally along said rib and extending transversely therefrom in opposite directions, the rib in each of said units extending outwardly beyond opposite edges of the block to define tongues, and the transverse projections on the rib being spaced apart to define tongue receiving openings whereby the tongues on one unit may be positioned between transverse projections on adjacent units to interlock said units.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 16,867 Healy Feb. 7, 1928 187,502 Baker Feb. 20, 1877 845,107 Morrill Feb. 26, 1907 1,477,813 Daniels et al. Dec. 18, 1923 1,778,352 Bruce Oct. 14, 1930 ,1,978,075 Butterworth Oct. 23, 1934 2,072,292 Rockwell Jan. 7, 1936 2,187,672 Wedberg Jan. 16, 1940 Y FOREIGN PATENTS 5,722 Norway 1897 35,536 Switzerland Dec. 12, 1905 261,915 Switzerland June 15, 1949