|Publication number||US2916877 A|
|Publication date||Dec 15, 1959|
|Filing date||May 12, 1954|
|Priority date||May 12, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2916877 A, US 2916877A, US-A-2916877, US2916877 A, US2916877A|
|Original Assignee||Worthington Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Referenced by (33), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
v 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 lll IlIllII LTER IN VEN TOR.
H. WALTER PRESSURE FLUID GENERATOR HELLMUTH WA Dec. 15, 1959 Filed May 12, 1954 FIG.I
1 WALTER 2,916,377
PRESSURE FLUID GENERATOR Filed May 12, 1954 I 2 Sheets-Sheet '2 FIG. 5 L
' HELLMUTH WALTER 1N VEN TOR.
United States Patent 2,916,877 PRESSURE FLUID GENERATOR Hellmuth Walter, Upper Montclair, N..l., assignor to Worthington Corporation, Harrison, N.J., a corporation of Delaware Application May 12, 1954, Serial No. 429,337 3 Claims. (Cl. 60-3955) This invention relates generally to pressure fluid generators and more particularly to a pressure fluid generator which is in the form of an elongated combustion chamber having a coolant in heat exchange relationship therewith to be injected into the combustion chamber to form with the combustion products therein a gas and superheated vapor working mixture at a relatively high temperature and high pressure for application to any desired use.
Combustion flasks of various types for generating pressure fluid have been utilized in propulsion apparatus such as torpedos.
However, it has been found that a fluid working medium at high temperature and high pressure can be used in commercial installations such as in a gas turbine prime mover or other commercial installation.
The present invention covers a pressure fluid generator of the double casing type including an outer pressure casing and an inner combustion chamber forming casing with cooling fluid passages therebetween so that simultaneous control of the temperature of the combustion products of the combustion chamber and preheating of the cooling fluid can be secured, and in which the structure is adapted to inject or pass the preheated .cooling fluid into the combustion chamber to form the gas and superheated vapor mixture working medium at high temperature and high pressure.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved burner to coact with the combustion chamber of the pressure fluid generator for facilitating the starting up, delivering, and mixing of the combustible mixture therein.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a pressure fluid generator in which the inner casing is expandible relative to the outer pressure casing.
With these and other objects in view, as may appear from the accompanying specification, the invention consists of various features of construction and combination of parts which will be first described in connection with the accompanying drawings showing a pressure fluid generator of a preferred form embodying the invention, and the features forming the invention will be specifically pointed out in the. claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectionthrough the combustion chamber showing the invention.
Figure 2 is a side view of the pressure fluid generator broken away to show the cooling fluid passages about the inner casing.
Figure 3 is a view taken on line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a view taken on line 5-5 of Figure 1.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary view of the invention showing a modified form of the inner casing.
The illustrated forms of the present invention as shown in Figures 1 and 6 may both be used within all the desired temperature ranges and pressures within the strength and stress of the materials forming the particular casings. However, the form of the invention shown in Figure 1 is "ice particularly adaptable to temperatures and pressure ranges wherein the combustion products or gases are at a temperature and pressure such that sufficient vaporization of the cooling fluid does not occur in the cooling passages, while that shown in Figure 6 is adaptable for temperatures and pressures wherein the combustion products or gases are at temperatures and pressures at which sufficient vaporization of the cooling fluid does occur in the cooling passages. The control of the temperature at the particular operating pressure being a function of the volume of cooling fluid being utilized as will appear clear from the operation of the pressure fluid generator as hereinafter described. Suflicient vaporization being defined as vaporization of a percentage of the cooling water such that flooding of the combustion chamber or interference with the combustion operation will be avoided.
Accordingly, referring more particularly to the drawings, Figures '1, 2 and 6 show that the pressure fluid generator generally designated 1 includes an outer casing 2 having a substantially hollow elongated cylindrical shaped opening at one end and narrowing into a neck portion 3 at the other end thereof, and a closure member 4 for said open or mouth end connected to a flange 5 about the open end by suitable threaded members generally designated 6 circumferentially spaced inwardly of the outer periphery of said closure member. A fluid sealing member 7 is provided between the flange 5 and the closure member 4 to prevent leakage out of the open end of said outer pressure casing 2.
The outer pressure casing will be made of materials capable of withstanding high pressures.
An inner casing 8 shown in Figure 1 or an inner casing 8 shown in Figure 6 is removably mounted in the outer pressure casing 2 and is held in position through threaded means 9 which connect the inner casing to the closure -member 4 so that it will be removable therewith on disassembly of the pressure fluid generator.
The inner casing 8 shown in Figure 1 or 8' shown in Figure 6 are substantially identical. They are elongated hollow cylindrical members which form combustion chambers 10 and 10' therein respectively. The inner casings 8 and 8 and their respective combustion chambers 10 and 10' differ only in that one is closed, while the other is open, the desired form of the invention to be used depending on the range of operational temperatures of the issuing pressure fluid mixture.
For those temperatures and pressures where sufficient vaporization of the cooling fluid does not occur in the cooling passage, the combustion chamber 10 is preferably utilized. It is shown as closed at the lower end thereof by a transversely disposed flexible member or diaphragm 11 which acts as a seal member to prevent flooding of the combustion chamber, and as a means to allow for relative expansion between the inner casing 8 and the outer casing 2. As shown in Figures 1 and 3, the flexible member 11 is connected to the lower end of the inner casing by circumferentially spaced threaded bolts 12 disposed inwardly of the periphery thereof, and to an exhaust tube 13 which projects through an annular opening 14- in the diaphragm or flexible type member 11 by spaced bolts 15 circumferentially disposed about the annular opening 14 which engages a flange 16 about the upper end of the exhaust tube 13.
The circumferentially spaced bolts 12 also act to hold an evaporator member generally designated 17 against the lower end of the inner casing, and accordingly as shown in Figure 1 the bolts 12 extend through an annular flat member 18 thereof to hold the evaporator 17 in position, and an annular spacer element 19 being provided to allow room for flexure of the flexible member 11 under thermal changes.
2 and the closure member 4 The evaporator 17 has a cylindrical element 20 extending upwardly from the annular flat member 18 which supports evaporator plates 21, 22 and 23 having openings 24, 25 and 26 respectively therein with progressively decreasing diameters, the lowermost opening 26 being approximately the same in diameter as an exhaust passage 27 provided in the exhaust tube 13.
The flange 16 of the exhaust tube extends upwardly through an opening in the annular flat plate 18 so that the upper end of the exhaust tube lies just below the opening 26. In this position the flange 16 of the exhaust tube is adapted to coact with the annular plate 18 to both enable the exhaust tube 13 to be removed together with the closure head 4 and inner casing 8 on disassembly of the pressure fluid chamber, and as a stop means to prevent undue flexure or overstressing of the flexible member on removal.
This is accomplished by means of spaced lugs 29 projecting from the flange 16 on the exhaust tube 13 which on assembly will be passed through lug grooves 30 formed off the opening 28 in the annular flat plate 18 of the evaporator 17. By turning the exhaust tube 13 approximately 45 degrees after assembly, the lugs 29 will act to engage the annular fiat plate 18 when the inner casing is lifted from the outer casing on disassembly. In addition the lugs will act as an upper stop shoulder against the upper surface of the annular flat plate of the evaporator. An annular ring 31 of slightly larger diameter than the flange 16 is connected to the lower end thereof by the spaced threaded members 15. The annular ring 31 similarly acts as a lower stop member when it engages the lower surface of the annular flat member 18.
The exhaust tube 13 is elongated so that it extends downwardly through the annular opening of the flexure member 11 into a bore 32 in the neck portion 3 of the outer casing 2 and in running fit engagement therewith to allow an annular shoulder 33 about the medial portion thereof to sealingly engage a seat 34 provided about the mouth of the bore 32 which arrangement acts to seal ofl the lower end of the outer pressure casing 2.
The exhaust passage 27 and the bore 32 are also in communication with a discharge outlet 35 formed in the coupling connector 36 integral with the neck portion 3, so that pressure fluid developed in the combustion chambers 10 or 10' respectively as hereinafter described may be directed to any desired use or purpose, all of the above being clearly shown in Figures 1, 3 and 6 of the drawings.
In the form of the invention shown in Figure 6, the inner casing 8' in the type which while adaptable to all temperatures is especially applicable to those temperatures and pressures of the combustion gas where suflicient vaporization of the cooling fluid does occur in the cooling passages. In this form of the invention the combustion chamber 10' is shown in Figure 6 as open at the lower end thereof and in direct communication with the bore 32. Thus, working fluid generated in the combustion chamber 10 also as hereinafter described may be directed through the bore 32 to the discharge outlet 35 to any desired use or purpose.
Burner member The burner member 39, shown in Figures 1, 4 and conducts the flow of air and fuel into the combustion chambers or 10' depending on the form of the invention which is utilized.
' The combustion chambers 10 and 10' narrow at their upper ends into a ledge 37, which ledge is of lesser diameter than the flange 38 provided about the outer surface of the burner member 39. The burner member 39 is disposed in the upper end of the inner casings 8 or 8 and is supportably connected to the closure head 4 in the approximate axial line of the combustion chambers 10 or 10' as by threaded bushings 40 and nuts 41. The ledge acts to prevent the burner member 39 from dropping into the combustion chamber should it be separated from this closure head 4 for any reason.
The burner member 39 used in both forms of the invention is identical. It is an annular member which depends downwardly from the closure head 4 to which it is connected, as above described, so that it is in spaced relation to whichever inner casing 8 or 8' is in use to form the annular air flow passage or chamber 42.
Gas under pressure is led to the burner 39 from any suitable source (not shown) through the main gas inlet 43 and the auxiliary gas inlet 44. Main gas inlet 43 communicates through the passage 45 formed in the threaded bushing 40 and the connecting union 41 to an annular gas distributing chamber 46. Circumferentially spaced bores 47 having their inner ends communicating with the annular gas distributing chamber 46 and their outer ends opening into the combustion chamber 10 or 10 to provide means for passing the gas under pressure into whichever one of the combustion chambers is being used.
In order to insure ignition of the air-gas mixture during the starting up and prior to the time when the combustion mixture is brought to a temperature and pressure at which combustion will continue without ignition, the auxiliary gas inlet 44 extends through the closure head 4 to communicate with a passage 51 extending through the threaded bushing 40 and connecting union 41 which has its outlet adjacent the center opening 52 formed in the burner member.
The air inlet passages 48 and 49 are connected to a source of compressed air (not shown) and extend through the closure head 4 to communicate with the air flow passage 42. Circumferentially spaced openings 50 on the flange 38 act as an outlet for the air flow passage 42 and as a means to create turbulence so that the air which enters in a ring outwardly of the entering gas will be thoroughly mixed therewith in the combustion chamber 10 or 10', all of the above being clearly shown in Figures 1, 4 and 5 of the drawings.
Connected in the axial line of the closure head 4 and extending downwardly. into the center opening 52 of the burner member is a spark plug retainer 53. The spark retainer 53 is a hollow cylindrical member having a closure end 54 at its lower end in approximate axial alignment with the lower end of the burner member 39 adapted to threadably receive a spark plug 55 so that the contact points 56 thereof will extend into the entering air and fuel mixture for easy ignition thereof.
The auxiliary fuel supplied through the auxiliary fuel inlet 44 will of course enter mainly through the central opening 52 which forms an annular passage with the spark plug retainer element. This brings the fuel into close proximity to the contact points 56 during the starting up and continued operation of the combustion chamber.
The spark plug 55 is connected to any suitable source of electric current (not shown) through the electrical line 57 in the manner well proven in the art. The electric line 57 is disposed inside a shield 58 connected to the upper end of the spark plug 55 so that the hollow chamber formed by the end closure 54 in the spark plug retainer 53 may be filled with a coolant to hold the temperature of the spark plug down without interfering with the operation of the spark plug.
Cooling means The temperature of the issuing gas mixture can be controlled in part by the ratio of the air to fuel mixture being ignited at a particular pressure. However, the temperature of the issuing gas is for practical purposes a function of the volume of cooling fluid utilized. Thus the greater the volume of cooling fluid utilized, the lower the temperature of the issuing gas mixture. Conversely, where a large volume of cooling fluid is used to lower the temperature of the issuing gas, the less preheating of the cooling fluid that will occur. Accordingly, at certain temperatures and pressures sutficient vaporization of the cooling fluid may never be reached before "it isflto be i' ie'cted 'into the com bustion chamber as hereinafter described.
The cooling means will be the same in either form of the invention. Thus, inner casings 8 shown in Figure 1 and in Figure 6 are held in spaced relation to the outer casing 2 by horizontally and vertically connected fin elements 59 about the sections of the inner casing 8 and 8' holding the burner member 39, and spirally disposed fins 60 about the section of the inner casings 8 and 8 forming the combustion chambers 10 and 10'. These fin elements 59 and 60 formed on the outer walls of the respective inner casings 8 and 8 taken with the inner outer casing 2 form corresponding upper horizontal and vertical flow passages 61 and spiral flow passages 62 which communicate with each other through the circumferentially disposed passages 63 in an annular horizontal fin 64 between the respective elements 59 and 60.
Cooling fluid is delivered to the horizontal and vertical flow passages 61 through a cooling fluid inlet 65 which is connected through a suitable conduit 66 to the discharge of a metering pump (not shown) which takes its suction from any suitable source (also not shown) so that the cooling fluid will be forced automatically through the cooling passages into the combustion chambers 10 and 10 despite variations of pressure in thecombustion chambers during the starting up and operation of the pressure fluid generator.
Where the temperature of the issuing gas is maintained relatively low; that is at temperatures and pressures such that the cooling fluid is not sufficiently vaporized in the cooling passages; the cooling fluid issues from the lower end of the spiral passages 62 substantially in liquid form. Then in the form of the invention shown in Figure l, the preheated cooling fluid enters the chamber 67 formed between the lower ends of the inner casing 8 and outer casing 2, and by differential pressure will act to force and inject liquid and vapor through the communicating circumferentially spaced transverse passages 68 into the combustion chamber 10 where the liquid falls or drops onto the plates 21, 22 and 23 of the evaporator 17. The fluid is quickly evaporated from the plates 21, 22 and 23 and then superheated by direct heat exchange relation with the combustion gases and forms therewith a gas and superheated pressure fluid Working mixture.
In the form of the invention shown in Figure 6, the cooling liquid will flow to the mixing chamber 69 where it is mixed with and completely vaporized by the combusting gases.
When the temperature of the issuing gas is maintained relatively high; that is, at a temperature and pressure such that the cooling fluid is vaporized in some portion of the spiral passages 62, the cooling fluid issuing from the lower end of the spiral passages 62 is mainly in a vapor state. Then in the form of the invention shown in Figure 1, the vaporized fluid issuing from the spiral passages 62 will pass by differential pressure through the circumferentially spaced transverse openings 68 into the combustion chamber 10 where it is mixed with the combustion products and superheated to form the pressure fluid working mixture. While in the form of the invention shown in Figure 6, the issuing vapor from the spiral passages 62 is forced through annular passage 70 formed by the thickened end 71 of the inner casing 8' by diflerential pressure and ejector-like action into the mixing chamber 69 where the vapors combined with the combustion products and are superheated to form the pressure fluid working mixture.
The pressure fluid working mixture formed in the combustion chamber 10 passes through the exhaust passage 27 into the discharge outlet 35 and the pressure fluid working mixture formed in combustion chamber 10 passes through the bore 32 to the discharge outlet 35. From the discharge outlet 35 it can be passed to any desired use.
wall of the 'is cut OH and the remaining Operation The starting up and operational procedure same in either form of the invention. Air is first introduced through the air inlets 48 and 49 into either the combustion chamber 10 or 10' depending on which form of the invention is being used. While the air is continued, a large excess of cooling fluid isdelivered to the cooling fluid passages and the combustion chambers 10 or 10', as above described. The injected cooling fluid which reaches the respective combustion chambers 10 or 10 will be entrained and atomized by the air and flow out therewith through the exhaust passage 27 or 32 to the discharge outlet 35.
' After the air and cooling fluid flow are in operation, the contacts 56 of the ignition means 55 are placed into operation and then the fuel is admitted to the combustion chamber 10 or 10' through the main fuel inlet and auxiliary fuel inlet 44 so that as soonas the fuel is admitted combustion begins.
The fuel is of course adm'tted initially under relatively low pressure, as combustion continues either by reason of the back pressure producedby the use to which the pressure fluid is put or by the manualthrottling means 72, shown in Figure 2 of the drawings, or both, the pressure may be increased. Cooling fluid and air-fuel ratio are adjusted simultaneously therewith until the desired temperature and pressure of the issuing working fluid is obtained for the desired use.
During the operation of the combustion chamber as above described, the cooling fluid will also by reason of the convoluted nature of the horizontal and vertical flow passages about the burner section of the respective inner casings 8 and 8' will be circulated at this level to prevent the burner from overheating and to absorb as much heat by heat exchange as necessary.
When it is desired to stop the operation of the combustion chambers 10 or 10, the supply of fuel is cut off and the pressure fluid generator is cooled by allowing air and cooling fluid to pass therethrough. Then the cooling fluid heat coupled with air will act to dry the combustion chamber and fluid passages.
It will be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific construction or arrangement of parts shown, but that they may be widely modified within the invention defined by the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a pressure generator, an outer pressure casing open at one end and having an outlet at the end remote from said opening, a closure for said open end, an inner casing having a combustion chamber formed therein communicating with said outlet, first fastening means connecting the inner casing to the closure whereby said inner casing is adapted to expand and contract relative to said outer casing during thermal changes and is removable with said closure on disassembly of the pressure generator, means on said inner casing and between said inner and said outer casing to form cooling passages therebe tween, said cooling passages communicating with said combustion chamber, a burner in said inner casing having .flow passages for fuel therein connected to a source of fuel under pressure and opening into said combustion chamber, second fastening means for connecting the burner to the closure whereby said burner is removable with said closure, and said inner casing on disassembly of the pressure generator, said burner forming an airflow passage with said inner casing, inlet means connecting said air-flow passage to a source of air under pressure, said air-flow passage and said fuel passage having outlets opening into said combustion chamber and disposed so that said air-flow passage outlet opens circumjacent the fuel passage outlet, an annular flange on said burner between the said air inlet means and said air outlet openings having circumferentially spaced openings providing communication between said air-flow passage will be the and said combustion chamber to create turbulence for thorough mixture between said air and gas, and means coacting with said annular flange including a ledge formed about the upper end of said inner casing to prevent said burner member from falling into said combustion chamber, an igniter means including igniter supporting means mounted adjacent said burner to form together with said burner an annular passage connecting the air inlet means to the combustion chamber, and an auxiliary fuel port in said burner and in operative communication with said igniter for introducing fuel to said igniter for start-up, inlet means in said outer casing and communicating with said cooling passages for providing cooling fluid thereto.
2. In apressure fluid generator as claimed in claim 1 wherein said communication between the cooling passages and combustion chamber include an annular thickened end portion on said inner casing, said annular portion adapted to coact with the outer pressure casing to form a narrow annular restricted passage opening into the lower end of the combustion chamber.
3. In the pressure fluid generator of claim 2 wherein said igniter supporting means includes a retainer means connected to a source of cooling fluid mounted thereon about said igniter for providing a cooling chamber therefor.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 928,063 Moneuse July 13, 1909 1,294,120 Lang Feb. 11, 1919 1,412,023 Erickson Apr. 4, 1922 1,451,063 Anthony Apr. 10, 1923 2,140,085 Maina Dec. 13, 1938 2,214,568 Thomas Sept. 10, 1940 2,605,611 Wosika Aug. 5, 1952 2,636,345 Zoller Apr. 28, 1953 2,693,082 Arthur Nov. 2, 1954 2,734,578 Walter Feb. 14, 1956 2,831,322 Barberis Apr. 22, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 6,068 Great Britain Apr. 22, 1915 147,518 Great Britain Oct. 10, 1921 279,197 Great Britain Oct. 27, 1927 283,290 Great Britain Jan. 19, 1928
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|U.S. Classification||60/39.55, 60/799, 60/730, 60/39.511, 60/39.58|