US 2915986 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 8, 1959 Filed May 5, 1955 0 m 5 R6 MT 0 0 6 6 6 W U J 1 I 9 F H 5 L n m n v. W 1: m B/ n r 0 n 4. p 0 W m 1 x k 7 76 5 2 a a a 31 2 E L H m 7 2/ -5; m. w flu 2 2 1 United States Patent HAND PUMP FOR LIQUIDS Earl L. Sisson, Stratford, Conn., assignor to Doreen Elizabeth Sisson, Stratford, Conn.
Application May 3, 1955, Serial No. 505,748
6 Claims. (Cl. 103-178) This invention relates to hand pumps, and more particularly to pumps for handling liquids.
The invention is shown as applied to a hand-operated bilge pump for boats; however, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to this particular application since it has utility in connection with hand-operated liquid pumps generally.
Heretofore it has been the practice, in the manufacture of hand-operated bilge pumps, to provide in conjunction with a main cylinder, composite fittings or assemblies adapted to be secured to the cylinder ends. These fittings were for the most part formed of metal, being generally cast and/or machined, and usually were constituted of separate parts or components which then required assembling. Such fittings included, for example, a check valve, or a discharge spout, or bearing and packing means, and in some cases fastening means. With certain constructions the cylinder and metal end fittings were threaded, for securement to each other. Regardless of the particular circumstances, however, the fabrication, machining and assembly of the various fittings and parts making up the entire pump was costly and time consuming, and accordingly the overall manufacturing cost came out needlessly high.
The present invention overcomes the above disadvantages of these prior pumps, and an object of the invention is to provide an improved hand-operated liquid pump which has very few parts which are of easy assembly, whereby the pump is extremely economical to produce.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved hand pump in accordance with the above, which is reliable and foolproof in operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved hand pump as above set forth, wherein the simplicity and economy is achieved mainly by the use of molded flexible parts, and also parts fabricated from materials which are commercially stocked in standard sizes.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an improved hand-operated pump as above characterized, which is simple and economical to service and to effect replacement of the parts.
A feature of the invention resides in the provision of an improved hand pump wherein there is not required the holding of close tolerances in the manufacturing process.
Another feature of the invention resides in the provision of a hand pump having all of the above advantages, and which is nevertheless resistant to corrosion, as for example corrosion due to sea water.
A further feature resides in the provision of a pump as above set forth, which will not scratch the finish of the boat when in use.
Other features and advantages will hereinafter appear.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is an axial sectional view of a hand-operated bilge pump made in accordance with the invention.
' Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating a Patented Dec. 8, 1959 Fig. 3 is a fragmentary axial section illustrating a modi- Ified form of plunger construction for use in the pump of Fig. 4 is a fragmentary axial section illustrating a second modification of plunger for the bilge pump.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary axial section of the bottom of the pump, illustrating a modified form of bottom cap.
Fig. 6 is a view like Fig. 5, illustrating a second modified form of bottom cap.
Referring to Fig. 1 the improved hand-operated bilge pump of this invention comprises a cylinder 10, which may advantageously be formed of corrosion-resistant tubing such as aluminum, plastic or the like. Within the cylinder 10 there is provided a plunger 11 having a shank 12 which extends out through one end of the cylinder and has an operating handle 13.
In accordance with this invention I provide novel and simplified, economical-to-manufacture fittings for the ends of the cylinder 10, together with a novel plunger or piston construction whereby the overall manufacturing cost of the pump is greatly reduced. As shown, on the upper end of the cylinder 10 I provide a combined spout, cap and shank guide 14 which I form of flexible molded composition, preferably rubber. While I prefer to use rubber, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to this particular material or class, since the member 14 may be molded of flexible plastics, for example.
The member 14 comprises a unitary body having two angularly-disposed, hollow, tubular portions 15 and 16 intersecting each other, the portion 15 constituting a spout for the discharge of fluid from the pump.
The portion 16 constitutes a cap which is adapted to be stretched and applied over the upper end portion 10a of the cylinder 10, so as to be firmly atfixed thereto. I prefer to cement the cap portion 16 to the cylinder portion 1011 by a suitable adhesive, although in many circumstances it is not necessary or may not be desirable to employ such cement, since the amount of stretch of the portion 16 may be such as to cause it to snugly embrace the cylinder and prevent inadvertent dislodgement therefrom.
The cap portion 16 has a transverse wall 18 provided with an opening 19 to admit the shank 12 of the plunger, the said wall 18 thus constituting a bearing for the shank. Preferably the end wall 18 has a raised or hub portion 20 surrounding the opening 19 to provide added bearing surface and strength.
Under and engaging the Wall 18 a rigid washer may be disposed, as seen in Fig. 1, said washer having a central opening to pass the shank 12. The said rigid washer is designated by the character 18a and constitutes a rigid annular means disposed broadside to and engaged broadside with the said transverse wall 18, said washer having an opening aligned with that of the wall and said washer constituting an effective reinforcement for said wall and the bearing provided thereby. For the purpose of effecting a more secure fluid seal, the walls of the opening 19 may be provided with an annular groove 21 so arranged that it may fill with liquid, as for example the water being pumped, and form a more effective seal to prevent said water from coming out through the opening 19.
The upper end portion 10a of the cylinder 10 has a large side opening 22 by which the spout 15 may communicate with the interior of the cylinder, and thus there is provided a large passage for water or other fluid from the cylinder through the spout.
It will be understood that with the above construction I have provided in the single unitary member 14 a combined spout, cap and shank guide which may be readily economically molded in one piece and quickly and easily 3 assembled to the cylinder. No relatively movable .parts, threaded connections, close fits or tolerances are required; instead the arrangement is characterized by extreme simplicity; few parts, ease of assembly,and low manufacturing cost.
"By the 'present invention I provide at the bottom of the cylinder a combined bottom cap and check valve 24, comprising a tubular body 25 and a transverse end wall 26. The member 24 is also formed of flexible molded composition such as rubber or rubber-like substance, the body 25 being made slightly smaller in diameter than the cylinder 10 and being stretched over the lower end of the cylinder to provide a'tight fit thereto. The end wall 26 has a plurality of openings 27 extending between its upper and lower faces, said openings being preferably disposed in an arc and being normally closed by a flexible flap 28 in the form of a washer having a portion 29 thereof cemented or vulcanized or otherwise attached to the wall 26. The flap 28 permits passage of fluid through the openings 27 only in upward directions, and prevents discharge of fluid from the cylinder lflthrough the cap.
It will beunderstood that the bottom cap and check valve assembly 24 may be economically fabricated and assembled, and readily attached to the cylinder 10 with but a minimum of cost. By forming the flap 28 in the shape of a washer, maximum flexibility is assured, together with effective closing of the openings 27 to provide the check valve function. The bottom cap 24 is preferably provided with depending projections or ribs 24a by which the bottom surface of the cap is prevented from fitting closely against a supporting surface and causing stoppage of the openings 27.
On the inner end of the plunger shank 12 I provide a novel plunger comprising a relatively thick, plug-like body 30 formed of flexible molded composition, said body having peripheral beads 31 adapted to engage and bear on the inside of the cylinder 10. The body 39 has a plurality of openings 32 extending between its opposite sides and disposed in an arc, and has a flexible flap 33 secured to its upper side, as by cementingpvulcanizing, etc., said flap normally overlying the openings 32 and constituting a check valve. The flap 33 permits passage of fluid through the openings 32 only in upward directions. The plunger 11 as thus constructed is extremely simple, yef'eifective and reliable in its operation.
It will be seen that when the handle 13 of the pump is actuated to reciprocate the plunger 11, water will be sucked up through the bottom cap 24, pass through the plunger 11, and be discharged from the spout 15.
A modified form of cylinder construction is shown in Fig. 2, and like parts have been given similar characters wherever possible. In this figure a cylinder 35 is shown, having an upper end portion 36 provided around its periphery with a plurality of elongate openings 37. The cylinder end 36 is inwardly dished or formed in an annular 'zone which includes the openings 37, as shown, thereby to provide an annular passage 38 through "which liquid may pass from the cylinder 35 to the spout 15. With the construction of Fig. 2 it is not necessary to place the member 14 on the cylinder in one predetermined position, as is required in the construction of Fig. l.
A modified form of plunger made in accordance with the invention is shown in Fig. 3, and corresponding parts have been given like characters. In Fig. 3 the plunger comprises a relatively thick plug-like body 40 formed of flexible molded composition and having an integral, substantially. thinner, flared peripheral flange 41 and an annular groove 42 in the body at the base of the flange. The body 40 is of sufficient thickness and is sufliciently nonyielding to prevent appreciable deformation or collapse when the plunger is actuated back and forth in the cylinder by means of the shank 12. The flange 41 will yield or collapse inward during downward movement of the plunger to permit passage of fluid past the plunger. Upon upward movement of the plunger the amass:
4 flange 41 will expand, preventing such passage of fluid and forcing the latter out through the spout 15.
Another modified form of plunger is shown in Fig. 4. In this figure the plunger comprises a relatively thick plug-like body 45 of flexible molded composition, having a recess 46 in its underside. The upper portion of the body 45 is cut along the line indicated at 47, thereby forming a flexible integral flap 48 arranged to constitute a check valve for control of fluid through the opening 46.
A modified form of bottom cap made in accordance with the invention is shown in Fig. 5. In this figure the bottom cap is constituted of a relatively thick body 50 having an annular groove 51 arranged to receive the lower end of the cylinder 10. The body has a deep recess 52 in its underside, extending almost to its upper surface, and said body is slit along the line 53 to provide a flexible flap 54 adapted to constitute a check valve.
6. In this figure the bottom cap comprises a sleeve-like body 55 connected with an inner annular wall 56, the latter being provided with a transverse end wall 57 having fluid passages 58 and a slit 59 forming a flexible flap 60 which constitutes a check valve in conjunction with the passages 58. The bottom caps shown in Figs. 5 and 6 may be cemented to the cylinder 10 if desired, or
dependence may be had on the friction provided between the flexible cap and the cylinder.
It will be understood that the bottom caps shown in Figs. Sand 6 may be molded in one piece from rubber or rubber-like material or any other suitable flexible moldable substance.
With the above structures I have provided a novel, greatly simplified and inexpensive yet reliable hand-operated pump suitable for use as a bilge pump, and for other applications. The fabricating and maintenance cost has been greatly reduced, as compared with prior pumps of this type, while the quality is not sacrificed. Moreover, in conjunction with the above reduction in fabricating costs, there is still retained the desirable resistance to corrosion, since the molded rubber parts are non-corrosive and since the cylinder 10 and shank 12 may be formed of inexpensive non-corrosive material such as aluminum alloy, plastic or the like.
By the use of the molded flexible rubber parts there is also prevented any likelihood of the pump scratching or marring the finish of the boat when it is in use, or being stored.
Variations and modifications may be made within the scope of the claims and portions of the improvements may be used without others.
1. A hand pump having, in combination, a pump cylinder provided with a side opening at one end; a plunger and plunger shank in the cylinder and a combined spout, cap and plunger shank guide comprising a unitary body of flexible and stretchable, molded composition having two angularly-disposed, hollow, tubular portions intersecting each other, one of said tubular portions constituting a spout aligned and communicating with said side opening and the other tubular portion constituting a cap extending around and gripping the said one end of the pump cylinder under tension, said other tubular portion having a flexible transverse wall provided with an opening to admit the plunger shank of the pump and said wall constituting a bearing for said shank; and rigid annular means disposed broadside to and engaged broadside with said flexible transverse wall and having an opening aligned with that of the wall, said means reinforcing said wall and the bearing provided thereby.
2. The invention as defined'in claim 1 in which the reinforcing means comprises a rigid washer disposed within the body against the inside of the said transverse Another modified form of bottom cap is shown in Fig.
annular groove spaced from the opposite sides of the 5 transverse wall, for holding a quantity of the substance 7 being pumped in an area surrounding the plunger shank.
4. The invention as defined in claim 2 in which the cap portion of the body is adhered to the end of the cylinder.
5. The combination of a cylinder for a hand pump, 1 having an open end; a combined spout, cap and plunger shank guide carried by the open end of said cylinder, comprising a unitary body of flexible, molded composition having two angularly-disposed, hollow, tubular portions intersecting each other, one of said tubular portions 1 constituting a spout and the other tubular portion constituting a cap encircling and gripping the said cylinder, said cylinder having a plurality of fluid openings disposed around its periphery adjacent the said end to provide for passage of fluid outward through the walls of 2 the cylinder and said other tubular portion having a transverse wall provided with an opening to admit the plunger shank of the pump, said transverse wall constituting a bearing for said shank, said cylinder and flexible body having spaced curved wall portions at said fluid open- 2 ings, said wall portions extending circumferentially and together constituting a curved channel communicating with said fluid openings and with said spout.
6. The combination of a cylinder for a hand pump,
having an open end; a combined spout, cap and plunger 3 shank guide carried by the open end of said cylinder, comprising a unitary body of flexible, molded composition having two angularly-disposed, hollow, tubular portions intersecting each other, one of said tubular portions constituting a spout and the other tubular portion constituting a cap encircling and gripping the said cylinder, said cylinder having a plurality of fluid openings disposed around its periphery adjacent the said end to provide for passage of fluid outward through the walls of the cylinder and said other tubular portion having a trans verse Wall provided with an opening to admit the plunger shank of the pump, said transverse wall constituting a bearing for said shank, said end of the cylinder having an inwardly displaced annular wall portion in which the said fluid openings in the cylinder are located, thereby to provide in conjunction with the Walls of the cap additional passage means between the spout and the cylinder.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 237,193 Mallory Feb. 1, 1881 515,356 Selzer Apr. 17, 1894 693,920 Sterrett Feb. 25, 1902 1,264,554 Peron Apr. 30, 1918 1,777,052 Shepherd Sept. 30, 1930 1,904,926 Peters Nov. 9, 1931 1,929,310 Greve Oct. 3, 1933 2,044,594 Scholfield June 16, 1936 2,388,661 Woodford Jan. 9, 1945 2,500,639 Lermer Mar. 14, 1950 2,577,417 Halpin Dec. 4, 1951 2,578,765 Wallace Dec. 18, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS 362,083 Great Britain Dec. 3, 1931 665,314 France May 6, 1929