US 2919075 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 29, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 8, 1955 INVENTOR.
Dec. 29, 1959 M. A. PFEIFFER TWO STAGE REVERSIBLE CRUSHER' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 8, 1955 United States Patent TWO STAGE REVERSIBLE CRUSHER Mark A. Pfeifi'er, Phillipsburg, Ohio Application December 8, 1955, Serial No. 551,855
6 Claims. (Cl. 241-160) This invention relates to a crusher, and more particularly to a two-stage, reversible crusher for corn cobs and the like.
Many devices have been made available in the prior art for application to similar purposes. The prior art devices of this nature generally employ multiple cylinders having meshing cutter or breaker elements which are so related that they are often clogged and jammed in the crushing operation. This, of course, is highly undesirable. Machinery subject to such operational difficulty presents maintenance and cost problems of a serious nature.
The present invention provides a highly improved versatile crusher which, while being particularly applicable as a corn cob crusher, is readily and efficiently applicable to reduction of other materials in an economical fashion. The invention affords a single contained cylinder element having projecting adjustable stud elements of an improved nature that cooperate with a two stage cutter device to effect a quick easy reduction of materials with minimum resistance thereto. The simplicity of the structure provided is such that it is not subject to having corn husks and stalks and other such materials wrap about the operating elements so as to cause the apparatus to jam with resultant damage thereto, as frequently happens in the use of the prior art devices. The device has additional versatility in that the cylinder unit is adjustable and the apparatus provided may be so adjusted to selectively reject material introduced thereto. A substantial durability and economy of operation is afforded by an improved crusher as provided by the invention.
The object of the invention is to simplify the construction as well as the means and mode of operation of crushers, whereby such crushers may not only be economically manufactured, but will be more efficient and satisfactory in use, adaptable to a wide variety of applications, and be unlikely to get out of repair.
The object of the invention is to provide a new and improved crusher unit which is particularly applicable to effect the reduction of corn cobs and the like to a pulverized condition in a quick and efficient manner.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novelly improved two-stage crusher unit of a reversible nature.
An additional object of the invention is to provide an improved simplified crusher unit employing a single spiked cylinder in conjunction with stacked cutter bars arranged in stepped fashion whereby the material introduced in the unit is successively subjected to a graded cutting action so that resistance to reduction thereof is at a minimum.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved crusher unit for corn cobs and the like wherein the crusher elements are selectively adjustable in an improved fashion so as to get maximum wear resistance and economy in the use of the apparatus provided.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved crusher assembly wherein the drive means there h op os P ls 2,919,075 Patented Dec. 29, 1959 for is novelly effected to provide for free wheeling thereof in the event of jamming of the crusher mechanism.
A further object of the invention is to provide a crusher possessing the advantageous structural features, the inherent meritorious characteristics and the mode of operation herein mentioned.
With the above primary and other incidental objects in view as will more fully appear in the specification, the invention intended to be protected by Letters Patent consists of the features of construction, the parts and combinations thereof, and the mode of operation as hereinafter described or illustrated in the accompanying drawings, or their equivalents.
Referring to the accompanying drawing, wherein is shown one but obviously not necessarily the only form of embodiment of the invention,
Fig. 1 is a top view of the crusher assembly as provided by the invention.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the assembly of Fig. 1, shown partially in section.
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an end elevation of the structure taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 2.
Like parts are indicated by similar characters of refer ence throughout the several views.
Referring to the drawing, a rectangular framework '1 is provided affording a housing composed of side panels 2 and end panels 3. Each of the side panels 2 has uniform continuous peripheral flanges 4 extending outwardly of the framework, while the end panels 3 have similar flanges 5 respectively at the upper and lower extremities thereof. The side flange portions of the side panels 2 are connected to the end panels 3 by bolts 6 providing a rigid rectangular enclosure open at the top and bottom thereof.
Each of the end plates or panels 3 has an elongated aperture 7 centrally located therein. A shaft 8 is normally mounted centrally and longitudinally of the housing 1 with its respective ends extending outwardly through the apertures 7 in the end panels 3. A hearing cap 9 is bolted to each end panel 3 on the outer face thereof to support the shaft 8 for rotation relative the frame work 1. Each bearing cap 9 consists of an inner race member 10 fixed to the shaft 8 and an outer race member 11 fixed to the associated end panel 3 having roller bearings 12 contained therebetween. Collars 13 fixed to the shaft 8 outwardly of and adjacent the end caps 9 limit the axial movement of the shaft 8 relative the framework 1.
Mounted in fixed relation to the shaft 3 within the framework 1 is a cylinder 14 having apertured end plates 15 connected thereto and internal cylindrical hub elements 16 connected to said end plates 15 to seatthereby on the shaft 8. Key blocks 17 are fixed within the internal hub elements 16 to seat in slots 18 in the shaft 8 as the cylinder 14 is mounted thereto so as to prevent relative rotation thereof. Set screws 19 connect the hub elements with the key elements 17. Access to adjust these screws 19 as required is provided by capped openings 20 in the cylinder 14.
Spaced threaded apertures 21 are provided about the 1 cylinder 14. A square headed stud member 22 is th'readedly engaged in each of the apertures 21 to have the; heads thereof uniformly and radially project therefrom:
Vertically spaced apertures 23 and 24 are provided in each side panel 2 and respectively arranged in spaced horizontal alignment therein. The identical apertures in f 2 are also transversely aligned- These?- der 14 as mounted therein. A rectangular cutter bar 25 having four identical longitudinal cutting edges is. attached in abutting relation to the inner surface of each side panel-2 to extend "horizontally thereof and be fixed thereto by bolts 26 engaging either through the apertures 23 or 24. Depending'on the required spacing ofthe advance cutting edge of the bars 25 from the cylinder "14, each bar 25 afiords further adjustment of this nature relative to the cylinder'by being provided with three apertures 27 aligned transversely thereof at each connecting point therein for the'bolts '26. A second cutter bar 28 of a width narrower than that of'the bars '25 overlies each bar 25 on its inner surface, coextensive therewith, and is secured thereto by the same bolts 26 engaging therein through the bar 25. Thus, the cutter bars 25 and 28 are stacked to the, respective side panels 2 in a predetermined adjusted stepped fashion'relative'the cylinder 14. The nature of the relative disposition of the advance cutting edges of the bars 25 and-28 and their respective clearance relative the cylinder 14 as it rotates is dependent on whether the bolts 26 connect throughthe apertures 23 or 24 in the side panels 2 and which of the apertures 27 in p the cutter bar 25 they extend through to engage the bar 28 stacked thereto.
One projectingextremity ofthe shaft Shas a drive unit 29 mounted in fixed relation thereto. The drive unit 29 consists of a ball bearing unit 30 fixed about the shaft 8 to support a drive sheave element 31 for rotation relative the shaft whenfree. Fixed to the shaft 8, in-keyed relation thereto, and to either side ofthe bearing 30, are opposedfianged pillow blocks 33 having the flanged inner surfaces 34 thereof in abutting relation to the hub 32 of the drive sheave, so as to contain the bearing 30. A shear pin 35 extends transversely through flanges 36 of the pillow blocks 33 and the hub 32.and fixes the drive sheave for rotation with and driving of the shaft 8 thereby.
,The use of the illustrated, apparatus in crushing corn cobs and the like is as follows: The top opening provided by the framework 1 serves as an inlet for the cobs from a hopper. The cylinder 14 is fixed in predetermined spaced relation relative to either sidepanelZ of the framework 1. The stacked cutter bars 25 and 28 are fixed to the inner walls of the panels 2 to provide the'required spacing between the advance cutting or breaking edges thereof and the cylinder 14 for reducing the cobs successively to the desired consistency. The shaft 8 is driven through the drive unit 29 by any suitable power source either in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. As the shaft 8 is driven, .the cylinder 14 is driven thereby. The cobs entering the unit are picked up by the square 4 Thus, wear on the cutter bars and studs may be equalized before disass'embly and reversal of the bars.
By relative adjustment of the cutter bar elements to each other and to their respective mounting side panels 2, a wide range of application is provided the crusher unit so as to reduce materials introduced therein to any desired degree. The studs 22 are generally arranged to closely clear the cutter bars in the rotation of the cylinder and there are no interengaging breaker fingers as in the prior art devices for corn husks and stalks to wrap about and jam the crusher unit.
However, as a safety feature, an improved drive is provided which automatically releases the drive shaft 8 from headed studs 22 and driven towards one side panel 2,
determined by the direction of rotation thereof. The cobs are first driven against the advance cutting edge of the broader cutter bar 25 and between it and the cylinder to be partially broken and reduced thereby. Then the reduced cobs are subjected to further treatment by being driven against the more closely spaced cutting edge of. the stacked breaker or cutter bar 28 for a second stage reduction thereof. This provides material of predetermined consistency for delivery from the crusher unit throughthe bottom thereof.
As can be readily seen, the pair of stacked cutter bars employed in the crushing operation is dependent on the direction of rotation provided the cylinder 14. The use of square headed studs as driving elements for the cobs effects a positive drive thereof and as provided, they are readily adjustable to accommodate both wear action and extension or retraction in accordance with the nature of thematerial to be reduced. And each of the cutter bar elements provided has four cutting edges so that they may be-reverscd end for end and top for bottom so that their op'eratinglifeand their durability is substantial. Furthermore, "reversal "of the direction of rotation of the cylinder 14 -utilizes theother pair of stacked cutter bars.
the drive sheave 31 in the event of suddent obstruction to the operation of the cylinder 14. If the rotation of the shaft 8 should be suddenly interrupted, the pin 35 will shear to either side of the drive sheave 31 intermediate it and the pillow blocks 33 and the drive sheave will then be free of its connection to the'sha'ft and will .free whee on the bearing 30 so that no damage will result to crusher unit structure due to the sudden obstruction thereof. The double shear pin connection to elements 33 insures-balanced positive drive of the shaft 8 therethrough at all times under normaloperating conditions.
'As mentioned previously, the apertures 7 in the end panels 3 supporting the shaft 8 are elongated. -This permits the shaft 8 to be adjusted therein from .its normal central position within the'framework 1. The bearing caps 9, of course, are similarly adjusted in their mounting to the end panels 3 to accommodate this adjustment. This adjustment'may be desired when greater or less spacing may be require'd'between the cylinder unit and'the side panels of the framework 1 to suit theapplication of the improved crusher unit in accordance with the material to be passed therethrough and the work to be done on it. The cutter or breaker bars Y25 and 28 may be completely removed from the side panels, if desired, and the crusher .assembly may then serve as an intermediate "grading device to prevent undesired substances from passing from a feeder unit we further reduction unit. The adjustment of the cylinder relative to the framework serves to control the nature and size of material to be transmitted.therethrough.
As is particularly illustrated in Fig. '5, the endpanels 3 are provided with four apertures 40 whichare -disposed sides thereof or the shaft may be laterally shifted Iforsubstantial double clearance'C at either side of the cylinder 14.
A highly simplified and improved crusher assembly is thus provided-which is durable and generally trouble free. Its maintenance involves a minimum of time 'and effort and it is readily adjustable foruse in many applications.
From the above description it will be readily apparent that there is thus provided a device of the character described possessing the :particularfeatures of advantage before enumerated as .desirable but which obvion'sly is susceptible of modification in its form, proportions, de-
tail construction and arrangement vof parts without departingfrorn the principle involved or sacrificingany of its advantages.
"While in order to comply with .thestatute the i ventionhas'been described inllanguage more or less specific as to structural features, itis to be understood .that the invention is notlimited to the specific features shown,
but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprise but one form of several modes of putting the invention into efiect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A crusher apparatus comprising a housing having horizontally elongated apertures in opposed walls thereof, a shaft extending through said apertures, a crusher element mounted to said shaft within said housing, cutter elements in relatively overlapping relation and adjustably mounted to the inner wall of said housing presenting stepped cutting edges adjacent said crusher element, said housing having an opening therein whereby corn cobs or the like may be introduced for reduction between said crusher element and the cutter elements, said cutter elements being jointly adjustably related to said housing to afford predetermined laterally spaced relation thereof to said crusher element, and said shaft being adjustable in the apertures provided in said opposed walls to vary its location in said housing to provide spacing to accommodate the particular application of the crusher apparatus.
2. Reduction apparatus comprising a housing, a shaft rotatably mounted therein and extending therefrom, a bearing on said shaft, a drive sheave mounted thereon, means fixed to said shaft abutting and containing said bearing to either side thereof and arranged laterally of said sheave, a shear pin extending laterally through and fixedly connecting said lateral containing means and said sheave for driving of said shaft thereby, a cylinder on said shaft within said housing in spaced relation to the Walls thereof and having studs projecting radially therefrom, and cutter means reversely fixed to the interior of said housing in the path of rotation of said cylinder and outwardly of said studs so as to afford a successively stepped reduction in spacing between the cylinder studs and said housing interior at predetermined points whereby on introduction of corn cobs or other material of varying substance into said housing and rotation of said cylinder by operation of said drive means, said studs will drive said material past said cutter means effecting a staged reduction thereof in the process, and in the event of the material introduced being of a nature not susceptible to reduction, it will either be rejected or on obstruction of the rotation of the cylinder thereby said shear pin will shear and the sheave will free wheel on said bearing and in laterally contained balanced condition relative said shaft preventing structural damage thereby.
3. Reduction apparatus comprising a housing, a shaft rotatably mounted therein and extending therefrom, a drive means mounted on said shaft for rotation relative thereto, means connected to said shaft and containing said drive means laterally, a shear pin extending through said containing means and said drive means and normally connecting said drive means to said shaft for driving thereof, a reducing cylinder mounted to said shaft within .said, housing in predetermined spaced relation to the inner walls thereof and having drive studs extending therefrom, broad cutter bar means adjustably related to the inner wall of said housing, narrower cutter bars overlying said broad cutter bars and extending interiorly of said housing to provide a cutter assembly of an adjustable nature having stepped cutting edges in the path of rotation of said cylinder in successively closer spaced relation thereto at predetermined points, whereby on introduction of material to be reduced into said housing, the drive studs of the rotating cylinder will engage the material and drive it for reduction by said cutter bars in staged fashion and in the event of jamming of said cylinder, the shear pin will shear and the drive means will free wheel relative to said shaft preventing structural damage thereby. 1
4. Crusher apparatus comprising a housing having substantially parallel side walls, pick-up means mounted longitudinally therein spaced relation to said side walls and laterally adjustable relative thereto, cutter bars stacked to the inner surface of said side walls to dispose their outermost surfaces generally parallel thereto, means providing a connection of said cutter bars to said side Walls for adjustment of said cutter bars vertically of said side walls and relative each other, said cutter bars presenting stepped cutting edges to the sides of said pick-up means and cooperating therewith whereby on introduction of corn cobs or the like to said housing said pick-up means will drive them successively between said pick-up means and said stacked bars to reduce them to a desired condition Within a single operating cycle of said pick-up means, said cutter bars being rectangular in form and having each of their longitudinal edges formed as cutting edges and being completely reversible in their connection to said side walls.
5. Crusher apparatus comprising a frame having substantially parallel sides, a shaft rotatably mounted to said frame intermediate its sides, a spiked cylinder fixed to said shaft, a plurality of cutter means fixed to at least one side of said frame, superimposed in ofiset relation to establish their outermost surfaces in planes parallel to the sides of said frame with their cutting edges in vertically stepped relation to cooperate with said spiked cylinder to successively reduce material introduced thereto at the side of said frame in stages and within a single cycle of rotation of said cylinder, and means fixing said cutter means for reversible adjustment relative said frame and relative each other so that any predetermined resultant condition of the material introduced may be obtained in the operation of said apparatus.
6. A crusher unit comprising a housing having parallel side walls and feed opening therein, means rotatably mounting a crusher drum in said housing having projecting drive elements extending in the direction of said side walls, a first cutter bar adjustably fixed in superimposed parallel relation to one of said side walls coextensive with said drum, in the path of said projecting drive elements and clear thereof, a second cutter bar of lesser width adjustably mounted to said first cutter bar adjacent said drive elements to provide a cutting edge following the cutting edge of said first cutter bar located inwardly of said housing relative said drum to provide stepped'cutting edges relatively vertically adjustable on said side wall.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 264,740 Naylor Sept. 19, 1882 463,162 McCully Nov. 17, 1891 794,888 Riedelsberger July 18, 1905 919,499 Ulery Apr. 7, 1909 933,901 Halstead Sept. 14, 1909 991,477 Buchanan May 9, 1911 1,025,480 Pack May 7, 1912 1,120,250 Sturtevant Dec. 8, 1914 1,200,104 Haskell Oct. 3, 1916 1,396,108 Gilmore Nov. 8, 1921 1,558,302 Smartt Oct. 20, 1925 1,847,990 Stoner Mar. 1, 1932 2,268,860 Edens et al. Jan. 6, 1942 2,341,105 Kueneman et al Feb. 8, 1944 2,384,188 Mercier Sept. 4, 1945 2,465,056 Bond Mar. 22, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 13,015 France Jan. 12, 1911 422,657 France Jan. 24, 1911 607,378 France Mar. 26, 1926 627,320 Germany Mar. 16, 1936