Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2918190 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 22, 1959
Filing dateJul 13, 1954
Priority dateJul 13, 1954
Publication numberUS 2918190 A, US 2918190A, US-A-2918190, US2918190 A, US2918190A
InventorsGeorge E Martin
Original AssigneeWheeling Steel Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pallet and shipping container
US 2918190 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 13, 1954 IN M R N 0 R W g V v WE E G R O E 6 y% Y B Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN 2,918,190

' PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed July 13, 1954 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Yb Yb u--- n INVENTOR. GEORGE E MARTIN Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed July 13, 1954 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG.8.

IXb

FIG.9.

FIGQY.

N Mn R MA VM m E E G R O E G Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 13, 1954 FIG.|2.

INVENTOR. GEORGE E MARTIN Dec. 22, 1959 e. E. MARTIN PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed July 13), 1954 FiG.23.

FIG.2.

IBG

FlG.20.

FIG.II.

v INVENTOR GEORGE E. MARTI Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN 2,918J90 PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed July 13, 1954 FIG.|4.

'7 Sheets-Sheet 6 FIG. I5.

INVENTOR. GEORGE E. MARTIN Dec. 22, 1959 G. E. MARTIN 2,918,199

PALLET AND SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed July 13, 1954 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 INVENTOR. GEORGE E. MARTIN BY l/% 9% Patented Dec. 22, 1959 PALLET AND SHFPPING CONTAINER George E. Martin, Wheeling, W. Va., assignor to Wheellllg Steel Corporation, Wheeling, W. van a corporation of Delaware Application July 13, 1954, Serial No. 443,050

2 Claims. (Cl. 220-4) This invention relates to a pallet and shipping container. It relates more particularly to a drawn sheet metal pallet and to a shipping container having a metal pallet as the bottom or base of the container.

My pallet and shipping container are made of sheet metal, for example, steel, which is preferably drawn or die formed. I impart great strength to the structure through drawing operations which make possible the employment of relatively thin sheet metal while attaining strength comparable to that heretofore attained only with metal of substantially heavier gauge.

My pallet may be formed in one piece out of a single sheet of metal or it may be formed in a plurality of separately drawn members which after drawing are connected together, as, for example, by welding. In either case my pallet preferably comprises a generally planar body having downwardly projecting feet which are spaced apart to receive lifting means between them. Preferably the feet are spaced apart in such manner as to receive between them lifting means introduced in any lateral direction. The body also preferably has a generally peripheral upwardly open channel strengthening and stiffening the body and, when the pallet is employed as the bottom of a shipping container, receiving the bottom of the con tainer side wall. Preferably the feet and channel are tapered so that the pallet is nestable with similar pallets for shipping. The body preferably has ribs formed therein for strengthening and stiffening the body. The channel and/ or ribs preferably merge into the feet. The body may have openings therethrough generally intermediate the feet.

In one form my pallet may comprise drawn metal feet of generally cup-like shape arranged with their tops substantially coplanar and their bottoms substantially coplanar in a plane generally parallel to the plane of the tops of the feet and separately formed metal means extending generally in the plane of the tops of the feet connected to the feet, as, for example, by welding to form a load in supporting surface. Each of the feet may have an integral generally planar portion at its top, and separately formed metal means may overlap said generally planar portions of the feet and be welded thereto. A separately unitarily drawn generally planar body may extend generally in the plane of the tops of the feet and the feet may be welded to the body. The pallet may comprise a generally planar metal structure having openings therein and drawn metal feet of generally cup-like shape assembled with and welded to said structure at at least certain of the openings.

My improved shipping container may comprise a bottom comprising a generally planar metal pallet having feet extending downwardly and spaced apart to receive lifting means between them, the pallet also having a generally peripheral upwardly open channel strengthening and stiffening the pallet, a generally vertical side wall whose bottom is received in the channel of the pallet and a metal top having a downwardly open channel receiving the top of the side wall. The elements of the container may be held together in any appropriate manner, as, for example, by band means encircling the container maintaining the bottom, side wall and top in assembly. A container may, for example, have two bands extending about the bottom, side wall and top in parallel generally vertical planes at opposite sides of the central axis of the container and two other bands similarly arranged in parallel generally vertical planes at opposite sides of the central axis of the container with the planes of the second mentioned bands generally at right angles to the planes of the first mentioned bands. At the same time one or more bands may encircle the side wall generally horizontally. The ordinary types of steel shipping bands are found satisfactory.

The metal top of the container is similar in certain.

respects to the bottom, preferably having a downwardly open channel receiving the top of the side wall just as the pallet has an upwardly open channel receiving the bottom of the side wall. The metal top of the container preferably has means shaped to interfit with portions of the bottoms of the feet of a pallet identical with the pallet forming part of the container whereby the container may be stacked with similar containers.

The side wall of the container is preferably of sheet metal which is formed to impart stiffness and compressive strength in the vertical direction to the side wall. The side wall may, for example, be of drawn or corrugated metal. When the side wall is of corrugated metal the corrugations preferably extend generally vertically. The side wall may comprise a plurality of generally vertical side wall members interfitted with each other at their generally vertical edges.

In a preferred form my metal shipping container may comprise a bottom comprising a generally polygonal generally planar metal pallet having feet extending downwardly and spaced apart to receive lifting means between them, the pallet also having a generally peripheral upwardly open channel strengthening and stiffening the pallet, a plurality of generally planar generally vertical side wall members interfitted with each other at their generally vertical edges to form a side wall structure of generally polygonal shape in horizontal cross section with,

the bottoms of the respective side wall members received in corresponding portions of the channel of the pallet and a generally polygonal metal top having a downwardly open channel similarly receiving the tops of the side members. wall members are preferably of corrugated metal with the corrugations extending generally vertically. The metal top of the container preferably has means shaped to interfit with portions of the bottoms of the feet of a pallet identical with the pallet forming part of the container whereby the container may be stacked with similar containers. Band means preferably extend generally horizontally about the side wall structure and other band means preferably extend in a generally vertical plane encircling the container maintaining the bottom, side wall structure and top in assembly.

Other details, objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description of certain present preferred embodiments thereof proceeds.

In the accompanying drawings I have shown certain present preferred embodiments of the invention in which Figure 1 is an exploded view of a metal shipping container comprising a pallet serving as the bottom of the container, a side wall structure and a top, the pallet, side wall structure and top being designed to interfit with the side wall structure entering channels in the pallet and top, the elements of the container being adapted to be banded together as above described;

Figure 2 is a fragmentary detail diagram to enlarged scale showing portions of the structure of the pallet, side The generally planar generally vertical side Figure is a view partly in verticalcross section and partly in elevation of the pallet shown in Figure 4; the left hand portion of Figure 5 beingin vertical crosssection on the line Va-Va of Figure 4 and the central portion of Figure 5 being in vertical cross section on the line VbVb of Figure 4;

Figure 6,is a vertical'cross sectional view'toenlarged scale ion the line VI-VI ofFigure 4;-

Figure 7' is a vertical crosssectional view to enlarged scale on the line VII-VII of Figure 4;

Figure 8 is a plan view of one form'ofcontainer top as:viewed from beneath or from the inside of the container;

Figure 9'is a view partly in vertical cross section and partly in elevation of the container top shown in Figure 8, the left hand portion of Figure 9 being in vertical cross sectionvon the line IXa.-IXa of Figure 8 and the central portion of Figure 9 being in vertical cross section on the line IXb-IXb of Figure 8;

Figure 10 is a vertical cross sectional view to enlarged scale on the line X-X of Figure 8;

Figure 11 is a vertical cross sectional view to enlarged scale on the line XI-XI of Figure 8;

Figure 12 is a fragmentary plan view of a different form of pallet;

Figure 13 is a fragmentary vertical cross sectional view on the line XIII-XIII of Figure 12;

Figure 14 is a plan view of an element-designed for assembly with other separately formed elements to make a pallet, the element shown in Figure 14 being adapted to be disposed at the center of the pallet;

Figure 15 is a plan view of an element of the same character as the element of Figure 1.4, the element of Figure 15 being adapted to be disposed at a corner of the pallet;

Figure 16 is a plan view of an element of the same character as the elements of Figures 14 and 15, the element ofFigure 16 being adapted to be-disposedat the mid-point of a side edge of thepallet;

Figure 17 is a vertical'cross sectional view on the-line XVIIXVII of Figure 16;

Figure 18 is a plan view of an element of the same character as the elements of Figures 14, 15, and 16, the element of Figure 18 being adapted to be disposed to overlap with and connect together elements. of the form shown in Figures 14 and 16;

Figures 19 is an end view of the element shown. in Figure 18;

Figure 20 is a plan view of an element of the same character as the elements of Figures 14-19, the element of Figure 20 being adapted to be disposed between an element of the form ,of Figure 14 and an element of the form of Figure 15 and joined to each thereof by an element of the form of Figure 18 overlapping and connected to each of the joined elements and also joined to each of two elements of the form of Figure 16 by an element of 'the form of Figure 18 overlapping and connected to each of he. joined elements;

Figure 21 is a face view of a side wall member;

, Figure22is arhorizontalcross. secti nalview. to; enlarged .scaleon the line Figurell but, with a portion cut away; a I I Figure'2-3: is a view similar:mFigu r e -.2 1 o f. a v form,- of sidewall member;- and,

sure .4 is-a ho onta crossv section l ewo B." larged scale on thbglinfi .XXIVem-XXIV, of- Figure 2-3.;but5

witharportionrcutrawaya Referring now more particularly to the drawings, Figure 1 is an exploded view of a metal shipping container designated generally by reference numeral 2 and which comprises a pallet 3 serving as the bottom of the container, a side wall structure 4 and a top 5. Those three elements interfit and cooperate with one another to enclose material to be shipped. The elements of the container are adapted to be banded together, as, for example, by steel bands of conventional type. There may, for example, be two bands extendingabout the bottom, side wall structure and top in parallel generally'vertical planes at opposite sides of the central axis of the container and two other bands similarly arranged in parallel generally vertical planes at opposite sides of the central axis'of the container with theplanes of the second mentioned bands generally at right angles to the planes of the first mentioned bands. At the same time one or more bands may encircle the sidewall structure 4 generally horizontally.

The pallet 3 shown in Figure 1 is shown to larger scale and in detail in Figures 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. The palletis a one-piece drawn sheet metal pallet comprising a generally planar body 6 having feet 7 drawn therefrom downwardly from the general plane of the body and spaced apart to receive between them lifting means such as the fork of a lift truck. In the form of pallet shown in the figures referred to there are nine feet 7 arranged in equally spaced relationship in a square as shown. That arrangement of the feet provides forthe insertion of lifting means between the feet in any lateral direction.

In addition to the feet 7 the body 6 of the pallet also has a generally peripheral upwardly open channel 8 strengthening and stifiening the body 6 and, when the pallet is employed as the bottom of a shipping container,

receiving-the bottom of the container side wall 4 as shownin Figure 2. The body 6 is also drawn or die-formed to provide stiffening and strengthening ribs 9 as shown. The feet 7, the channel 8 and the ribs 9 are tapered so that the pallet is nestable with similar pallets for shipping. The channel 8 and the ribs 9 merge into the feet 7, producing a one-piece drawn nestable sheet metal pallet structure of great strength in proportion to its weight and the amount of metal employed in its formation. The metal employed may be thin gauge sheet steel although other metals may be used in particular instances. The entire pallet may be formed in a single drawing operation, or a series of successive die-forming steps may be employed.

' The body 6 of the pallet 3 may be imperforate or it may be provided with perforations as shown at 10 in Figure 4. The perforations may serve as stress relievers. Figure 4. shows only four perforations 10 at the righthand side of'the figure to indicate that the perforations are optional.

The bottom of each foot 7 may be perforated as shown at 11 to receive a so-called bubble 12 projecting upwardly from the top of a similar container as shown in Figure 2, whereby to provide for stacking of like containers and maintaining of the stack vertical. Instead of providing the bottom. of each foot 7 with a perforation 11 we may form in the bottom of each foot an upwardly convex and downwardly concave bubble to receive a bubble 12 projecting upwardly from the top of a similar container. In either case provision is made for stacking of the containers and interfitting of the containers of the stack to maintain thestack vertical.

Although the container and pallet shown in the draw ings are square they may assume any other appropriate shape. In any case the pallet has a, generally peripheral up d y pen nne reng he ng d s ningit nd. adapted. to. receive the bottomof the side wall Con; sequently. the sidewall .structurevmust be ofthe same shapein horizontal cross section as the channel of the pallet. Whenthe pallet and hence the container is polYEODQllhe side wall; structure may be made up of a plurality of generally vertical side wall members interfitted with each other at their generally vertical edges. Figure 3 shows in detail one form of interfit between side wall members. Each of the side wall members has at each end a generally square hook-like portion 13 which is open in a direction substantially normal to the general plane of the member, each such portion being slightly less deep than it is broad so that the hook-like portion 13 at an end of a side wall member may be projected into a similar portion at the end of another side wall member as shown in Figure 3.

The side wall structure 4 shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, 21 and 22 is made up of generally planar side wall members 14 of corrugated metal. Such metal has desired strength and stiffness in the vertical direction. A side wall member of corrugated metal has a substantial dimension normal to the plane of the member so that it can properly fit and center itself in the channel 8 as shown in Figure 2.

Figures 23 and 24 show another form of side wall member designated generally by reference numeral 15 which instead of being corrugated is drawn or die-formed to contain intersecting strengthening ribs and panels as shown in Figures 23 and 24. The ends of the side wall members 15 are formed as shown at 13a similarly to the ends of the side wall members 14.

The top is shown in Figures 1, 2, 8, 9, and 11. It is formed similarly to the pallet 3 and is of the same shape. The top 5 has upwardly drawn domes 16 arranged and spaced in the same relationship as the feet 7 of the pallet and has a downwardly open channel 17 receiving the top of the side wall. The top 5 also has strengthening and stiffening ribs 18 similar to and positioned consonantly with ribs 9 of the pallet. Each of the domes 16 has a bubble 12 as above described.

When a pallet, side wall structure and top as disclosed are assembled with material therein to be shipped and banded together as above described a shipping container of very light weight and great strength is provided. Since so little metal is used in the construction of the container the container may be junked or scrapped after being unpacked, i.e., it may constitute what is termed a one time user. Thus it has a great advantage over containers made of wood which either have to be returned or disposed of at some expense, as by burning. My container does not have to be returned and may be sold for its junk or scrap value.

The contents of the container may be packed loosely within it or may be fastened to the pallet, depending upon the nature of the contents and the type of packing required. The pallets alone may be used for transporting articles about a plant, being ideally suited for that purpose because of being generally flat on top and because of the arrangement of the feet to permit the introduction of the fork of a lift truck from any direction.

The pallet and/or the top of the container may be made in one piece or in several pieces. Figure 12 shows a pallet construction in which the pallet body 18, which may be generally of the shape and structure of the body 6 of the pallet 3, is die-formed with circular openings 19 where the feet 7 are disposed in the pallet 3. In the form of Figures 12 and 13 separate feet 20 are drawn, one such foot being applied to the body 18 at each of the circular openings 19 and welded to the body either continuously or by spot welding.

Figures 14 to 20, inclusive, show another way of making a composite pallet. In those figures are shown individual die-formed members which are adapted to be assembled and fastened together to form a pallet having openings therethrough. Figure 14 is a plan view of the central element of a pallet. It has a circular foot 21 from which arms 22 radiate at the upper portion of the foot in a generally horizontal plane, eight such arms being shown, each making an angle of 45 in a horizontal plane 6 with the arm at each side thereof. Each of the'arrns 22 is are tapered to permit nesting of a number of similar elements.

Figure 15 shows a corner element of the same type as the element of Figure 14, and Figures 16 and 17 show an elementadapted to be disposed at the mid-point of each side of the pallet. Figures 18 and 19 show a straight connecting element while Figure 20 shows an element of cross shape. Elements of the form of Figures 18 and 19 are positioned in overlapping relation with the arms such as 22 of the other elements and welded thereto to form a composite structure.

In forming a square pallet of the shape of the pallet 3 when employing the separately drawn elements of Fig ures 14 to 20, inclusive, one element of the form of Figure 14, four elements of the form of Figure 15, four elements of the form of Figure 16, four elements of the form of Figure 20 and twenty elements of the form of Figure 18 are required. The elements of the form of Figure 15 are arranged at the corners relatively to the element of the form of Figure 14 and the elements of the form of Figure 16 are arranged at the mid-points of the sides. An element of the form of Figure 20 is arranged at the center of each square comprising elements of the forms of Figures 14 and 15 at two opposite corners and elements of the form of Figure 16 at the other two opposite corners. Elements of the form of Figure 18 are overlapped with the arms of the other elements and welded thereto to form a composite pallet.

While I have shown and described certain present preferred embodiments of the invention it is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto but may be otherwise variously embodied within the scope of the following claims.

1. A metal shipping container comprising a bottom comprising a generally polygonal generally planar metal pallet having feet extending downwardly and spaced apart to receive lifting means between them, the pallet also heaving a generally peripheral upwardly open channel strengthening and stiffening the pallet, a plurality of generally planar generally vertical side wall members of corrugated metal with the corrugations extending generally vertically interfitted with each other at their generally vertical edges to form a side wall structure of generally polygonal shape in horizontal cross section with the bottoms of the respective side wall members received in corresponding portions of the channel of the pallet, a generally polygonal metal top having a downwardly open channel similarly receiving the tops of the side wall members, the metal top of the container having means shaped to interfit with portions of the bottoms of the feet of a pallet identical with the pallet forming part of the container whereby the container may be stacked with similar containers, band means extending generally horizontally about the side wall structure and band means extending in a generally vertical plane encircling the container maintaining the bottom, side wall structure and top in assembly.

2. A metal pallet comprising drawn metal feet of generally cup-like shape arranged with their tops substantially coplanar and their bottoms substantially coplanar in a plane generally parallel to the plane of the tops of the feet, each of the feet having a peripheral integral generally planar portion at its top and a raised portion within the peripheral integral generally planar portion, and separately formed metal means overlapping said generally planar portions of the feet and welded thereto, the separately formed metal means having openings receiving the raised portions of the feet.

(References on following page) Referencesxcjigd. in the; file of this patent UNITED STATES; PATENTS,

Munson; July 1, 1873 Perkins May 22, 1917 a Claus Feb. 24, 1920 Hartley Aug. 1, 1922 Smith et al. Jan. 4, 1949 P'rotzeller June 20 1950 8 Cushman Mar. 13, 1951 Farm: Sept. 18, 1951 Budd Apr. 29, 1952 McIntyre July 8, 1952 Burrows", June 30, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS Great. Britain July 28, 1932

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US140527 *Jun 6, 1873Jul 1, 1873 Improvement in garbage-tubs
US1226993 *Sep 25, 1914May 22, 1917Albert E PerkinsDevice for cleansing and drying dishes.
US1331862 *Mar 23, 1918Feb 24, 1920Carl ClausMetallic tote-box
US1424723 *Jul 19, 1920Aug 1, 1922Hartley William RossKnockdown metal shipping case
US2457841 *May 7, 1945Jan 4, 1949SmithFreight container
US2511876 *Nov 18, 1943Jun 20, 1950 Refrigerating means with air pump
US2544657 *Sep 5, 1947Mar 13, 1951Walton W CushmanPallet
US2568582 *Jan 9, 1947Sep 18, 1951Republic Steel CorpPallet construction
US2594287 *Jan 17, 1949Apr 29, 1952Pallet Devices IncPallet container assembly for shipping articles
US2602619 *Aug 21, 1946Jul 8, 1952Monroe Auto Equipment CoPallet
US2643788 *Mar 16, 1951Jun 30, 1953Govan Burrows MilesCollapsible container
GB377531A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3113690 *May 26, 1961Dec 10, 1963Reynolds Metals CoSectional container having nestable sections
US3244311 *Mar 31, 1965Apr 5, 1966Internat Petroleum Co LtdContainer
US3301428 *Dec 9, 1963Jan 31, 1967C E Erickson Co IncMilk carton container
US3401814 *Mar 7, 1967Sep 17, 1968Collapsible Container CorpCollapsible shipping container
US4402397 *Nov 28, 1980Sep 6, 1983Spence Jack TDisplay case with castellated tongue and groove joints
US4989731 *Mar 5, 1990Feb 5, 1991Shuert Lyle HBulk container
US5133460 *Feb 4, 1991Jul 28, 1992Shuert Lyle HBulk container
US5279423 *Jul 27, 1992Jan 18, 1994Shuert Lyle HBulk container
US5408937 *Dec 10, 1992Apr 25, 1995The Fabri-Form Co.Ventilated pallet
US5596933 *Feb 14, 1994Jan 28, 1997The Fabri-Form Co.Reinforced plastic pallet
US5791262 *Jun 10, 1994Aug 11, 1998The Fabri-Form Co.Reinforced plastic pallet
US7513365Feb 2, 2005Apr 7, 2009International Paper CompanyStackable container
US7712421 *Aug 8, 2007May 11, 2010Rittal Gmbh & Co., KgPallet
USRE32344 *Sep 28, 1984Feb 3, 1987Bigelow-Sanford, Inc.Shipping pallet and a package formed therefrom
CN100488847CFeb 2, 2005May 20, 2009国际纸业公司Stackable container
DE4000724A1 *Jan 12, 1990Jul 18, 1991Stucki KunststoffwerkStacking aid for crates on pallets
EP0058003A1 *Jan 25, 1982Aug 18, 1982Bigelow-Sanford, Inc.Shipping pallet and a package formed therefrom
EP1077180A2 *Aug 10, 2000Feb 21, 2001Protechna S.A.Pallet with platform and metal feet
WO1991013809A1 *Mar 5, 1991Sep 19, 1991Lyle H ShuertBulk container
WO2001066422A1 *Mar 2, 2001Sep 13, 2001Rentapack S AReusable container for packaging
WO2005075306A1 *Feb 2, 2005Aug 18, 2005Adam C CorneliusStackable container