Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2915716 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 1, 1959
Filing dateOct 10, 1956
Priority dateOct 10, 1956
Publication numberUS 2915716 A, US 2915716A, US-A-2915716, US2915716 A, US2915716A
InventorsHattersley Thomas E
Original AssigneeGen Dynamics Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Microstrip filters
US 2915716 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 1, 1959 r 1'. E. HATTERSLEY 2,915,716


THOMAS E. HATTERSLEY ATTORNEY United States Patent MICROST'RIP FILTERS Application October '10, 1956, Serial No. 615,083

' 1 Claim. Cl. 333-73 This invention relates to microwave circuits, and is particularly directed to filters constructed by printed circuit techniques. 3

The design of filters with lumped reactance elements has long since been standardized, but the frequencies contemplated are in the longer wavelengths compared to the so-called microwave bands Where the wavelengths appreach the physical dimensions of the reactance elements to be used. The introduction of transmission lines such as wave guides, coaxial cables, parallel wires, and the like, have facilitated the transporting of microwave energy from one point to another with limited controlled radiation, but has aggravated the problems of filter design. Obviously, lumped reactances connected to or near such lines cause discontinuities which disturb wave motion and generally destroy the very characteristics for which the lines were selected.

The object of this invention is to provide an improved filter for electric or magnetic wave energy in the microwave bands of frequencies, and in which wave motion phenomena of the resonant transmission lines is fully utilized.


adapted to the high frequency use contemplated here. Teflon is polyte'traflubrethylene. "Formica"'a1id Resolite, sometimes Resilyte, are usually either melamine formaldehyde or phenolformaldehyde employed as a The objects of this invention are attained in a transmission line comprising a sheet of insulating material of uniform predetermined thickness and dielectric constant, having a ground plate of extended area adhered to one face of the sheet, and having a thin strip conductor of small cross section and extended length adhered to the other face to produce a resonant transmission line. The filter is characterized by tabs of thin metal adhered to said other face and integrally joined along their edges to said line conductor, said tabs being of extended area to present a relatively large lumped capacity with said ground plate, compared with the capacity of the connected portion of said line. Some of the tabs are in turn integrally joined to thin metal stubs adhered to said other face of the insulating sheet, and so terminated at their outer ends as to present lumped inductive reactance in parallel with the capacitive reactance of the tabs.

Other objects and features of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art by referring to specific embodiments described in the following specification and shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:

Fig. l is a partly sectioned plan view of a filter embodying this invention,

Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram which is the equivalent of the circuit of Fig. 1,

Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view of the device taken on line 33 of Fig. 1, and

Fig. 4 is a graph showing typical frequency characteristics of the filters of this invention.

In Fig. 1 is shown the sheet 1 of insulation, having a relatively high dielectric constant and low high-frequency loss characteristics. The sheet is of extended surface area, and is quite thin. Polystyrene, polyethylene, or insulators commercially known under the trademarks or trade names Formica or Teflon or Resolite are well filler for cotton, asbestos, glass, 'or cellulose fabrics. I To one side of the "sheet is adhered a thin metal ground plate 2. The plate 2 is large in surface 'area and underlies and extends well beyond the boundary of the circuits printed on the other face of the sheet. The ground plate, for economic and electrical reasons, may conveniently comprise copper foil firmly bonded as by a thermosetting adhesive to the one side of the insulating sheet.

To the other side of the sheet is the strip conductor 3, which also may be coppei foil, tailored to the desired size and shape and glued firmly to the face of the sheet. Alternatively, the metal of strip conductor 3 'may be prepared by applying an ink of powdered metal appropriately painted on the sheet and baked in a reducing atmosphere to bond the metal to the sheet in low resistance strips. A third and morecommon alternative comprises cladding overall the front side of the sheet, protecting selected portions of the clad jacket with a photoresist exposing to strong light, and etching away the undesired portions of the jacket. 7

According to an important feature of this invention, tabs 4 and 4a are formed on the insulating sheet integrally with the conductor 3, and are spaced along the conductor as shown. The tabs are shown in pairs, symmetrically on either side of the conductor 3, although symmetry is not indispensable. The spacing between the tabs, and the length of the conductor 3 between the tabs, are preferably such that at the contemplated operating frequency the sections of the line conductor appear as inductive reactances between the tabs. Accordingly, line sections 3a comprise finite inductances in series with line 3; with capacities 4 connected in shunt to the line, as shown in Fig. 2. A plurality of series inductances and parallel capacities comprise the ladder of a low pass filter, attenuating all frequencies above the frequency determined by the length of sections 3a and the areas of tabs 4. The cutoff frequency, f Fig. 4, of such a filter is proportional to R1rL or 1/1rCR, where L is the series inductance of each section, C is the adjacent shunt capacity and R is the load resistance at the receiving end of the filter.

The low pass filter sections, 4 and 3a, are connected in series with a band pass filter comprising the capacities of tabs 4a. For band pass characteristics, effective inductive reactances must be coupled in parallel to the capacitive reactances of the tabs 4a. For this purpose according to this invention, stubs 5 are formed of metal foil on the face of the sheet, integrally joined at one end to the edge of the tabs 4a and appropriately terminated at their other or outer ends. According to this invention the stubs are short circuited at their outer ends to the ground plate 2. Eyelets 6 in the example shown are driven through the sheet to electrically connect the ground palte 2 to the outer ends of the stubs, as best shown in Fig. 3. The stubs are of such a length, respectively, that they present a predetermined effective inductive reactance to the edge of the connected tabs. This length is preferably less than about wavelength of the shortest wave of the band to be passed.

Each section of either filter may be selected in its constants by computing the surface areas of the tabs 4 and 4a for a given insulator and adjusting the lengths of stubs 5 to alter the width of the pass band and to shift the cutoff frequency of the low pass filter. If 1; is the lower frequency limit of the pass band and f is the upper limit of the pass band, see Fig. 3, and L is the series inductance and L is the shunt inductance, and the several capacities, C, are equal, with a load resistance R, then the relationships of the parameters of the band pass filter of this invention may be simply stated as: L =R1r(f +f and L (f f )R/41rf Accordingly, the width of the pass band is conveniently adjusted, and the spacing thereof from the cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is easily controlled. A band pass has been constructed to cover a two-to-one frequency range, and with the low pass filter in combination therewith, harmonic components and spurious responses are effectively suppressed. The pass band f to f and the low pass, f characteristics are separately shown in Fig. 4 before combining.

To determine the inductance and capacities as a practical matter it is convenient to assume a lossless transmission line and to employ basic transmission line formulas such as L ZVE where v is velocity of propagation, Z is characteristic impedance, L is inductance and C is capacitance. Inductance in henries per meter may be obtained directly from Z /v, while capacity in farads per meter may be obtained from l/Z v to accommodate the series and shunt elements of a filter of any given characteristics. Of course, the wider the line 3, the greater is the capacities per unit length of the line.

The formed tabs and stubs do not present discontinuities to the evenly distributed constants of the transmission line 3, and present very low insertion losses to the line. The physical thickness of the filters, comprising the sheet 1 and metal foil parts 2 and 3, may be but a few thousandths of an inch, thus requiring volumetric space extremely small compared to the space required of filters composed of the usual lumped elements. Filter cards of the type shown are readily replaceable in a chassis, should substitution of frequency characteristics be desired. Extensive experimentation has shown that the electrical characteristics of the filters of this invention are extremely stable with age and with environmental changes.

While a specific embodiment of this invention has been and shown and described, other modifications will readily occur to those skilled in the art. It is not, therefore, desired that this invention be limited to the specific a-rrangement shown and described, and it is intended in the appended claim to cover all modifications within the spirit and scope of this invention.

What is claimed is:

A band pass filter comprising a sheet of insulating material, a ground plate of extended area adhered to one face of said sheet, an elongated strip conductor of limited area adhered to the other face of said sheet, spaced foil-like tabs adhered to said other face and electrically joined to said strip conductor, said tabs being of extended area providing lumped capacities with said ground plate larger than those of the connected portions of said strip, and foil-like stubs of less width than said tabs adhered to said other face and electrically connected to said ground plate and at least some of said tabs, the length of said strips between the tabs being adjusted so that the inductive reactance L thereof is proportional to R/1r(f +f and the length of said stubs, for a selected termination, being adjusted so that the inductive reactance, L thereof is proportional to (f f )R/1rf where R is the resistance of the load at the end of said strip, and where f and f are, respectively, the lower and upper frequency of the desired pass band. sired pass band.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,411,555 Rogers Nov. 26, 1946 2,558,748 Haeff July 3, 1951 2,751,558 Grieg et al. June 19, 1956 2,760,169 Engelmann Aug. 21, 1956 2,819,452 Arditi Jan. 7, 1958 2,820,206 Arditi Jan. 14, 1958 OTHER REFERENCES Radio-Electronic Engineering, September 1951, pages 16 and 31.

Electronics, vol. 27, No. 9, September 1954, pages 148-450.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2411555 *Oct 14, 1942Nov 26, 1946Standard Telephones Cables LtdElectric wave filter
US2558748 *Dec 14, 1945Jul 3, 1951Haeff Andrew VRadio-frequency filter
US2751558 *Oct 21, 1952Jun 19, 1956IttRadio frequency filter
US2760169 *Aug 1, 1951Aug 21, 1956IttMicrowave filters
US2819452 *May 8, 1952Jan 7, 1958IttMicrowave filters
US2820206 *May 8, 1952Jan 14, 1958IttMicrowave filters
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3069635 *Sep 21, 1959Dec 18, 1962Siemens And Halske Ag Berlin AFilter arrangement for very short electro-magnetic waves
US3104362 *Aug 27, 1959Sep 17, 1963Thompson Ramo Wooldridge IncMicrowave filter
US3290621 *Apr 2, 1964Dec 6, 1966Siemens AgElectromechanical band filter
US3327248 *Jun 26, 1964Jun 20, 1967Ferranti LtdDelay lines
US3327255 *Mar 6, 1963Jun 20, 1967Harriette BolljahnInterdigital band-pass filters
US3345589 *Dec 14, 1962Oct 3, 1967Bell Telephone Labor IncTransmission line type microwave filter
US3348173 *May 20, 1964Oct 17, 1967Matthaei George LInterdigital filters with capacitively loaded resonators
US3391356 *Jun 30, 1964Jul 2, 1968Army UsaStrip-line filter
US3417352 *Dec 21, 1964Dec 17, 1968Northern Electric CoCorona reduction on printed circuit tuning stubs
US3451015 *Mar 21, 1966Jun 17, 1969Gen Dynamics CorpMicrowave stripline filter
US3471812 *Sep 2, 1965Oct 7, 1969Telefunken PatentHigh impedance printed conductor circuit suitable for high frequencies
US3534301 *Jun 12, 1967Oct 13, 1970Bell Telephone Labor IncTemperature compensated integrated circuit type narrowband stripline filter
US3639857 *Jul 30, 1970Feb 1, 1972Hitachi LtdPlanar-type resonator circuit
US3678433 *Jul 24, 1970Jul 18, 1972Collins Radio CoRf rejection filter
US3757344 *Sep 3, 1971Sep 4, 1973Pereda ESlot antenna having capacitive coupling means
US3879690 *May 6, 1974Apr 22, 1975Rca CorpDistributed transmission line filter
US3939441 *Sep 20, 1973Feb 17, 1976Siemens AktiengesellschaftStructural arrangement for electronic modules
US3959749 *Oct 29, 1974May 25, 1976Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Filter of the distributed constants type
US4074214 *Sep 20, 1976Feb 14, 1978Motorola, Inc.Microwave filter
US4110715 *Jul 27, 1977Aug 29, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyBroadband high pass microwave filter
US4233579 *Jun 6, 1979Nov 11, 1980Bell Telephone Laboratories, IncorporatedTechnique for suppressing spurious resonances in strip transmission line circuits
US4291286 *Dec 17, 1979Sep 22, 1981Ford Aerospace & Communications CorporationHigh bandwidth transversal filter
US4513263 *Dec 20, 1982Apr 23, 1985U.S. Philips CorporationBandpass filters
US4706050 *Sep 4, 1985Nov 10, 1987Smiths Industries Public Limited CompanyMicrostrip devices
US4806890 *Feb 10, 1988Feb 21, 1989Alcatel Thomson Faisceaux HertziensTuneable microwave filter
US4930200 *Jul 28, 1989Jun 5, 1990Thomas & Betts CorporationMethod of making an electrical filter connector
US4992061 *Jul 28, 1989Feb 12, 1991Thomas & Betts CorporationElectrical filter connector
US5024623 *Jun 27, 1990Jun 18, 1991Sanders Associates, Inc.Electrical circuit board mounting method
US5085602 *Aug 11, 1989Feb 4, 1992Sanders Associates, Inc.Electrical circuit board mounting apparatus and method
US5144268 *Jun 20, 1991Sep 1, 1992Motorola, Inc.Bandpass filter utilizing capacitively coupled stepped impedance resonators
US5317291 *Feb 19, 1993May 31, 1994Pacific Monolithics, Inc.Microstrip filter with reduced ground plane
US5357227 *Apr 16, 1993Oct 18, 1994Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd.Laminated high-frequency low-pass filter
US5525953 *May 15, 1995Jun 11, 1996Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Multi-plate type high frequency parallel strip-line cable comprising circuit device part integratedly formed in dielectric body of the cable
US5528202 *Dec 23, 1994Jun 18, 1996Motorola, Inc.Distributed capacitance transmission line
US5648748 *Oct 18, 1995Jul 15, 1997Nec CorporationImpedance converting device capable of readily adjusting an impedance converting characteristic with an electromagnetic shielding effect
US6064281 *Jun 26, 1998May 16, 2000Industrial Technology Research InstituteSemi-lumped bandpass filter
US7348866Nov 2, 2005Mar 25, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationCompact printed filters with self-connected LC resonators
DE3132930A1 *Aug 20, 1981Mar 3, 1983Licentia GmbhMicrowave filter using stripline technology
EP0281773A1 *Feb 8, 1988Sep 14, 1988Alcatel TelspaceAdjustable microwave filter
EP0689261A1 *Jun 20, 1995Dec 27, 1995Alcatel CableProtection device against transient disturbances
WO2007055878A2 *Oct 17, 2006May 18, 2007Northrop Grumman CorpCompact printed filters with self-connected lc resonators
U.S. Classification333/204, 333/246
International ClassificationH01P1/203, H01P1/20
Cooperative ClassificationH01P1/2039
European ClassificationH01P1/203D