US 2919702 A
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Jan. 5, 1960 A. P. ouvo METHOD OF cu'muc HAIR Filed March 3, 1958 R O T N E V m United States Patent METHOD OF CUTTING HAIR Anton P. Olivo, Chicago, Ill.
Application March 3, 1958, Serial No. 718,657
7 Claims. (Cl. 1327) This invention is directed to a method of cutting hair particularly womens hair.
In general the invention embodies a system of techniques organized in such a way as to markedly improve the teaching of haircutting to students and is designed to develop the skills of practicing cosmetologists by inculcating in them certain of my principles and concepts to increase their speed, accuracy and enhance the artistry of their work.
Among other things, the invention comprehends a novel technique of gauging the lengths of cut of the hair to obtain a desired sculptured look.
The invention provides a fool-proof systematized meth- 0d of cutting hair which nevertheless obtains a personalized effect.
A still further object is to repeat a simple procedure ina novel method with consistent steps basel upon the anatomy of the wearer to obtain a resultant satisfactory personalized hair styling.
A still further object is to provide in the method a novel cutting pattern wherein the length of cut is determined by a contiguous preceding cut, the hair being divided into cutting units and each unit being cut in accordance with the length of a portion of the unit previously cut and the units being measured by aggregating the cut and uncut units and extending the same radially outwardly of the head.
Another object is to develop a novel method of outer shaping of the hair mass on the basis of an outlining cut of the hair which provides basic reference points.
' The invention comprehends the employment of the fingers of the hand to hold the hair strands of the cutting units radially outwardly of the head and an overhand cutting technique to obtain an outer hair mass shaping, the hand being cupped and inclined to provide cutting guides.
Another object of the invention is to provide a basis for superficialhair thinning which is accomplished by the use of thinning shears cutting over the fingers of the hand o'ttstretching the hair.
A still further object is to develop a novel hair cutting system which Integrates the operations of outlining, outer hair mass sha ing and inner hair mass shaping.
The method contemplates a simplification not only of the procedures but also the elimination of multitudinous implements and relies solely upon the use of scissors and thinning shears in combination with the fingers of the hand or a comb working on a normal dry unwashed hair mass.
These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent from the specification and the drawing wherein:
Figure l is a side elevational view of a female head illustrating various steps of the invention;
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of a female head showing the step of outlining;
Figure 3 is a side elevational view of the head illustrating a cutting pattern for outside shaping;
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken approximately on line 44 of Figure 3 illustrating the step of sectionalizing the hair into strands or cutting units for outside shaping;
Figure 5 is a cross-section on line 55 of Figure 6;
Figure 6 is a side elevation showing the step of extending and cutting each set of strands for inside shapmg.
Describing the invention in detail and having particular reference to the drawings there is shown a female human head with its anatomical guide points such as the nape of the neck 52, the ears 53 and the nose 54. Depending on the styling of the hair or length of outlining cuts, the anatomical guide points may be the collar, shoulder, chin, etc. which serve to judge other cuts.
The hair generally designated 55 is first combed umbrella fashion as shown in Figure 2 from the imaginary crown point 56 through which passes the imaginary crown line plane 57 which extends along the back edges 58 of the ears 53 and through the crown point 56. The hair mass forwardly of the crown line 57 is combed forwardly in front and downwardly along the sides and that rearwardly of crown line 57 is combed over the back of the head and downwardly to provide front and rear portions 59F and 59R.
For purpose of illustration it will be observed that several different hair lengths are present at four principal points of the scalp as seen in Figure 1, namely there are the front lengths indicated FL, the crown lengths designated CL, nape lengths indicated NL and side lengths termed SL. Thus the scalp is bordered by front, side, and nape length hairs which extend respectively from the front hairline 60, the side hairline 61 and nape hairline 62.
The haircut is preformed in three major operations,
namely: (1) outlining; (2) outer hair mass shaping, or contour shaping; and (3) inner hair mass shaping, or thinning.
Outlining adjacent C5 may be grouped with section C5 and used as length guides and the sections C5 and C6 are cut in a curved line directed .oward. the middle of the nose.
Then the lengths at C7 are cut horizontally at the desired front length established at FL (Figure 1).
Using the lengths at C7 and C6, the lengths C8 and C9 The procedure I are cut in a merging curve as shown. is then repeated on the left side of the head the last cut merging with section C7.
Thus the entire style outline has been cut from predetermined guiding lengths and anatomical landmarks.
Of course the style outlines may vary using different pre- I determined length guides as determined by the individual style requirements such as the collar or shoulder blades for NL, the mouth or chin for FL, and shoulders for SL, etc. It will be understood also that although Figure 2 illustrates that all of the hair is combed umbrella-like over the individuals face, this is intended to represent a cumulative effect and is for purposes of illustration only and thatkt actuality only those strands which are being Using the ear tip 63 and nape Using the same guides, cuts worked on are combed down over the face and then combed away.
Outer hair mass shaping Considering now the second major operation and referring at Figures 3 and 4, it will be seen that the hair mass on each side of the head is segmented into sections or cutting units labeled 1 through 27. Outside shaping is shown in Figure l designated OS. Each section represents a workable group of hair strands. Each of these groups commencing with unit 1 is combed out radially outwardly from the head as seen in Figure 4 and the operator forks his first and second fingers of his left hand around this uplifted group of hairs. The fingers are closed and grasp the hair strands of unit 1 and slide outwardly to align the hairs evenly under moderate tension.
The first group or cutting unit is depicted as 1 (Figure 4). It will be noted that a small group of the hairs at the lower end of this group, labeled GPO to indicate guide point outline hairs, are the previously cut hairs which once formed outline hairs in the regions C and C6, see Figure 2. These previously cut hairs, GPO, are now designated as guide point hairs and are used to gauge the cutting of unit 1. With the shears held as illustrated in Figure 4, the shaping cut number one, SCll, Figure 4, is made on the uncut hairs of group 1 (right side of the head), Figure 4, that is the hairs of each group 1 are cut using the length of the GPO hairs in this group as guide point or reference. The angle of this cut is generally concentric as related to the contour of the head and is judged and directed by visualization to meet FL, the predetermined front style length at the top of the head. In other words if the FL is 3 and GPO is 2" then SCIl is tapered from 2" to about 2 /2". Similar cuts are made in the same manner for sections 2 and 3 and probably 4 (Figure 3), it being understood that three cuts are usually sufficient to complete sections 1, 2, and 3 to the crown line, but sometimes more sections are needed such as 4 for larger heads. It is to be understood that each of such succeeding sections 2, 3, and 4 to be cut use as a reference or guide point the lowest or outlining cut hairs of such section. Therefore in cutting section 2 the lowest hairs in that section designated as GPO(2) is the guide point for that section. Similarly this procedure is followed with sections 3 and 4. It will be understood that each cutting unit rearwardly of the preceding unit does not have the same length and usually is longer because the GPO hairs in the unit are longer and thus provide different gauge lengths; however, the same angle of cut or are is maintained that is applied to the initial series it, 5 and 9. In other words, the GPO hair of section 1 are of a different length than the GPO hairs of the next rearwardly adjacent section 2. Usually the GPO hairs of section 2 are longer than the GPO hairs of section 1 and this condition progresses rearwardly with respect to each GPO cut. However, the tape or angle of cut of the SCT and the SCZ are the same. That means to say that proceeding from their respective GPOs they maintain a parallel relation with respect to each other. This condition is obtained by keeping in mind the curvature of the previous shaping cut SC.
After the first series of shaping cuts are completed, a second series is started with sections 5, 6, 7, and probably 8 (Figures 3 and 4). In this series a portion of the previously cut hairs in unit 1 are grouped with those hairs of unit 5 and the length of hairs in group 1 become guide points for the shaping cut SCS which extends from the ends of the cut hairs of group 1 and is directed toward the top of the head in relation to the front length of the hair in the same plane as seen in Figures 1 and 4. In other words, recalling that the SCI tapered from 2" to 2 /2" then SCS would taper from 2 /2" to about 2%". This process is repeated rearwardly through areas 6, 7, and 8 (Figure 3) in similar manner. Cut hairs from group 2 become guide points for the group above, namely group 6, those from 3 become guide points for 7, etc.
The third series 9, 10, 111, and 12 are completed in similar manner, that is the cut hair length of 5 becomes a length guide for 9, and taper cut SC9 may be from about 2%" to 3 /2", and the cut hair length from 6 becomes guide points for 1%), etc. The entire procedure from 1 to 12 is repeated equally on the left side, thus completing the outer hair mass shaping on the entire front part of the head to about the crown line.
The entire back region of the head is treated in three horizontal series, the first of which includes areas or units 13 through 18 using cut hairs from the contiguous sections 4, 8, and 12 as guides. This is repeated on the left side of the head. Then series 19 through 23 are treated using as guides the respective contiguous section 13 through 18 and the cut is angled to meet the nape length below. This is repeated on the left side. Finallythe third series in the back 24 through 27 is cut, that is the length of 24 is gauged by the length of 19 and angled to meet the nape length of the nape hairs of groups 19 and the other groupings of this series are similarly cut and this is repeated on the left side of the head.
Referring now to Figure 1 there are indicated three broken lines designated L, M, and F designating degree of length graduations or taper in the back, L indicating light, M for a medium taper, and F for a full taper. In directing any cut in the back region from one guide point to another in relation to the scalp therebelow the angle of cut may be varied in order to create varying degrees of length graduations. In other words the taper may parallel the head, may diverge from the head, or converge toward the head, and the length of hair Will depend upon the nape length. For example the hair at the CL may be 4" and taper to the NL may be 1, but the degree of taper depends upon the angle of cut desired. In the outside shaping the hair is always cut over or outwardly of the fingers of the cupped hand. The cupping of the hand determines the angle of taper.
Inner hair mass shaping Inner hair mass shaping or thinning consists in reducing the bulk of the hair mass by cutting with thinning shears. Superficial thinning consists of reducing the bulk of hair close to the outer edges of the hair strands whereas deep thinning is done closer to the scalp.
The deep thinning operation shown as IS (Figure l) is executed in the same order as the outer hair mass shaping cuts of Figure 3 except that larger sections are used shown as in Figures 5 and 6 where 9 cutting units labeled 1 through 9 take the place of 12 cutting units in Figure 3 The number of any of the cutting units expressed in the outer hair mass shaping and the inner hair mass shaping are only exemplary and not intended in any Way as limiting the scope of the invention. Visual comparison is made in progressing from one section to another. Hairs from a previously cut hair unit are always incorporated with each hair unit for comparison and the new unit is cut to conform.
Deep thinning is accomplished by extending each cutting unit sequentially radially outwardly between the fingers of the hand and the cut is made beneath the hand.
Following the deep thinning operation, the final step in my process consists of superficial thinning. Superficial thinning is done in those areas where it is desired to reduce the hair mass near the outer edges of the hair strands in order to produce a continuity of line and eliminate any blunt or coarse appearance to the hair caused during the shearing or outer hair mass shaping. This is accomplished by extending the hair radially between the fingers and cutting the hair outwardly of the fingers. This is a finishing operation performed upon the hair and'does not foliow a specific pattern as is the case with deepthinning or outer hair mass shaping but is done where needed and is an aid to the combining and setting of the hair.
Referring to Figure 5 the overhand cutting is designated 5 OH and in Figure 4 the shaping cuts of units 2, 6, and 10 are indicated 8C2, 8C6, and SC10.
It will be understood that the foregoing specification relating to specific cutting units or lengths is by way of example and not limitation and that the scope of coverage is based upon the appended claims.
1. A method of cutting hair on a human head co'mprising parting the hair transversely of the head to form front and rear portions and establish a crown line, then establishing a plurality of anatomical guide points such as the ears, nape, and nose, then outlining the lower edges of the hair by cutting along sight lines between selected anatomical guide points in an outline cut to obtain a front length, side lengths and nape length of hair, then parting said forward portion of the hair into right and left sections, then dividing each section into a series of cutting units arranged in a plurality of horizontal rows, then commencing with a cutting unit at one end of the lowermost row extending the unit radially outwardly and cutting the outer ends of the hair on the basis of the outline cut lengths of the side lengths of hairs in the unit with a cut directed to merge with the front length of hair in the unit, then progressing to the units in the next row and grasping each unit thereof with a portion of a unit therebelow and cutting the former on the basis of the lentgh of the latter.
2. In a method of cutting hair on the human head, the step of parting the hair into front and rear sections to establish a transverse crown line and parting the front section sidewise into right and left portions, then cutting the hair with an outlining cut, then imaginarily dividing each portion into a plurality of cutting units, then processing the lowermost units in each portion by extending them outwardly of the head and cutting them on the basis of the outlining cut of shortest lengths thereof at an angle toward the longer lengths thereof, then processing contiguous units by aggregating a portion each unit with a precedingly cut unit and extending the unit to be cut outwardly and cutting the latter as gauged by the length of the former.
3. A method of cutting hair on a human head comprising the steps of dividing the hair into front and rear sections with reference to a crown line extending transversely intermediate the front and rear of the head, then picking anatomical guide points and outlining the hair with an outline cut, then parting the hair into right and left portions at said front section, then dividing the hair into cutting units at each side of the head, then commencing with the lowermost cutting units on each side of the head extending each such unit radially outwardly of the head and cutting the outer ends of the hair strands in the unit on the basis of the shortest hairs in the unit as determined by said outline cut and cutting the hair upwardly toward the center of the head on a line merging into the outline cut hair length of the hair on the top of the head in the same transverse vertical plane.
4. The invention according to claim 3 and said method further characterized in assimilating in each cutting unit several hair strands of the cutting unit therebelow to provide a length basis for the unit to be cut and then taperingly cutting from the assimilated hair lengths to the intended hair length of the uppermost hair unit.
5. In a method of cutting hair on the human head, the steps of combing the hair umbrella fashion over the head, picking several anatomical guide points, cutting the hair with an outline cut about the entire head to provide a front length and nape length, then commencing on one side of the head progressively grasping contiguous lowermost-strands of units of hair and extending them radially outwardly and cutting them with a shaping out based upon the outline cut of the hairs in the unit, and the front length for hair on the forward part of the head, then at the rear part of the head commencing with the uppermost hairs extending them outwardly in cutting units with aggregations of continuous cut hair lengths forwardly thereof and cutting the same with shaping cuts based on the lengths of the cut hairs and the nape length of hair.
6. The method according to claim 5 and further characterized in that said last-mentioned cuts are angled in accordance with the taper desired.
7. A method of cutting hair comprising the steps of outlining the hair, then outer mass shaping the hair and then inner mass shaping the hair, and wherein said outlining is based upon anatomical guide points, said outer hair mass shaping comprising extending contiguous cutting units of hair radially of the head and executing shaping cuts on predetermined points and at least several of said predetermined points comprising aggregating portions of previously cut units with those to be cut, and said inner hair mass shaping comprising extending contiguous cutting units outwardly between the fingers of the hand and deep thinning by cutting under the hand, and then superficially thinning by extending the hair in areas of bluntness outwardly between the fingers and thinning by cutting outwardly of the hand.
References Cited in the file of this patent The ABCs of Haircutting (Fred the Hairstylist), Article 2, published by Modern Beauty Shop, October 1949.