US 2915096 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. l, 1959 E. M'ooNEY HAND CLAMP Filed April s, 1957 United States 2,915,096 HAND CLAMP Edward Mooney, Venice, Calif.
Application April 8, 1957, Serial No. 651,299 2 Claims. (Cl. 144-29'7) The present invention relates to general service hand clamps or vises for use in Workshops, machine shops and the like; and which are utilized `to hold a plurality of work pieces together while operations are being performed on them.
There has been a growing need in recent years for suitable hand clamps which are appropriate for holding smaller pieces of work together. That is, there is at present a need for a hand clamp which is simple and rapid to operate, and which is constructed with such a conguration that it will not be in the way of the operations being performed on vthe clamped work.
The need for such hand clamps is demonstrated by the growing accident rate in home workshops in particular, and also in industry in general. As more and more home workshops are being equipped with power tools of increasing complexity, it is becoming more and more necessary to reduced the likelihood of accidents resulting from the useof such tools. A large proportion of the accidents that do occur are a direct result of the use of these tools with work that is not properly clamped or which is not clamped at all.
lt is believed that the reason'in the past why even seasoned mechanics ,often did not bother to properly clamp work being yoperated on was due to the lack of appropriate hand clamps. The prior art clamps were for thejmost part awkward to operate, and they were cumbersome and continually got in the Way of the operations being performed on the work. This led even experienced workmen to be often tempted to hold the work in their hands while it was being processed. This, of course, provided a very prevalent ,source of accidents.
As noted above, most prior art hand clamps Vfor thesrnall work pieces were clumsy to handle, and their inadequate design and conguration was such that their body portions impaired drilling or other operations which were attempted to be performed on the clamped work. This condition prevailed because it was usual in such prior art clamps for the body portion of the clamp to extend essentially perpendicular to the plane of the `clamped work. This 4not only created an obstruction for the operations being performed on the work, but it also impaired the convenient leveling and setup of the work.
A feature of the present invention is the provision of a hand clamp of improved construction in which the body portion of the clamp lextends essentially in the plane of the clamped work pieces away Yfrom an end free of these pieces. This allows tools to run in an unobstructed manner right up to the side of the clamping jaws of the clamp. A degree of freedom is therefore provided that is unobtainable with .most prior art clamps. This configuration of the clamp of the invention also -provides a minimum obstruction under the clamped Work pieces, and they can be moved freely over the surface 'of the supporting table for the particular power tool being .used at that particular time.
Another feature .of the improved hand clamp of the 2,915,996 Federated Dec. 1, 1959 invention is that the clamped work does not tend to cock or twist as the clamp is being tightened against the work. This is because the center line of the clamp of ythe invention, as noted above, extends in essentially uni-planar relation with the plane of the clamped work. This means that all the torque produced by the clamp is about an axisv at which it is impossible for the various clamped work pieces yto turn with respect to one another.
The clamp of the invention is constructed in one embodiment so that both its jaws are movable in unison from zero to maximum opening. Moreover, the clamp is constructed to exert its greatest clamping pressure as its jaws approach maximum opening. The former feature provides for a wide adjustment of the clamp, and the latter vfeature pro-vides for a strong clamping action for large jaw openings where it is most needed. This, in
' effect, doubles the capacity and rangeof the clamp as compared with prior art hand clamps in general. An important result owing from this particular feature is that for any vrange of operations, only half the number of clamps constructed in accordance with the present invention need be used as corn-pared with the usual type of prior art hand clamps.
Another important feature of the present invention is the fact thatthere is no turning exerted on the clamping pads of the hand clamp as it is being clamped into position. This eliminates any galling or damage to nished Work with which the clamp may be used, and the pads lend themselves to quick slip for rapid removal of the clamp.
The impgroyed clamp of the invention alsov utilizes operating jaws of channel-like cross section. This provides` for an extremely rigid and strong construction without an accompanying excessively large weight. Moreover, the pressure exerted by the jaws on the clamp pads is so exerted at diatmetrically opposite po-ints near the outerrims of the pads. Hr'his insures against pivoting of the pads on the clamped work pieces and thereby precludes the likelihood of damage to the clamped work.
Also, .the operating jaws of the illustrated embodiment of the present clamp are pivottally supported on respective pivot pins inl a rigid frame. This frame is such that it embraces the jaws and serves to eliminate torsion or twist of these members as the unit is clamped about the supported work pieces. Respective retainer springs extend along the inner portions of the jaw member, and these springs serve to bias the jaws in an-open direction.
The improved clamp of the invention is also constructed to include a threaded eye-bolt. This eye-bolt extends along .the center line-of the clamp through the frame referred to in the preceding paragraph. This eyebolt is coupled to the jaws of the clamp in a manner to be described, and it is slidably movable reciprocally within the frame to open and close the jaws. A balanced, rim-weighted, rapid-spin control knob is threaded to the eye-bolt externally `of the frame, and .this knob serves to provide the desired clamping action of the assembly.
Rapid action of the clamp may be achieved by manually closing its jaws over the work pieces that are to be clamped, and then vby spinning the knob into position Quick removalof the clamp is possible merely by spinning the' knob to its outer position. In a constructed embodiment of the hand clamp, the rapid spin action described abovewas found to alord a rapid adjustment of the clamp from zero to full yopening in less than two seconds.
Because of the constructional features described in the preceding paragraph, the hand clamp of the invention is eminently suited for accomplishing its intended purpose. clamped into position by an exceedingly rapid and simin the manner described, the clamp may lbel ple operation. While it is in position, it provides a minimum obstruction for the operations being performed on the clamped work pieces. lThese and the other described features of the invention are such that mechanics and hobbyists are encouraged properly to clamp the work they are using and thereby prevent accidents.
The clamp of the invention is simple and economical to construct because it lends itself to simple prefabrication techniques. The channel shape of the jaws permits light weight materials to be used without impairing the strength of the assembly. All the necessary cornponents may be conveniently assembled by means of blanking dies and forming dies, and the need for welding or other less eicient or satisfactory fabricating methods is obviated.
Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description, particularly when taken in connection with the `accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure l is a side view partly in section, showing in full scale the constructional details of one embodiment of the improved hand clamp or vise of the present invention, this View showing the jaws of the clamp in an open position;
Figure 2 is an end view of the clamp of Figure 1 with the jaws, likewise, in an open position;
Figure 3 is a side view, partly in section, of the improved clamp of the invention, and this view is similar to the view of Figure l but with the jaws of the clamp closed and clamped down on a pair of supported work pieces;
Figure 4 is a perspective View of a frame which forms an important component of the illustrated embodiment of the invention; and
Figure 5 is a perspective view of an eye-bolt assembly which also forms an important component of the invention.
With reference to the drawings, the improved hand clamp of the present invention includes a frame which is shown, for example, in Figure 4. The frame 10 includes a pair of parallel side walls 12 and 14, and it also includes a central section 16. The section 16 has an aperture extending through it which is coaxial with the center line of the clamp. A bushing 18 is swedged into the aperture of the section 16. This bushing may be integral with the frame 1 0 if so desired.
An eye-bolt 20 (Figure 5) extends through the bushing 18, and the eye-bolt is slidable in the bushing for rectilinearreciprocal motion with respect to the frame 10 along the center line of the clamp. The eye-bo1t 20 has a threaded portion protruding from the bushing 1S and out from the frame lil. A control knob 22 is threaded to this protruding portion of the eye-bolt 20. The knob 22 is preferably a balanced rim-Weighted knob, as noted previously, for rapid spin on the eye-bolt.
The clamp includes a pair of jaw members 24 and 26, each having a channel-shaped cross section. Each of the jaw members has an actuating end and a clamping end. The respective actuating ends of the jaw members are turned over as at 28 and 30 so as to form a complete enclosure for these ends.
The jaw member 24 is pivotally mounted to the frame.
10 on one side of the center line of the clamp by means of a pin 32. The pin 32 extends through a pair of aligned holes in the jaw 24 at a point intermediate the ends of the jaw, and this pin also extends through a pair of aligned apertures 34 and 36 in the side Walls 12 and 14 of the frame 10 (Figure 4).
Likewise, the jaw 26 is pivotally mounted to the frame 1t) on the opposite side of the center line of the clamp from the jaw 24. The jaw member `26 is so mounted bya pivot pin 38. This pin extends through aligned openings in the jaw member 26 and through a pair of aligned apertures 40 and 42 (Figure 4) in the side walls 12 and 14 of the frame 10. It will be observed that' the jaw members extend into the frame 10 between the side walls 12 and 14 and are rigidly held by the side walls so as to prevent torsion or twist of the jaw members as they are clamped down on the supported work.
A rod-like transverse member 44 extends through the end portion of the eye-bolt 2) (Figure 5). This member 44 is held in place in the eye-bolt by a series of turned-up ears 46 in its periphery, which ears engage opposite sides of the eye-bolt. The opposite ends of the transverse rod 44 extend into the enclosures formed by the portions 2S and 34) at the respective actuating ends of the jaw members 24 and 26. The transverse rod is in loose iit with these actuating ends of jaw members to provide an essentially toggle engagement. This permits the transverse member 44 to pivot the jaw members 24 and 26 in a direction to close them as the eyebolt is moved to the left in Figure 1, and it enables the jaws 24 and 26 to be opened when the eye-bolt is moved to the right in Figure l.
The frame 10 has a bent-over portion 50 at the end of its side wall 14, and the side wall 12 has a bent-over portion 52 in its edge. These portions are best shown in Figure 4. A iirst resilient coil spring 54 is wound about the pivot pin 32 within the jaw 24. One end of this spring is turned over the portion 50, and the other end of the spring bears against the inner surface of the jaw 24. The spring 54 tends to bias the jaw 24 in a counter clockwise direction in Figure 1 with respect to the frame 10.
A second spring S6 is coiled about the pin 38. One
i end of this second spring is turned over the portion 52 of the frame 10, and the other end of this second spring bears against the inner surface of the jaw 26. The spring S6 tends to rotate the jaw 26 in a clockwise direction with respect to the frame 10 about the pin 38. The portions 50 and 52 additionally serve to limit the opening of the jaws 24 and 26 of the clamp. In their maximum open position, the inner edges of the jaws bear against these portions, as shown most clearly in Figure l.
The frame 10 and the jaws 24 and 26 may be composed of a suitable material such as steel, as may the other components of the clamp as described above. A clamp pad 60 is pivoted to the clamped end of the jaw member 24, and a clamp pad 62 is pivoted to the clamping end of the jaw member 26. These clamp pads, for example, may be composed of semi-soft steel.
The edge of the jaw member 24 engages the top surface of the pad 60 at two diametrically opposite positions so that the pad 60 is firmly brought into engagement with the clamped work. Likewise, the jaw member 26 engages the clamp pad 62 at diametrically opposite positions on its upper surface so that this latter pad is firmly andl positively brought into a clamping position. As noted above, this insures against pivoting of the pads on the clamped work with resulting damage to the work.
The clamp is shown in Figure 3 as clamping a work piece 65 against a work piece 67. It will be seen that the center line of the clamp extends in uni-planar relation with the plane of the clamped work piece. That is, the center line extends away from the work piece in essentially the same plane as the work, rather than upwardly from the work pieces in perpendicular relation as is the case with most prior art clamps. This provides for the body portion of the clamp to extend free of the work and out of the way of any drilling or other operations to be pen formed on the work. Moreover, with this configuration, there is no tendency to turn the work piece 65 with respect to the work piece 67 when the clamp is clamped into position.
An examination of the illustrated embodiment of the invention will reveal that both the jaws 24 and 26 are moved as the clamp is adjusted, rather than having but one movable jaw. This provides for a rapid adjustment through a wide range of clamping positions. Moreover, it will be observed that the leverage of the transverse member 44 with respect to the jaw members 24 and 26 is such that maximum leverage is exerted as the jaws reach their maximum positions. This provides the greatest clamping action for the Wider jaw positions, as is desired.
Moreover, neither of the clamp pads 60 or 62 turn as the clamp is clamped into position so that the likelihood of galling or other damage to the support Work is minimized. Also, as is evident from Figure 3, the jaws 24 and 26 of the clamp may be closed over the work pieces, and then the handle 22 may be spun into position for rapid action.
The invention provides, therefore, an improved hand clamp or vise that is relatively simple and economical to produce. The hand clamp of the invention is advantageous in that it is light a'nd convenient to use, and it is capable of the most rapid and powerful clamping action. In addition the clamp is constructed so that it does not obstruct operations to be performed on the clamped work, or tend to damage the work.
1. A clamping assembly including: a frame having a pair of essenially parallel side walls and having an apertured central section, an eye-bolt extendin-g through said apertured central section in sliding relation with said frame for reciprocal rectilinear sliding motion with respect to said frame, said eye-bolt having a threaded portion protruding from said frame, a pair of channelshaped jaw members, means for pivoting said jaw members between said parallel side walls of said frame on opposite sides of the line of motion of said eye-bolt, said jaw members being each so pivoted at a point intermediate the respective extremities thereof and each having an actuating end with a turned over portion and a clamping end, a rigid rod-like transverse member affixed to and extending through the end of said eye-bolt perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the eye-bolt andinto said turned over portion of the actuating end of each of said jaw members in toggle relation therewith, and a control knob 6 threaded to said protruding threaded portion of said eyebolt.
2. A clamping assemblyincludin-g: a frame having a pair of essentially parallel side walls and having an apertured central section, an eye-bolt extending through said apertured central section in sliding relation with said frame for reciprocal rectilinear sliding motion with respect to said frame, said eye-bolt having a threaded portion protruding from said frame, a pair of channel-shaped jaw members, means including a pair of pivot pins extending through said side walls of said frame for pivotally mounting said jaw members between said parallel side walls on opposite sides of the line of motion of said eye-bolt, said jaw members being each so pivoted at a point intermediate the respective extremities thereof and each having an actuating end with a turned over portion and a clamping end, a pair of biasing springs respectively coiled around respective ones of said pivot pins and each of said springs engaging saidfframe and a corresponding one of said jaw members for biasing said jaw members to an open position, a rigid rod-like transfer vmember affixed to and extending through the end of said eye-bolt at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the eye-bolt andI into said turned over portion of the actuating end of each of said jaw members in toggle relation therewith, a control knob threaded to said protruding threaded portion of said eye-bolt, and a pair of clamp pads respectively pivoted to the clamping ends of said jaw members.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 225,000 Dickson Mar. 2, 1880 297,981 Francis May 6, 1884 848,036 Kruger Mar. 26, 1907 2,197,310 Lincoln Apr. 16, 1940 2,432,139 Crowley Dec. 9, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS 443,555 Italy Dec. 27, 1948