|Publication number||US2918922 A|
|Publication date||Dec 29, 1959|
|Filing date||Nov 19, 1956|
|Priority date||Mar 30, 1955|
|Publication number||US 2918922 A, US 2918922A, US-A-2918922, US2918922 A, US2918922A|
|Inventors||Erich Eissmann Oswald|
|Original Assignee||American Mach & Foundry|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (6), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 29, 1959 o. E. EISSMANN 2,918,922
CIGARETTE Original Filed March 30, 1955 6 Sheets-Sheet l IVENTOR I oswALo eRlcH Elssmmn ATTQRNEY Dec. 2.9,"159 o. E. ElssMANN CIGARETTE 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 original Fired March' so, 1955 FIG.7
OSWALD ERICH EISSMANIN ATTORNEY Dec. 29, 1959 o. E. ElssMANN 2,913,922
CIGARETTE Original Filed March 30, 1955 6 Sheets-$heet 3 F I G. 1 2
INVENTOR OSWALD ERICH EISSMANN ATTORNEY 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Original Filed March 30, 1955 lNvx-:NroR OSWALD ERICH EISSMANN T ATTO`ZN EY y Dec. 29, 1959 o. E. EISSMANN 2,918,922
cIGmuaTTE Original Filed March 30, 1955 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 2O
INVENTOR OSWALD ERICH EISSMANN ATTO R N EY Dec. 29, 1959 o. E. ElssMANN C IGARETTE 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 A I K A NNE Original Filed March 50, 1955r lNvr-:N-roR OSWALD ERICH EISSMANN ATTORNEY United States Patent O CIGARETTE Oswald Erich VEissmann, Richmond, Va., assignor to American Machine & Foundry Company, a corporation of New Jersey Original application March 30, 1955, Serial No. 498,012,
now Patent No. 2,888,935, dated June 2, 1959. Divided and this application November 19, 19'56, Serial No. 626,568
2 Claims. (Cl. 131-10) This invention relates to an improved cigarette.
This application is a divisional application of my copending application 498,012 led March 30, 1955.
An object is to provide a cigarette with a compressed outside shell and a soft center so that it will have an easy draw and still have a slow uniform burning. Another object of this invention is to provide a cigarette of an improved design which will be of less density .of the cigarette body than at the longitudinal axis of the cigarette body.
Another object of this invention is to provide a cigarette wherein the density along the length of the cigarette is varied uniformly as required by the manufacturer.
A further object of this invention is to provide a cigarette which will have easy drawing characteristics and will hold a long ash.
Other objects and features of the invention will appear as the description of the particular physical embodiment selected to illustrate the invention progresses. In the Vaccompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, like characters of reference have been applied to corresponding parts throughout the several views which make up the drawings.
Figs. 1 3 are sectional side elevations of a double length cigarette disclosing the method of making dense end cigarettes and simultaneously providing a pocket for receiving a filter plug.
Figs. 4-8 are sectional side elevations of a cigarette illustrating the directional compacting forces exerted when the stepped plunger is progressively inserted into the end of the cigarette.
Fig. 9 is a sectional side elevation of a dense end cigarette immediately after the plunger is retracted.
Fig. lO is a sectional side elevation of the same cigarette shortly after retraction of the plunger.
Fig. 1l is a sectional side elevation illustrating a suitable plunger activating mechanisrn for making my improved cigarette.
Fig. l2 is a sectional side elevation illustrating a knife passing through the compacted center portion of a double length cigarette to obtain two single cigarettes each having a compacted end on one end and an inserted filter plug at the other end.
Fig. 13 is a sectional side elevation of a single cigarette obtained by this method, having a dense end on one end and an inserted filter plug on the other end.
Figs. 14-16 are sectional side elevations of a double length cigarette disclosing other devices for making my ICC improved cigarette wherein the tobacco in the core area of the cigarette has less density than the tobacco adjoining the side Walls of the cigarette.
Figs. 17-20 show how the improved cigarettes may have filter plugs or hollow tubes inserted into the ends of the cigarettes after the stepped plungers have been withdrawn, and also the manner in which the double length cigarettes are severed into two individual cigarettes.
Fig. 21 is a sectional side elevation illustrating a double length stepped plunger suitable for king-size cigarettes inserted in a double length cigarette.
Fig. 22 is a side elevation of a single length stepped plunger showing the exact construction and dimensions of one type of plunger which may be used for king-size cigarettes.
There is shown in the drawings not only the cigarette covered by this application but also the apparatus for making the same which is being claimed in copending application Serial Number 498,012, now Patent No. 2,888,935. In Figs. 110 I have shown how a stepped plunger with non-tapering steps can be employed for compressing the ller tobacco in a cigarette'both axially and radially. Y
In some types of tobacco, due to the amount of moisture and types of avoring employed,it is desirable to employ stepped plungers wherein the base end of Leach step is cut down more than the far end of the step. Such an arrangement is shown in Figs. 14-16, 21V and 22,`and has the Vadvantage that the plungers can be readily withdrawn without pulling out tobacco shreds with the plunger. Y
The apparatus shown in Figs. l-10 consists of a pair of clamps 10 and 11 for clamping a length of cigarette rod R having a wrapper W. When the length of cigarette rod R is held in .clamped position, apair of elongated cylindrical stepped plungers 12 and 14-are moved in opposite directions as indicated by the -arrowvinto opposite ends of the` double .length cigarette as shown in Fig. 1. g
The plungers `12 and 14 are slideably mounted in suitable guiding brackets 16 and 18.` Due to the steps 20, 22, 24, 26, 28,30, 32, and 34, there Viseifected two distinct actions. When the steps 20 and 28 first enter the end of the cigarette, the compression effected is primarily lateral, as shown in Fig. 4. As the second step'24 and 30 of the plunger enters intothe end of the cigarette, the compression is still primarily outwardly as shown in Fig. 5, with a slight tendency to compress the tobacco longitudinally of the cigarette. As the third step 22 and 32 of the plungers 12 and 14 enters the cigarette, there is now a much more marked tendency to compress the tobacco longitudinally as shown in Fig. 5. As the fourth step 26 enters the cigarette, this tendency isstillv more marked as shown in Fig. 7.
As the shaft of the'plungers 12 and w14 entersthe end of the cigarette, there is a longitudinal compression of the tobacco and densification has been found to occur at the opposite end of the cigarette rather than immediately in front of the plunger, due to the stepped arrangement described above. The amount of densication so achieved at the opposite end can be varied and changed by changing the number of steps in the plunger as well as the diameter and length of each step. The degree that the density of the ller tobacco tapers is also controlled and varied in like manner.
The density of the tobacco in the double length cig'r arette is below normal before the stepped plungers are inserted into the end of the cigarette. In cigarettes having an 8 mm. diameter, a 70 mm. length, and a v16 mm. lter at one end of the cigarette, the amount of tobacco in the finished cigarette will have to have its full normal s acreage density for only 54 mm. in length, due to the space occupied by the filter plug. It will thus be seen that the 54 mm. normal tobacco density of the tinished cigarette is uniformly distributed over the 70 mm. length of the cigarette prior to the insertion of the stepped plunger. In the case where double length cigarettes are made the figures just mentioned, of course, would be double the amount set forth.
While I have used a plunger having four steps to illustrate the invention, it will be realized that the number of steps actually employed, the length and diameter of the steps and plunger and the angle of the set-backs will depend upon the type of tobacco being handled, the densification desired thereof, the dimensions of the cigarette, and the filter to be inserted therein. As an example, in this connection, I have shown in Figs. 2l and 22 the actual dimensions of a plunger which is especially wellsuited for making a cigarette 85 mm. long with a diameter of 8 mm. and which will have a lter 13 mrn. long inserted into the end of the cigarette.
When the plungers 12 and 14 have reached their maximum amount of penetration into the ends of the double length cigarette as shown in Fig. 8, they are then withdrawn. When the plungers are withdrawn, the space occupied by each plunger as shown in Fig. 9 becomes filled again by the expanding action of the tobacco as illustrated in Figs. 9 and l0. The density along the axial length of the cigarette, however, will be less than the density of the filler along the sides of the cigarette.
The end of the cigarette continues to remain densified as shown in Fig. l after the plunger is withdrawn, so that there is no tendency for the small shreds or shorts to fall out of the end of the cigarette. Regular filler tobacco or filter plugs are then inserted into the hollow ends of the cigarette. The double length cigarette is then severed across the densied portion of the cigarette to make two cigarettes, each having a densied portion of filler tobacco at one end and tobacco tiller or a filter plug at the other end.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that I have provided a device which produces a filler with a densiiied end at one end and a cavity at the other end of the cigarette. A filter plug, a hollow tube, or a short length of cigarette tobacco is inserted into this cavity to complete the cigarette. This single-step compression operation has several advantages. For example, it enables the mechanism for making my improved cigarette to be made which consists of a cigarette having a dense portion of filler tobacco at one end of the cigarette and a iilter plug, hollow tube or length of cigarette rod at the other end of the cigarette.
It has often been said that it is desirable to have a finished cigarette of a density as low as possible without getting hot when smoked. My invention has enabled a cigarette to be made having the tobacco along the longitudinal centroidal axis of the cigarette of a low density while the tobacco along the side walls is of high density. As a consequence, I have produced cigarettes having the advantages of an easy draw as is achieved in low density cigarettes and also of a irrn full feel as is attained in cigarettes of high density. I have also provided in the same cigarette a densiiied end which is capable of being severed so as to provide a clean, straight cut without the fine or small shreds of ller tobacco falling out from the end of the cigarette.
`While I have shown how two cigarettes can be densitied simultaneously and then severed into two individual cigarettes, it is also possible to use only one cigarette length and a single plunger to obtain the same results with one cigarette at a time.
As illustrated in Fig. ll, the guide brackets 16 and 13 which carry the stepped plungers 12 and 14, respectively, are slideably supported in a suitable horizontal track 40. From the central portion of the bottom side of said track projects a forked bearing bracket 4Z which supports a shaft 44 to the center portion of which is secured a pulley which is rotated or driven by means of a belt 48. An arm 50 and 52 is keyed to each free end of shaft 44 respectively. Arms 50 and 52 are so arranged that they form a straight double lever so that the center of their free ends are in line with the center of their neutral supporting shaft 44.
The free end of arm Si? is connected by means of a link 54 with the free end of a lug 56 projecting from the bottom side of the plunger supporting bracket 16. The free end of arm 52 is connected by means of link 58 to the free end of a lug 60 projecting from the bottom side of the plunger supporting bracket 18.
Rotation of the pulley 4o and shaft 44 causes the plunger supporting brackets 16 and 18 to move towards and away from each other. The effect of the movement of said brackets towards each other results in the entry of the respective stepped plungers into the respective ends of the double length cigarette C and causes the compaction of the tobacco within said cigarette as described hereinbefore.
As the brackets move away from each other the plungers are withdrawn from the ends of said cigarette leaving a densiiied center and a hollow at each end of the double length cigarette and a less densied section eX- tending along the longitudinal axis of the cigarette, as illustrated in Fig. 3 of the drawings.
The clamp holding said double length cigarette may consist of two individual pockets 62 and 63 of a suitable turret o4 spaced in such a manner as to allow a suitable knife blade to enter between the adjacent ends of said clamp pockets and effect a cutting of the double length cigarette into two individual cigarettes as illustrated in Fig. l2.
The cutting, of course, is done through the densied central portion of the double length cigarette.
A suitable tilter plug or a hollow tube or a plug of tobacco or other desired material 7d, is inserted manually or by suitable mechanism into the hollow ends of the cigarette. Each individual cigarette F thus formed has a very desirable dense end D on one end and a filter plug or other suitable filling as indicated above on the other as disclosed in Fig. 13 of the drawings.
ln the embodiment of my invention shown in Figs. 14- l6 i have provided a cigarette clamping structure '72 and 74 for holding a double length cigarette C. Sets of these clamps may be mounted along the periphery of a. suitable rotating turret at spaced intervals, as shown, for example, in my co-pending application Serial No. 505,605 tiled May 3, 1955. The cigarette filler in the cigarette wrapper 76 is compressed axially and radially by the insertion of a cylindrical stepped plunger 7S into the end of a cigarette in the manner described above. In this embodiment i have shown the stepped plunger made with steps which taper towards the fastened end of the plunger. Each step has the appearance of an inverted, elongated, truncated cone.
Ille stepped plunger 7S used to illustrate this embodiment consists of a cylindrical member having a plurality of steps bij, 82, 34, '56, each of which is wider at its forward end than at its rear end. A slideable sleeve S3 is mounted on each plunger and has a pin 9@ extending through the sleeve 33 through the slot 92. The slot 92 limits the distance the sleeve SE can slide back and forth on the non-tapering shaft 94. ll`he leading end 89 of the sleeve is tapered or cone-shaped to tit a slight distance into the mouth end of the cigarette holding clamps "f2 and '74, respectively, when it is in cigarette holding position. A compression spring 96 is mounted on each shaft 94, and continuously urges the sleeve 33 outwardly from the spring supporting, shoulder S. When the plunger has been completely withdrawn from clamps 72 the pin 9@ will be pushed to a position of rest against the far end of slot 92 by spring 96. This structure is also shown and claimed in my application Serial No. 505,605 iiled May 3, 1955.
When the plungers 78 are inserted into opposite ends of the double length cigarette the steps 80, 82, 84, and `86 will act on the tobacco in the manner heretofore described, and the nose or tapered end 89 of sleeve 88 upon engagement with the paper 76 and mouth end of clamp 72 will begin sliding back on the shaft 94 as the stepped plunger continues its advance inside of the cigarette. When this occurs, the spring 96 is compressed in the manner shown in Fig. l5.
When the stepped plunger 78 is withdrawn from. the cigarette, it does not pull any shreds of tobacco with it from the compressed cigarette filler because of the tapered arrangement of the individual steps 80, 82, 84, and 86 of the plunger. The importance of tapering the steps varies with the type and condition of the tobacco that is being handled. It has been found that there is less tendency for the compressed shreds of tobacco to adhere to the plunger when shaped in this manner, when being withdrawn, as shown in Fig. 16, especially if the liller has a larger than usual amount of moisture and casing.
After insertion and withdrawal of the stepped plunger 12 or 78 the tobacco at the forward end of the cigarette will be in a densied condition while the longitudinal 4axis of the iiller will be less dense because of the insertion of the stepped plunger. The tobacco around the periphery of the cigarette will also be in a compacted and densied condition. After the stepped plunger is Withdrawn there is a creeping back of tobacco from the side walls of the cigarette, but this creeping back does not restore the density of the tobacco -along the center longitudinal axis of the cigarette to its precompacted density. It will thus be apparent that I have provided a cigarette which is of a design which gives the consumer and manufacturer many advantages they did not before have available.
Suitable means are then employed for inserting either a cigarette lter plug, a hollow tube, cigarette tobacco or other suitable material into the hollow cavity of the cigarette. In the apparatus I am showing in Fig.v 17, which apparatus may be similar to that shown in my copending application, Serial No. 505,605 led May 3, 1955. These lter plugs, hollow tubes, or lengths of conventional cigarette ller or other means are axially positioned in front of the center of the cigarette holding clamps by means of suitable locating devices 100 which may be similar to the structure shown in my co-pending appli- .cation Suitable ejecting plungers 102 are employed for ter core or longitudinal axis of the cigarette is of lighter density than the end and the side walls of the cylindrical cigarette.
While I have stated that plugs are readily inserted into the hollow ends of the compacted cigarette tobacco 'as it is held in the cigarette holding clamps, it should be understood that lter material or other suitable material does not have to be in plug form, but could be in a continuous rope of tobacco which is severed after the required amount of such lter material or other material as has been injected into the cigarette directly from the cigarette rod or rope making machine.
The invention hereinabove described may be varied in construction within the scope of the claims, for the particular device selected to illustrate the invention is but one of many possible embodiments of the same. The invention, therefore, is not to be restricted to the precise details of the structure shown and described.
What is claimed is:
l. A cigarette comprising a tubular wrapper, a lter plug located in one end of said tubular wrapper, cigarette ller located in the balance of said tubular wrapper, the ller in the end of said cigarette opposite to said lter plug being densied, and the tobacco intermediate the densied end and the lter plug being more dense around the sides of the tubular wrapper of the cigarette and gradually decreasing in density towards the longitudinal centroidal axis of the cigarette.
2. A cigarette comprising a tubular cigarette Wrapper having a densied portion of tobacco at one end, cigarette tobacco of regular density at the opposite end, and cigarette tobacco intermediate said ends which gradually increases in density from the longitudinal centroidal vaxis of the cigarette to the sides of the tubular cigarette wrapper.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS- 1,920,708 Molins Aug. 1, 1933 2,045,601 Howarth June 30, 1936 FOREIGN PATENTS 313,428 Great Britain June 10, 1929 682,696 Great Britain Nov. 12, 1952
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1920708 *||Jul 13, 1931||Aug 1, 1933||Walter Molins Desmond||Method of manufacturing cigarettes|
|US2045601 *||Apr 30, 1935||Jun 30, 1936||Howarth Frank A||Tip for cigarettes|
|GB313428A *||Title not available|
|GB682696A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3985144 *||Jun 5, 1975||Oct 12, 1976||Payne Leslie E||Apparatus for forming cigarette filters|
|US4942887 *||Jun 9, 1988||Jul 24, 1990||Fabriques De Tabac Reunies, S.A.||Filter mouthpiece for a smoking article|
|DE1227817B *||Apr 20, 1961||Oct 27, 1966||Raymond Atkinson Boothroyd||Vorrichtung zum Bilden von Luftlaengskanaelen in Zigaretten|
|DE3038027A1 *||Oct 8, 1980||May 14, 1981||British American Tobacco Co||Rauchartikel|
|EP0174550A1 *||Aug 28, 1985||Mar 19, 1986||R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company||A segmented cigarette|
|EP2885985A1 *||Dec 20, 2013||Jun 24, 2015||Philip Morris Products S.A.||Smoking article with recessed tobacco rod|
|U.S. Classification||131/339, 131/94|
|International Classification||A24C5/00, A24C5/18|