US 2915377 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 1, 1959 R. REICHHIELM 2,915,377
I GASIFIER AND STARTER UNIT Filed June 10, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENT OR ATTORNEYS Dec. 1, 1959 Filed June 10, 1957 R. REICHHELM GASIFIER AND STARTER UNIT 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR W W 4.4..
am L- ATTORNEYS Unit Stats Patent 2,915,377 GASIFIER AND STARTER UNIT Robert Reichhelm, Wallingford, Conn, assignor to The Robert Reichhelm Company, Incorporated, Wailingford, Court, a corporation of Connecticut Application June 10, 1957, Serial No. 664,689
3 Claims. (Cl. 48107) This invention relates to a gasifying and priming unit, and more particularly to a device which through direct flame contact provides a means of direct heating of various materials to predetermined temperatures, the heating being eifected by direct contact of the products of combustion with the material to be heated without the use of transfer means. The heating process is largely effected through convection.
While the device has other uses, one of the objects of the invention is to provide a priming unit for internal combustion engines. For this purpose the device may be connected to the fuel intake of such an engine and supplied with priming material such, for example, as gasoline for a gasoline engine or ether for a diesel engine using heavy fuels. In either case fuel is supplied to the primer unit and ignited. Sufficient air is introduced into theunit to burn a part of this fuel to raise the temperature of the remainder to a point where it will readily ignite. Th s heated fuel is delivered to the cylinder of an internal combustion engine where it will be readily ignited and starting of the engine will be expeditiouslyeffected even at very low temperatures.
By the use of the apparatus the need for costly engine preheating equipment is eliminated, battery wear is conserved as less cranking power is necessary, and dilution of the lubricating oil is prevented or greatly reduced.
Also the apparatus may be employed for heating other fuels or materials of various kinds. For example, a combustible fuel may be introduced into the chamber of the unit and ignited in the presence of sufiicient air to burn a part or all of this fuel; The chamber within which the combustion takes place may be provided with an additional opening through which a different material may be introduced to be heated. This material may be a fuel, the temperature of which is to be raised, or it may be any other substance. It may be introduced in the form of a gas, liquid or finely divided solids. For example, the device may be used, in this manner, as a means of generating steam, of distilling crude oil or as ameans of heating solids such as powdered coal or other finely pulverized material. It may also be employed as a blender of dissimilar materials in gaseous state such as gasoline and alcohol, for example. The apparatus may also be employed as a means of converting a gas, such as propane or natural gas, for example, into a different molecular structure such as acetylene.
In the process described immediately above, the fuel which is burned may not be all consumed but the part which is not burned may be mixed with the material introduced through the additional chamber opening, if this is desired. On the other hand, the primary fuel may be all or substantially all consumed and serve to heat or gasify the additional material which will be delivered to a point of use. It will be understood that, as the combustion. chamber has a single. outlet, the products of combustionwill be purged from the chamber along with the gasified material or the material which is to be heated.
One object of the invention is to provide a device for the heating of material by its direct contact with the products of combustion of a combustible material which may or may not be the same as the material to be heated.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for the heating of various materials to a gaseous state, if desired, by the burning of a part of the material or by the burning of a different material, the heated material then being delivered to some point at which it is to be used.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for priming internal combustion engines so as to produce instantaneous starting even in the coldest weather, the apparatus providing a heating chamber to which a readily combustible fuel is supplied and ignited in the presence of sufficient air to burn a part of the fuel and heat the remainder so that the latter may be delivered to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine to expedite the starting of the same.
To these and other ends the invention consists in the novel features and combinations of parts to be hereinafter described and claimed.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of a heating apparatus embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the fuel intake nozzle employed with the apparatus;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the apparatus on line 33 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a broken sectional view on line 44 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a fuel nozzle which may be employed with the device; and
Fig. 6 is a view, partly in section and partly diagrammatic, of the apparatus when employed as a primer for internal combustion engines.
To illustrate one embodiment of my invention I have shown a heating apparatus comprising a housing 10 presenting a combustion chamber 11. This chamber may be of any desired shape but, as shown in the drawings, referring particularly to Fig. 4, the length is somewhat greater than the width of the device. The depth of the chamber 11 is substantially equal to the length thereof adjacent the upper end of the chamber as the end Walls of the latter converge to some extent in a downward.
lower end 17 extending over the opening 12. As will be i seen from Fig. 4, the width of this baffle is slightly less than the Width of the chamber so that space will be left at each side edge of the baffie for the egress of the fuel and products of combustion from the chamber.
The baffie 15 may be secured to the housing wall 14 by fasteners 18 and also secured to the wall and resting upon the battle is a screen or grid 19 of suitable heatresisting material. This grid will become incandescent in the operation of the device and will serve to assist the heating of the fuel or other material supplied to the chamber.
Also secured to the chamber wall by the fasteners 18 is an L-shaped baflle 2.0. The body portion of this bafiie projects outwardly from the wall 14 at substantially right angles thereto. As will hereinafter be explained, mixed fuel and air is delivered in a spray toward the bafile 20 and by this baffle will be reflected against the inner sur face of the wall of the combustion chamber so that it will be heated by the latter which is heated by a burning of a part of the fuel in the chamber. As will also be seen from Fig. 4, this baffle is slightly narrower than the width of the chamber so that the fuel delivered as an atomized spray or mist upon the baffle may escape at the side edges thereof into the chamber and upon the screen or grid 19.
A fuel opening 21 may be provided in a cover member 22 which covers the upper end of the chamber 11, and within the opening 21 may be secured a nozzle 23 of the form shown in Fig. 2. This nozzle is provided with a fuel passage 24 and an extended end portion 25 reduced in size which projects into a relatively narrow passage 26 in the cover member or head 22. The passage 26 is in communication with the opening 21 and below, and communicating with, the passage 26 is a flaring passage 27 of substantially frusto-conical shape.
From Fig. 3 it will be seen that the passage 26 is larger than the end 25 of the nozzle 23 so as to leave an annular space and communicating with this space is a passage 28 leading inwardly from a lateral opening 29. Air may be introduced into this space through the opening 29 and passage 28 to atomize the fuel delivered through the passage 24 and deliver the fuel to the chamber as a mist or spray.
To provide for the ignition of the fuel a spark plug 30 is provided in the cover 22, this plug being provided with electrodes 31 and 32, the terminals of which are slightly separated to provide a spark gap in the chamber 11 and above the baffle 20. The air admitted through the opening 29 is not in most instances sufficient to support the combustion of enough of the fuel for heating purposes but is primarily employed for the purpose of atomizing the fuel delivered through the passage 24. Therefore, the cover or head 22 of the chamber is provided with an opening 34 for delivery of combustion air to the chamber, this opening being laterally directed and leading into a well or recess 35 in the head which communicates at its lower end with the chamber 11. Sufficient air will be delivered to the chamber through the opening 34 to support combustion of the quantity of atomized fuel which is required to furnish the desired heat to the chamber.
In some instances, for example, when the device is used as a primer, the fuel may all be delivered to the chamber through the passage 24. In some instances, however, and particularly where it is desired to heat some other substance than the fuel which is to be burned, the chamber will be provided with an additional opening through which this material may be supplied. As illustrated, an opening 36 is provided in the cover 22 through which material may be introduced into the chamber by the fitting 37 (Fig. having the passage 38 therethrough. It will be noted that the opening or passage 36 is directed downwardly into the chamber at a position removed to some extent from the baffle 20 so that the material delivered to the chamber through this passage will not strike the bafile 20 but will be mixed with the products. of combustion of the fuel introduced through the opening;
27 and ignited by the terminals 31 and 32 of the spark plug.
In Fig. 6 of the drawing, I have shown in diagrammatic form the application of the device as a primer for an internal combustion engine. The cylinder of such an engine is shown at 40, the manifold at 41 communicating with the cylinder through the intake valve 42. The fuel pipe which ordinarily supplies fuel to the engine is shown at 43, leading to the manifold through the carburetor 44.
The housing of the heating apparatus is designated at 10 as before, and the outlet 12 is connected to the manifold 41 by the pipe 45. A fuel pipe 46 leads into the chamber 10, this fuel pipe being connected to the nozzle 23 which is not shown in Fig. 6. A solenoid valve shown diagrammatically and designated at 47 is provided 4 in the fuel line 46 so as to control the supply of fuel to the heating apparatus. The solenoid valve may be actuated by current through the line 48 controlled by a push button 49.
Also the push button 43 energizes an ignition coil 50 which is connected to the spark plug 30 by the wire 51. It will be understood that the terminals of the solenoid and of the spark plug will be grounded, the connections shown being only diagrammatic and may be supplied in any manner well known to those skilled in the art. It will also be understood that, if desired, the pipe 46 may be a branch of the pipe 43, particularly if gasoline is to be employed both as the motor fuel and as the priming fluid.
When it is desired to start the motor in cold weather, the user, before energizing the starting motor, will press the button 49, thus actuating the solenoid valve 47 to deliver fuel to the combustion chamber and also energizing the ignition coil 50 to ignite the fuel.
When this is done, a spray of atomized fuel and air will be delivered through the frusto-conical passage 27 to the chamber 11. This spray or mist will enter the chamber in cone-shaped form and the outer periphery thereof will reach the spark gap between the terminals 31 and 32 to be ignited. The spray will be delivered upon the baffle plate 20 which will reflect it back toward the wall of the chamber.
At the same time combustion air will enter through the opening 34 of the well or recess 35, this supplying sufficient air to burn a part of the fuel to heat or gasify the remainder. A part of the fuel will, therefore, burn within the chamber and a part in the form of a mist or drops will be discharged from the bafiie 20 around the side edges thereof upon the screen or grid 19 on the upper surface of the bafiie 15.
As the interior of the chamber becomes heated, the grid 19 will become incandescent and assist the flame and the heated products of combustion in heating the fuel which is not burned. The air delivered through the opening 34 will provide for combustion of suificient fuel to fill the burning zone Within the chamber 11, thus heating the entire chamber and, by convection and direct contact, heating the remainder of the fuel which is discharged through the exit passage 12' and delivered to the manifold 41 of the engine. This fuel will be heated or even vaporized and will at once ignite, providing instantaneous starting of the motor. So soon as the motor is started, the primer or heater may be shut ofi and the fuel delivered to the engine through the passage 43. It will be understood that the orifices through which the air is introduced will be of fixed size and the supply of fuel to the device may be regulated independently of the amount of air so as to provide for the consumption of more or less of the delivered fuel as desired. Usually less fuel will be delivered in starting the apparatus and bringing it up to heat than will be delivered after it is heated.
As stated above, in the starting of diesel engines, for example, ether may be introduced through the nozzle 23 which, by burning a part of this material, will gasify the remainder and deliver it in usable form to the cylinder of the engine.
The baffle plate 20 is designed to direct the fuel issuing from the passage 27 back toward the wall of the chamber so that it will run down this wall and will not be mixed with the combustion air entering through the opening 34. Thus turbulence in the mixing chamber will be prevented to a considerable extent.
A fuel pump is shown diagrammatically at 52 (Fig. 6) and operation of this pump may be initiated by pressing the button 49. It will be understood that when the device is employed as a primer for internal combustion engines, as shown in Fig. 6, and the device is installed on the engine, the fuel pump of the engine may be employed and no additional pump furnished with the prescut apparatus. However, when used as a primer for a diesel engine, in which case ether may be employed as the priming material, the pump 52 will be used. In any event some means, either that already in use upon the engine or that furnished with the apparatus, will be employed to force fuel into the chamber 11. It will also be understood that upon release of the button 49, the solenoid valve 47 will close and the supply of fuel to the combustion chamber will be cut off. The valve 47 may be regulated to determine the quantity of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber.
At the beginning of the operation a pump will be employed to deliver air to the air inlet openings 29 and 34. However, when the device is connected to the fuel intake manifold of an internal combustion engine, as shown in Fig. 6, the operation of the pump will be discontinued as soon as the engine starts as the suction developed in the engine cylinders will serve to draw air into these openings.
The above description of the operation of the device applies particularly when it is employed as a primer or gasifier for gasifying or heating the fuel introduced into the chamber by the combustion of a part thereof. When the device is employed for heating some substance other than that supplied to the atomizing nozzle 23, such other substance or material will be introduced through the opening 36 when the chamber has been brought up to heat. This substance will be introduced in a direction so as not to be discharged upon the battle 20 so that it will be directed into the chamber 11 substantially parallel with the air entering through the opening 34. Thus this additional material will be heated by direct contact with the combustion gases and with the grid 19. It will, of course, be carried from the chamber through the exit passageway 12 around the edges of the baffle 17 as before.
While I have shown and described some preferred embodiments of my invention, it will be understood that it is not to be limited to all of the details shown, but is capable of modification and variation within the spirit of the invention and within the scope of the claims.
What I claim is:
1. An apparatus for heating fuels comprising a chamber, an atomizing nozzle leading into the chamber adjacent one wall thereof to deliver atomized fuel and air thereto, said wall of the chamber being inclined inwardly below the nozzle, a deflecting baflle plate of planar form on said wall and extending at substantially right angles to the wall so as to slope theretoward, said plate lying in the path of atomized fuel entering the chamber through said nozzle to deflect it against the chamber wall, igniting means in the path of the fuel to ignite the same, an outlet opening at the lower end of the chamber for the escape of the heated fuel and products of combustion, an air inlet opening to admit combustion air into the chamber, an additional baffle plate extending downwardly along the chamber wall from said first plate and overlying said outlet opening and extending to the opposite wall of the chamber to partially obstruct this opening, and a heating screen covering said last-named bafile.
2. An apparatus for heating fuels comprising a chamher, an atomizing nozzle leading into the chamber adjacent one wall thereof to deliver atomized fuel and air thereto, said wall of the chamber being inclined inwardly below the nozzle, a deflecting baffle plate of planar form on said wall and extending at substantially right angles to the wall so as to slope theretoward, said plate lying in the path of atomized fuel entering the chamber through said nozzle to deflect it against the chamber wall, igniting means in the path of the fuel to ignite the same, an outlet opening at the lower end of the chamber for the escape of the heated fuel and products of combustion, an air inlet opening to admit combustion air into the chamber, an additional baflle plate extending downwardly along the chamber wall from said first plate and overlying said outlet opening and extending to the opposite wall of the chamber to partially obstruct this opening, and a heating screen covering said last-named baffle, said chamber having a cover and an additional downwardly directed opening in said cover for material to be heated, said opening discharging the material into the chamber at a point toward the screen on said second baflle plate but beyond the outer edge of the first baffle plate whereby it is not deflected by the latter.
3. An apparatus for heating fuels comprising a chamber, an atomizing nozzle leading into the chamber adjacent one wall thereof to deliver atomized fuel and air thereto, said wall of the chamber being inclined inwardly below the nozzle, a deflecting baflle plate of planar form on said wall and extending at substantially right angles to the wall so as to slope theretoward, said plate lying in the path of atomized fuel entering the chamber through said nozzle to deflect it against the chamber wall, igniting means in the path of the fuel to ignite the same, an outlet opening at the lower end of the chamber for the escape of the heated fuel and products of combustion, an air inlet opening to admit combustion air into the chamber, an additional baffle plate extending downwardly along the chamber wall from said first plate and overlying said outlet opening and extending to the opposite wall of the chamber to partially obstruct this opening, and a heating screen covering said last-named baflle, said chamber having a cover and an additional downwardly directed opening in said cover for material to be heated, said opening discharging the material into the chamber at a point toward the screen on said second bafile plate but beyond the outer edge of the first baflle plate whereby it is not deflected by the latter, said air inlet opening also being provided in the chamber cover and directed downwardly substantially parallel to the opening for the material to be heated.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,757,855 Chilowsky July 18, 1922 1,891,445 Reichhelm Dec. 20, 1932 1,932,478 Reichhelm Oct. 31, 1933 2,057,808 Widegren Oct. 20, 1936 2,150,528 Ther Mar. 14, 1939 2,197,347 Reichhelm Apr. 16, 1940 2,225,647 Liekendael Dec. 24, 1940