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Publication numberUS2916038 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 8, 1959
Filing dateFeb 23, 1954
Priority dateFeb 23, 1954
Also published asDE1115170B
Publication numberUS 2916038 A, US 2916038A, US-A-2916038, US2916038 A, US2916038A
InventorsWade Worth
Original AssigneeAmerican Viscose Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tobacco smoke filter
US 2916038 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 8, 1959 W WADE;

TOBACCO SMOKE FILTER Filed Feb. 23, 1954 United States Patent TOBACCO sMoKE FILTER Worth Wade, Rosemont, Pa., assignor to American AViscose Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a ycorporation of Delaware Alppiication February 23,1954, Serial No. 411,698

Claims. (Cl. ISI-10) This invention relates in general toY tobacco smoke filters and in particular toa cigarette having a smoke filter incorporated therein and includes correlated improvements in the process of making such filters and in the articles so produced.

Tobacco smoke is made up of a mixture of gaseous compounds and finely divided solids and comprises tar, phenol, acetic acid, acrolein, carbon dioxide, water vapor and sol-id dust particles derived from the disintegration of the tobacco and the paper. Most of the substances contained in tobacco smoke are in the vapor state and are not removed from the smoke by prior filtersthat depend entirely on physical structure for filtration efficiency. Moreover, in prior filters of wood fiber, rayon, cotton, cellulose sponge and the like, theparticles of the smoke are largely deposited on the surface of the filter and soon clog up the surface and increase the draw required -to pull smoke therethrough.

According to the present invention, there is provided a tobacco smoke filter in the form of a mass of organic plastic fibers carrying a substantially permanent electric charge, and preferably in the form of organic fiber elcctrets. The present filter is also characterized by the fact that the fibers which make up the filter mass are not of substantially uniform diameter but, on the contrary, com-prise fibers whose diameters vary Widely over a substantial range of between 10 microns to 0.25 micron, and each individual fiber varies in diameter along itsl length. In the manufacture `of organic plastic fibers in the rayon industry, in which the plastic mass is extruded through a spinneret, the resulting filaments have substantially the same diameters throughout their lengths and the lvariation in the diameter between fibers is only a fraction of the total diameter of either of them. In contrast to these fibers, the present invention utilizes organic fibers in which the variation in the fiber diameter is more than twofold throughout the mass and each fiber tapers substantially at its ends. In a preferred embodiment, the filter comprises at least some fibers which are thermoplastic and thefilter may be heat-treated to bond the thermoplastic fibers to each other or to the other fibers at their points of contact. The filter may comprise an unshaped mass of looserfibers or a shaped mass, the shape being preferably fixed by thermally bonding the thermoplastic fibers on the surface of the filter. It has been found that the variation in the fiber diameter causes the present filter to be effective in depth and not to produce the majority of the deposition at the initial exposed surface of the filter mass.

The variable diameter bers employed in the tobacco smoke filter of the present invention may be produced according to the process disclosed in the copending application of Derek E'. Till and Carl R. Smallman Serial No. 400,252 filed December 24, 1953, now Patent No. 2,810,426, in which an organic plastic material is sprayed from a solution or molten mass into the form of fibers, the spraying taking place in a charged field so that a charge is induced on the fibers during their "ice formation. It would appear that the fibers -so produced actually form miniature fiberelectrets but, in anycase, the mass of fibers so produced is characterizedI by having a strong and substantially permanent electric charge'.4 It is possible by this process to induce upon the fibers either a positive or negative charge but the efiiciency of the filter as a tobacco smoke filter appears to ber substantially independent of the nature of the charge. The reason for this appears to be that the tobacco smoke'particles haver a charge induced upon them as they pass through the filter which is opposite to the charge on the fibers and the particles are then caused to be attracted to the-surface of the bers.

The organic fiber electrets may be formed' from natural or synthetic resins as a class, such as vinyl resins, acrylic resins, polyamide resins, polyethylene resins and the like and from organic fiber-forming cellulose derivatives' as a class such, for example, ascellulose esters, cellulose ethers and cellulose ester-ethers and compatible mixtures of resins and cellulose derivatives.

The present filter may be formed in wholev of the organicv fiber electrets or of a mixture of such electret fibers with non-electret fibers such, for example, as natural or synthetic fibers of any kind. For example, there may be mixed. with the charged fibers such natural` cellulose fibers as are derived from Wood, straw, sisal, hemp and the like,: and regenerated cellulose fibers formed by extrusion of viscose, cuprammonia and solutions of' cellulose in itsv solvents, also protein fibers formed `fromgelatin, casein, zein, and peanut proteins, and mixtures of such classes of fibers. The non-electret fibers may' also comprise mineral fibers such as asbestos, glass and rock wool, but in this embodiment it is advisable that the filter `mass be heat-treated tol bond the thermoplastic organic fibers to the mineral fibers to prevent their escape in the smoke stream: during use. Y

The tobacco smoke filter of the present invention may be used in any tobacco product such as` cigarettes, cigars or in a holder for a cigarette or cigar or in a tobacco pipe stem or in so-called Water pipe smoking apparatus. Also, the filter maybe formed to fit into a refllablefilter holder for use in any smoking article.V

Fora more complete understanding of the nature and objectives of the present invention, referenceshould be had to the accompanying drawing in which Figure l'is a perspective view of one embodiment of the tobacco smoke filter of the invention.

Figure 2 is a representation of a mass of random-sized fibers utilized in the filter of the invention.

Figure 3 is a perspective view illustrating one method of forming the filter shown in Figure l.

Figure 4 is a perspective view of la second method of forming the filter illustratedin Figure l.

Figure 5 is a perspective View ofthe second embodiment of the filter.

Figure 6 is a perspective 'View of a cigarette incorporating the filter in accordance with the lpresent invention.

Referring to Figure l, the present filter comprises, .in its preferred embodiment, a shaped cylindrical-mass 10 of organic fibers 11, carrying an electric charge, the fibers being preferably in random distributionand varying in diameter and length.

Referring to Figure 2, it will be noted that the fibers used in the filter are characterized by the fact that each fiber varies in diameter over a substantial range along its length and with respect to each other. In' the same mass, some of the fibers such as. 11a are of, very large diameter while others such as 11b are of extremely fine diameter. It should also be noted that the individual fiber such as fiber 11C varies in diameter throughout its length and particularly that the ends of the fiber have a pronounced and elongated taper. Thus these fibers differ K 3.. in'their non-uniformity articial fibers which are spinnerets.

of diameter and length from produced by extrusion from The lter Yofitheiinverition ,may b e produced 'in a number of ways, vfor, example by forming the Variablediameter fibers into a web 12 as shown in Figure 3 and i rolling this vweb upon itself to form a cylindrical roll 13. To maintain the cylindrical shape, the roll 13 `may be subjected to heat suicient to cause a substantial number Aof the thermoplastic fibers, preferably those in the surface layers, to bond to 'each other` at their points of contact. Alternatively, there may` be applied yto the surfacev of the roll` a binder, such as a solution ofa resin, cellulose 1 derivative, glue, gelatin, casein, water-soluble cellulose ether or other plastic or adhesive material, to bond the surface fibers. Thereafter, the roll may lbe cut transversely into individual iilter sections as desired.

In Figure 4there is shown another method of forming the cylindrical shape filter `mass in which a web 14 comprising the non-uniform diameter fibers is gathered upon itself by folding, rolling, or twisting to form a cylindrical mass 15 whichis drawn through the central hole of a die 16 having a heating element such -as the electric heating coil 20. In passing through the die, the ibrous mass is` compacted and at least the surface iibers are heated suiiiciently to cause them to fuse together at their points of contact which iixes the cylindrical shape. Thereafter, the cylindrical mass 15 may be cut transversely into ilter sections.

Another method of fixing the shape is shown in Figure 5in which a loose mass of iibers 21 carrying. a charge is enclosed in a collar or cylindrical cover 17 formed of a sheet material such as paper, metal foil, cellophane and the like. lIn the production of the `iilter unit as illustrated in Figure 5,y the assembled unit may be subjected to a suitable treatment such as heat treatment so as to bond together a substantial number of bers at their points of contact and to bond the iibers on the peripheral surface to the. collar thereby preventing displacement of the fibers from the collar. Replaceable filter units ofv this type may be utilized in holders for cigarettes and cigars, pipe stems and any other smoking article.

In Figure 6, there Vis shown the cigarette of the invention comprising a paper wrapper 18 closing the granulated tobacco 19 and having disposed at one end the filter 10 of this invention. The iilter unit 10 may be a mass of tibers, or it may consist of a preformedbody i Vment such as a heat treatment so as to bond the surface iibers to the Wrapper 18. Where the iilter unit has not been previously-processed to bond the fibers together, the heat treatment may be suiiicient also to bond together a substantial number of iibers. The iibers are thereby bonded into a coherent porous mass and the mass bonded to the wrapper so as to 'securely tix the unit within the clgarette.

I claim: I

1. A tobacco; smoke filter formed of a mass of randomly arranged organic fibers each of which has more than a two-fold variation in diameter, terminates in elongated tapered ends and carries a substantial permanent electric charge.

2. A tobacco smoke filter as defined in claim 1 wherein the maximum diameter of the bers is between 0.25 micron and 10 microns.

3. A tobacco smoke filter formed of a mass of randomly arranged thermoplastic fibers each of which has a maximum diameter between 0.25 micronand 10 microns, has more than a two-fold variation in diameter, terminates in elongated tapered ends and carries a substantially permanent electric charge, a substantial number of the fibers being bondedV together at their points of contact.

4. As an article of manufacture, a tobacco smoke iilter comprising a collar and a ilter body within the collar formed of a mass of randomly arranged organic fibers each of which has a maximum diameter between 0.25 micron and 10 microns, has more than a two-fold variation in diameter, terminates in elongated tapered ends and carries a substantially permanent electric charge.

5. An article ofrmanufac'ture as defined in claim 4 wherein the iibers are thermoplastic'iibers and are bonded together at their points of contact.

6. An article of manufacture as definedin claim 4 wherein the iibers are thermoplastic iibers and the fibers in contact with the collar are bonded to the collar.y

7. As an article of manufacture, a cigarette comprising a tobacco smoke filter formed of a mass of randomly arranged organic bers eachrof which has a maX- imurn diameter between 0.25 micron and 10 microns, has more than a two-fold variation in diameter, terminates in elongated tapered ends and carries a substantially permanent electric charge.

8. An article of manufacture as deiined in claim 7 wherein the libers are formed of a synthetic resin.

9. An article of manufacture as definedin claim 7` wherein the fibers are thermoplastic synthetic resin iibers and a substantial number of the iibers are bonded together at their pointsof contact.

10. As an article of manufacture, a cigarette having at one end a cylindrical smoke lter, said filter having an outer casing formed of a non-thermoplastic liber and a smoke filter within said casing formed of a mass of randomly arranged organic iibers each of which has a maximum diameter between 0.25 micron and 10 microns, has more' than a two-fold variation in diameter, terminates in elongated tapered ends and carries a substantially permanent electric charge, a substantial number of said tibers being bonded together at their points of contact and the` fibers in contact with said casing being bonded y thereto.

d References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Y 2,126,422 Tarrant Aug. 9, 1938 2,159,121 Alley May 23, 1939 2,161,766 f Rugeley et al. June 6, 1939 2,219,491 'Podmore Oct. 29, 1940 2,336,745 Manning ,Dec. 14, 1943 2,355,822 Rugeley Aug. 15, 1944 2,411,660 Manning Nov. 26, 1946 2,459,804 Francis Jan. 25, 1949 2,464,301 Francis Mar. 15, 1949 2,476,582 Browne July 19, 1949 V2,483,406 Francis Oct. 4, 1949 2,502,545 Wellborn Apr. 4, 1950 2,520,124 Chaney Aug. 29, 1950 2,688,380 MacHenry Sept. 7, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 121,414 Australia 'May 16, 1946 Great Britain June 13, 1929

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2126422 *Mar 27, 1934Aug 9, 1938John G TarrantAttachment for smoking devices
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US2161766 *Sep 15, 1937Jun 6, 1939Carbide & Carbon Chem CorpSynthetic fiber
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3025861 *Jul 2, 1959Mar 20, 1962Eastman Kodak CoNonchanneling tobacco smoke filament filter
US3028864 *Apr 7, 1959Apr 10, 1962Ibc Res Lab IncMethods and devices for filtering tobacco smoke
US3033212 *Apr 17, 1959May 8, 1962Eastman Kodak CoTobacco smoke filter containing polyolefin cobweb additive
US3064657 *May 19, 1961Nov 20, 1962Walter ShrinerCigarette smoke filtration device
US3087500 *Oct 10, 1960Apr 30, 1963Jacobson GeorgeCigarette filters
US3119396 *May 24, 1961Jan 28, 1964Minnesota Mining & MfgTobacco smoke filter
US3173426 *Oct 9, 1961Mar 16, 1965Eastman Kodak CoTobacco smoke filter
US3180911 *Jan 11, 1960Apr 27, 1965Adolf Muller PaulMethod of making cigarette filter plugs of fibrous material containing thermoplastic fibers
US3189506 *Apr 12, 1962Jun 15, 1965Eastman Kodak CoMethod and apparatus for forming continuous filament filter rods
US3196037 *Jun 1, 1961Jul 20, 1965Yarsley Res Lab LtdPreparation of cigarette filter tips
US3205107 *Dec 2, 1959Sep 7, 1965Eastman Kodak CoProcess for making filament tobacco smoke filters
US3219043 *Jun 2, 1961Nov 23, 1965Reeves Bros IncTobacco smoke filter plug
US3229008 *Dec 5, 1961Jan 11, 1966Eastman Kodak CoProcess for producing a polypropylene fibrous product bonded with polyethylene
US3232294 *Mar 5, 1962Feb 1, 1966Nat Lead CoTobacco smoke filter
US3268084 *Feb 20, 1963Aug 23, 1966Celanese CorpBulked non-wovens
US3285255 *Jun 7, 1965Nov 15, 1966Eastman Kodak CoPolyolefin filter
US3313306 *Oct 22, 1965Apr 11, 1967American Filtrona CorpStable elongated elements and smoking means incorporating the same
US3396061 *Jun 1, 1964Aug 6, 1968Celanese CorpSmoke filters
US3449093 *Oct 23, 1965Jun 10, 1969Philip Morris IncLaminated polarets
US3449094 *Oct 23, 1965Jun 10, 1969Philip Morris IncLaminated electrets
US3461882 *May 8, 1967Aug 19, 1969Celanese CorpMethod of filtering tobacco smoke
US3496013 *Oct 23, 1965Feb 17, 1970Philip Morris IncMetallized polarets and methods for their production
US3498299 *Jan 10, 1969Mar 3, 1970Bose Wesley CFiltration of tobacco smoke
US3575179 *May 21, 1968Apr 20, 1971Aldern Alan NTobacco smoke filter
US3882877 *Apr 20, 1973May 13, 1975Rothmans Of Pall MallFilter for tobacco smoke
US4059121 *Jan 27, 1975Nov 22, 1977Rothmans Of Pall Mall Canada LimitedFilter for tobacco smoke
US4316475 *Apr 4, 1980Feb 23, 1982Mitsubishi Rayon Co.Tobacco smoke filter plug and producing method therefor
US4379465 *Jul 23, 1980Apr 12, 1983Job, Anciens Ets Bardou Job & PauilacProcess for producing a filtering structure in particular for cigarette filters
US4411641 *Sep 28, 1981Oct 25, 1983Mitsubishi Rayon Co. Ltd.Method for producing a tobacco smoke filter plug
US5817159 *Dec 31, 1996Oct 6, 1998Cahill; Scott A.Filter with interpenetrating polymer network that biodegrades
US5874373 *Mar 14, 1997Feb 23, 1999American Felt & Filter CompanyEnhanced electret needled filtration media and composites
US5998500 *Jun 23, 1998Dec 7, 1999Cahill; Scott A.Method of making a filter with interpenetrating polymer network that biodegrades
US8534294Oct 9, 2009Sep 17, 2013Philip Morris Usa Inc.Method for manufacture of smoking article filter assembly including electrostatically charged fiber
US20060032376 *Sep 5, 2003Feb 16, 2006Tasuku OsadaAir purifier
CN102349704A *Jul 2, 2011Feb 15, 2012云南瑞升烟草技术(集团)有限公司Novel cigarette filter rod containing regenerated vegetable protein fibers
EP0568107A2 *Aug 13, 1988Nov 3, 1993R.J. Reynolds Tobacco CompanyMethod and apparatus for forming a rod for use in the manufacture of smoking articles
WO2011042174A3 *Oct 6, 2010Jun 30, 2011Philip Morris Products S.A.A method and apparatus for manufacture of smoking article filter assembly including electrostatically charged fibers
Classifications
U.S. Classification131/333, 131/331, 131/340, 131/332, 55/528, 96/99, 96/65, 156/296, 131/341, 55/DIG.390
International ClassificationA24D3/02, A24D3/08
Cooperative ClassificationA24D3/08, A24D3/02, Y10S55/39
European ClassificationA24D3/08, A24D3/02
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 15, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: BALBOA INSURANCE COMPANY C/O THE PAUL REVERE EQUIT
Owner name: JOHN HANCOCK MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY JOHN HA
Owner name: KELLOGG CREDIT CORPORATION A DE CORP.
Free format text: AGREEMENT WHEREBY SAID HELLER AND RAYONIER RELEASES ALL MORTGAGES AND SECURITY INTERESTS HELD BY AVTEX ON APRIL 28, 1978, AND JAN. 11, 1979, RESPECTIVELY AND ASSIGNS ITS ENTIRE INTEREST IN SAID MORT-AGAGE AGREEMENT TO ASSIGNEE;ASSIGNORS:WALTER E. HELLER & COMPANY, INC. A NY CORP.;ITT RAYONIER INCORPORATED, A DE CORP.;AVTEX FIBERS INC., A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:003959/0350
Owner name: NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 501 BOYL
Owner name: PAUL REVERE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY THE C/O THE PAU
Owner name: PROVIDENT ALLIANCE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY C/O THE
Owner name: WALTER E. HELLER & COMPANY, INC., A CORP. OF DEL.
Free format text: AGREEMENT WHEREBY AETNA RELEASES AVTEX FROM ALL MORTAGES AND SECURITY INTERESTS IN SAID INVENTIONS AS OF JANUARY 11,1979, AND ASSIGNS TO ASSIGNEE THE ENTIRE INTEREST IN SAID MORTAGE AGREEMENT TO ASSIGNEE;ASSIGNORS:AETNA BUSINESS CREDIT, INC., A CORP. OF N.Y.;AVTEX FIBERS, INC, A CORP. OF NY;KELLOGG CREDIT CORP., A CORP. OF DEL.;REEL/FRAME:003959/0250
Effective date: 19800326
Owner name: WESTERN AND SOUTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY THE C/
Free format text: AS SECURITY FOR INDEBTEDNESS RECITED ASSIGNOR GRANTS , BARGAINS, MORTGAGES, PLEDGES, SELLS AND CREATES A SECURITY INTEREST WITH A LIEN UNDER SAID PATENTS, SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS RECITED.;ASSIGNOR:AVTEX FIBERS INC. A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:003959/0219
Effective date: 19810301