US 2916200 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. B. SIEGMUND COMPRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Filed Aug. 17, 1956 Dec. 8, 1959 Fig.
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, Gerhard Bernhard .Siegmund 39 34 INVENTOR.
United rates Patent COMPRESSOR non REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Gerhard Bernhard Siegrnund, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, assignor of one-third to Arthur V. Jackson and one-third to Milton M. Sperber, both of Dayton, Ohio Application August 17, 1956, Serial No. 604,635
4 Claims. (Cl. 230-162) This invention relates to a refrigeration system and particularly to the compressor in such systems.
The invention consists in a refrigeration system that is improved by a compressor that has no reciprocating piston. The compressor circulates the refrigerant in a cooling system in which the refrigerant is compressed in one or more stages from expansion pressure to liquid pressure during which all or part of the refrigerant is compressed. The design of compressor refrigeration systems is based onwhat is known as the volumetric cooling work of the refrigerant, this being a figure which indicates how many killogram calories are taken up when the refrigerant evaporates, by this refrigerant if the vaporized refrigerant occupies a space of one cubic meter for Freon. For example, a temperature for evaporation of minus 20 C. to plus 20 C. across the expansion valve involves the volumetric cooling energy of 272.1 calories per kilogram per cubic meter. If the piston is spaced in a normal compressor, that is a compressor of the reciprocating piston type, is assumed to be 50 cubic centimeters, this space must be filled 20,000 times in order to produce the cooling work or cooling energy of 271.1 kilogram calories. The larger therefore, the piston space of the compressor, the smaller is the number of strokes which are necessary for supplying the cooling energy. However, compressors with great volume capacity are not very suitable for household refrigerators inasmuch as they are extremely expensive to manufacture and their maintenance is expensive. Furthermore, great electrical energy demands are made of a motor in order to drive a giant compressor. An object of the present invention is to provide a compressor which avoids all of the difficulties described above and in addition has the advantage that which may dissolve in it and thus diminish the efliciency of the refrigerating system. The refrigerant is kept completely and wholly isolated from any moving part in the compressor that would require lubrication.
A further object of the invention is to provide a compressor that is primarily useful in connection with the forcing of refrigerant through a refrigerating apparatus, the compressor having a casing in which there is a supply of water, some of which is decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen, these products of decomposition being burned in the form of an explosion whereby there is a rapid expansion applying forces to the column of water in the casing in order that the pressure is in turn, applied to a flexible bag containing some of the refrigerant, the refrigerant in turn being issued through a valve controlled outlet into the refrigeration apparatus.
A more specific object of the invention is to provide an improved compression chamber in a compressor, the compression chamber being defined by a flexible bag having its open end attached to a wall in the compressor and supported by a perforated pipe. This pipe is in registry with a passageway that connects to the inlet and outlet for the chamber so that when force is applied to the bag tending to collapse it, the refrigerant in the chamber is squeezed through the openings in the pipe and through the outlet of the chamber under a pressure which is di- Wk m1 Fatented Dec. 8, 1959 rectly proportional to the pressure that is applied to the collapsible bag.
Another object of the invention is to provide a compressor in a refrigerating apparatus as described above wherein the sub-atmospheric pressure which exists in the casing when the gases of decomposition are ignited and cooled, draw the refrigerant into the chamber for subsequent cycles of operation thereon.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawing forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
Figure 1 is a partly perspective and partly elevational schematic view in different scales showing a single arrangement of refrigerating apparatus typifying the invention; and
Figure 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of a compressor which is constructed in accordance with the invention.
In Figure 1 there is illustrated a refrigeration apparatus 10 that includes a condenser 32, an expansion valve 14, an evaporator 16 and a compressor 18. These are essen tial elements of the ordinary refrigeration system that involves compression and expansion of a gas refrigerant. The condenser, expansion valve and evaporator are of standard form and therefore, are schematically represented as being connected in a single flow pattern, there being inlet conduit 20 for the condenser 12 and outlet conduit 22 extending from the evaporator 16. Compressor 18 constitutes a chief part of the invention and comprises a casing 24 that has a head 26 with cooling fins 28 at one end, anda wall 30 at the opposite end. This wall is connected to a mounting flange 32 by means of bolt 34 that pass through aligned apertures in mounting flange 32 and wall 30. Gasket 33 is disposed in confronting grooves or surfaces of flange 32 and end wall 30 in order to form an effective seal between the end wall and the interior of casing 24. Wall 30 has a central support 40 rising therefrom and fitting into the interior of casing 24.
A compression chamber 42 is separated from the remainder of the volume enclosed by casing 24. Chamber 42 is formed by a flexible, deformable bag 44 which is strong and impervious to water and a refrigerant such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide or dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon). Teflon is one example of a type of plastic which may be used for the construction of bag 44, this plastic being extremely durable and well suited for the purpose. The lower, open end of the bag 44 is fitted over an annular wall 46 of support 4% and held in place by suitable means, as hand 48 which is compressed on the outer surface of the bag, forcing it tightly against Wall 46.
A pipe 50 has its lower end fitted in passageway 52 formed in support 40 and also in wall 30. This pipehas a number of apertures 54 in its side wall and a flexible seat 58 at its upper end on which the top of bag 44 is disposed. Passageway 52 has branches 60 and 61 that are in registry with one-way check valves 6 and 66 that are located in the outlet and inlet ports respectively for the chamber 42. These ports have conduits 2d and 22 respectively connected therewith for the passage of re frigerant therethrough. Passages 6? are formed in sup port 40 communicating the interior of bag 4% with the branch 61 of passageway 52. Passages '70 serve a similar function with respect to the branch 60 of passageway 52, bringing it into registry with chamber 42.
Casing 24 is about filled with water whereby the water level is considerably below the glow plug 72 in cylinder head 26. A pair of concentric electrodes 74 and 76 respectively are attached in registry with an opening 77 in the side wall of casing 24. The electrodes are preferably of tubular form, one having a mounting flange 78 at its outer end and the other having a mounting plate 79 at its outer end. The mounting flange and mounting plate are held assembled by means of bolts, as at'Stl, these bolts passing through aligned openings in mounting plate 82 and in flange 78. Gaskets 83 and 84 are of electrically insulating material and hold the outer extremities of the electrodes in electrically insulating relationship to each other. Binding post 85 protruding from plate 79 of the inner electrode 76, has a wire 86 secured to it, while bolt 80 has a wire 87 connected to it.
Wire 86 has a switch 88 in it and then connects to a terminal of a DC. supply. Wire 87 proceeds to the other terminal of the source of electrical energy. The water in the casing 24 has a part of it decomposed in order to form hydrogen and oxygen, and then in properly timed relation to the decomposition, the glow plug is energized in order to burn the products of decomposition. The timing function is performed by a motor 90 connected across the lines 87 and 86 and arranged to be controlled by the switch 88. Friction clutch 92 is driven by the motor, this clutch being of the multiple disk type so that upon adjustment of one disk with respect to the other, the effective speed of shaft 93 driven by the clutch 92, may be regulated. Actuation of adjustment screw 94 serves this function by moving support 95 vertically, shaft 93 and one of the clutch elements being carried by support 95. A wire 96 extends from one side of the line and is connected to a resilient contact 97, the latter being secured to support 95. Rotary switch arm 98 is secured to shaft 93 and is connected to wire 99 by means of a contact 101 which functions as a wiper on the end of shaft 93 with which the switch arm 98 is connected for electrical conductivity. Wire 99 is secured to the binding post of glow plug 72 in order to energize it when the switch arm 98 is brought into contact.
In operation, switch 88 is closed to thereby energize the electrodes 74 and 76. Current passes between these electrodes and through the water that is in the vicinity thereof. Electrolytic decomposition of the water starts forming hydrogen and oxygen gases which rise upwardly toward the cylinder head 26 and collect and accumulate around the glow plug 72. After a predetermined time interval, which is fixed by adjustment of screw 94 which alters the clutch 92, the ignition current is cut in due to the closing of switch 164- that is formed by the switch arm 98 and contact 97 with which it is adapted to coact. The mixture of hydrogen and oxygen burns in the form of an explosion which is somewhat retarded by the air space in cylinder head 26. The explosion pressure is transmitted to the remainder of the water in the casing which presses against'the top and the sides'of the plastic bag 44 and collapses the bag. Inasmuch as this bag is assumed at this time to be filled with refrigerant in the gaseous state, the refrigerant is compressed by being forced through the apertures 54 and passageway 52 together with its branches, from chamber 42 and through check valve 64 into conduit 20. Accordingly, the refrigerant is expressed from the chamber 42 through conductor Z8 and into condenser 12. After condensing, the refrigerant flows from the condenser in liquid form and passes through a standard expansion valve 14. Thisexpansion valve may be electro-mechanically controlled in relationship to the timing device of Figure 1 by-the-use of a solenoid type expansion valvewired with a timing device. Upon opening the expansion valve 14 the refrigerant passes into the evaporator 16 and returns through conduit 22 and check valve 66 into the chamber 42. In the meantime the water which has been'formed when the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen was ignited, is condensed by cooling, fins 28 assistingin'the cooling. The result is'that a vacuum-is caused to exitinthe top part of casing-24- whereby the bag 44 is against :e xpand e'd thereby drawing. the refrigerant from evaporator; 16 and assisting in the evaporation of the refrigerant. When the refrigerant again fills the chamber 42 the next cycle of operation is ready to commence.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. A compressor comprising a casing in which to accommodate a supply of water, means to decompose some of the water in said casing, means to burn the products of decomposition to cause an expansion in said casing, a flexible bag in said casing and enclosing a compression chamber containing a fluent substance, a wall constituting apart of said casing on which the open end of said bag is mounted, means supporting said bag in an upright position to present the sides and top surfaces of the bag to the compressive force of the water that is placed under pressure by said expansion, an inlet and an outlet port in said wall and in registry with the interior of said bag, one-way valves in registry with and controlling said ports, said bag supporting means comprising a pipe having a plurality of apertures in its side wall, a passageway in said wall of said casing and in registry with said inlet and said outlet ports, and said pipe being mounted in said passageway so that when the bag is compressed the substance in the bag is forced through said apertures, said pipe, said passageway and said outlet port.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said wall has a plurality of passages which communicate said chamber with said passageway.
3. A compressor comprising a casing which is adapted to house a supply of water, means to decompose a part of the water, said decomposing means being in registry with the interior of said casing, means for burning the products of decomposition in order to form an expansion in said casing, said decomposing and burner means timed for sequential operation, a flexible bag defining a fluent substance containing compression chamber in said casing and having a wall in which there is an outlet and an inlet port, valves in registry with and controlling said ports whereby upon burning of the products of decomposition in the formation of said expansion the water in said casing applies a pressure onto said expansion chamber for reducing its size and consequently issuing under pressure the substance in the chamber through said valve controlled outlet port, a pipe supporting said bag in said casing, and a seat for the bag at the outer end of said pipe and located between a part of said bag and said pipe.
4. The subject matter of claim 3 wherein said pipe is provided with a plurality of apertures through which the substance in the bag is adapted to pass, and a passageway in said chamber wall in registry with the bore of said pipe and in registry with said inlet and outlet ports.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 583,795 Elliott June 1, 1897 1,568,091 Schatz Jan. 5, 1926 1,733,334 Davis Oct. 29, 1929 1,733,335 Davis Oct. 29, 1929 1,832,257 Stephens Nov. 17, 1931 1,916,235 'Ruben 'July 4, 1933 2,772,543 Berry Dec. 4, 1956 7,853 Siegmund Oct. 28, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 69,420 Sweden May 13, 1930 2 Germany Nov. 15, 1906