US 2920622 A
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12. 1 v. H. STEEL 2,920,622
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIRED AIR Filed June 6, 1955 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR. l/q/v H. TEEL aizziDzua 2 1 1 UN.Z0 All 1 0 4.00 Pr 10:42-48: 01.4000 N2.
h\ Q a N fiTTOENEYS V. H. STEEL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIRED AIR Jan. 12, 1960 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 6, 1955 INVENTOR. VAN H. STEEL Jan. 12, 1960 v. H. STEEL 2,920,622
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIRED AIR Filed June 6, 1955 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 ail/35.6
VAN H 5TEEL Jan. 12, 1960 v. H. STEEL 2,920,622
METHOD AND APPARATUS, FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIRED AIR Filed June 6, 1955 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 ivlzlalalzla INVENTOR VA N H 575.61. BY
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Filed June 6, 1955 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIRED AIR V H. STEEL 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 AmsrmM a sumo/v mung-A. fl [a VOLTj-tM v wl Q2 42:4
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Arne/v15 YJ United States Patent i METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING ENERGY CARRIER STATES OF OXYGEN IN INSPIREDAIR Van H. Steel, Portland, Oreg.
Application June 6, 1955, Serial No. 513,341
13 Claims. (Cl. 128-191) This invention relates to a method of and means for the processing or treating of oxygen and to the utilization of energy-carrier states of oxygen of inspired air by human beings and animals for the correction or treatment of existing pathological conditions in said human beings or animals. Furthermore, the invention relates to apparatus useful for the building up of an energetic defense against the development of pathological conditions or dysfunctions that are the result of bacterial or virus invasions of said organisms.
This invention pertains to energy-carrier states of raw ox'ygen such as may be obtained from storage tanks for therapeutic purposes, or to atmospheric oxygen of inspired air. Heretofore, therapeutic oxygen as used in oxygen tents or as administered by mask, has been used with no attempt being made to energize it, that is, to raise its energy level by creating energy-carrier states prior to its utilization.
Relatively pure dry oxygen taken from storage tanks has a high potential as a carrier of energy of inspired air. Such oxygen normally is in'its ground state, or in a low vibrational energy level of its ground state. In either of these states, it is relatively inactive chemically. Atmospheric oxygen of low vibrational energy levels of its ground state is normally exposed to the energizing efiects of radiant and kinetic energy of the outdoor environment. By absorption of this energy, its energy level is raised, and outdoor air is freshened and made suitable for normal respiratory purposes. Oxygen of outdoor air is a normal carrier of energy, and the amount of energy carried may be subnormal, normal, or excessive as it is inspired by animals or by human beings.
It has heretofore been recognized in the electro-chemistry of gases that certain mixtures of molecules, such as oxygen molecules of air, do not react chemically unlessone or both of the potentially reacting molecules are in an abnormal, excited or energy-rich state. They must be brought into a chemically reactive state, because they show no tendency to change while in their ground state, or in the lower vibrational energy levels of their ground state. The inherent ionization of atmospheric oxygen produced by cosmic rays, and lower vibrational levels of the metastable state produced by infra-red absorption, may provide adequate energy in atmospheric oxygen to support life. However, this life sustaining energy may be inadequate to support a defense of an organism against pathogenic bacterial or virus invasions. It may likewise be inadequate to overcome pathological conditions in an organism once they have become established.
The vital importance of energy-carrier states of oxygen of inspired air seems not heretofore to have been fully understood or adequately appreciated biologically or therapeutically. The importance of the chemical activity of oxygen becomes even greater in tissue cells than in the alveoli of the lungs. In tissue cells, the energy level of oxygen received from the bloodmust be raised by means of iron-porphyrin-protein respiratory cell catalysts before the said oxygen can unite chemically with cy- 2,920,622 Iatented Jan. 12, 1960 tochrome oxidase and oxidize its ferrous iron atom to a ferric state. This latter reaction is basic to the continuity of living processes. Without this oxidation of ferrous iron, oxidation-reduction reactions cannot function in a living cell, and life within an organism cannot continue. Activated or metastable oxygen, i.e. molecular oxygen that has had its energy level raised, is the ultimate electron acceptor of the entire oxidatiomreductio'n sequence of a living cell.
Oxygen in its diatomic or molecular state is a potential carrier of energy of inspired air. Energy is normally imparted to atmospheric oxygen by the kinetic energy of alpha, beta, gamma and cosmic rays of the earth, the air and the co'smic universe, and by the radiant energy of sunlight. In my prior patents, issued under Nos. 2,343,- 338 and 2,415,659, I have disclosed methods and means for the creation of positively ionized and metastable states in oxygen of inspired air by the kinetic energy of electron impact in an ionizer utilizing comparatively low velocity electrons.
As a general statement, it may be said that the principal object of this invention is to provide a method and means whereby positively and negatively ionized states, metastable states and vibrational energy levels of metastable states of molecular oxygen can be produced for animal or human consumption in inspired air.
Further objects'of the present invention are:
To provide an apparatus including an ionizer wherein kinetic energy of electron impact is utilized upon oxygen molecules of a gas and whereby positive and negative molecular oxygen ions andmetastables are created, in combination with means for irradiation of said gas whereby additional oxygen metastables will be formed and subsequently raised to higher vibrational energy levels.
To provide apparatus for treating or processing the oxygen of inspired air, primarily for use by human beings, for the purposes previously given, without creating ozone or deleterious nitrogen compounds in the air.
To provide an apparatus of the above character including an irradiation chamber through which the gas is caused to flow and to efiect the irradiation of said gases by means of a continuous spectrum provided by a carbon are, or certain standard types of tungsten filament infrared and photospot lamps or other standard means.
To provide apparatus of the character stated wherein means is provided for controlling the rate at which the oxygen-containing gas is caused to move through the ionizer and irradiating chamber.
Yet another object is to adapt the present ionizer and irradiation means for use'in combination with present day types of air conditioning means.
Before describing in detail the apparatus for and methods of achieving the objects of my invention, I will first present certain background theory, and in particular I will describe the energy-states of oxygen as shown in a schematic energy chart comprising Fig. 15. In this graphic view, the vertical scale at the right-hand side expresses the energy levels of oxygen in terms of electron volts. Similarly, the vertical scale at the left-hand side expresses the same energy values in Wavelengths emitted from the oxygen molecule, and the horizontal line across the bottom expresses the varying distances between the atoms of an oxygen molecule in terms of Angstrom units. In this view, I have shown five energy curves for molecular oxygen. Four of these are seen to converge at the right at 5.08 electron volts or 2430 Angstrom units. This represents the first dissociation potential for molecularoxygen, at which energy level the molecule dissociates to form two normal P atoms. The second dissociation potential, as shown by the fifth curve, is at 7.047 volts or 1750 Angstrom units, at which level the molecule dissociates to form a normal P atom and an excited D ICE metastable atom. At 12.3 volts or 1000 Angstrom units,
we have the ionization potential ,of molecular oxygen at atmospheric temperature and pressure. At this energy level an electron is removed entirely from the influence of the nucleus of an atom of an oxygen molecule, thus creating a positive molecular oxygen ion and releasing a free electron.
In order that the energy curves shown in Fig. 15 may be more clearly understood, I will explain the electronic transition from the 2 ground state to the A metastable state of molecular oxygen. The energy state of molecular oxygen depends primarily upon electronic arrangement, and secondarily upon the extremes of variation of the separation or distance between the atoms. The simplest way to look upon vibrational energy levels of oxygen metastables is to -regard the molecule as two separate atoms held together by means of a coiled spring. At the transitional level from the ground state to the A metastable state, we may regard the tension of this coiled spring as being in equilibrium. Absorption of an adequate intensity of infrared irradiation of the critical wavelength of 12,680 Angstrom units will produce a unique electronic transition or change of electron position in a relatively few molecules of the gas irradiated, whereby these molecules will be transformed from the 2;) ground state to the A metastable state.
The electronic configuration of a metastable state is diflicult to create in a gas by irradiation, but once created it is equally difiicult for the electrons to return to their normal positions. This is what makes the moleculea metastable, i. e., it may hold its electronic and vibrational energy for a period of from one to ten seconds more or less. The actual life of an oxygen metastable depends primarily upon its metastable state, its vibrational energy level and the conditions of its immediate environment. If an oxygen molecule absorbs energy and becomes activated without being changed to a metastable state, its energy-carrying life will be a small fraction of a second. Its value as a carrier of energy in inspired air will then be little, if any, compared with that of a metastable molecule or atom.
As soon as a A metastable oxygen molecule is formed, it may absorb a high intensity photon of a shorter wavelength from the same irradiation source. We may assume that this metastable is raised by this photon absorption to a vibrational energy level of 4936 Angstrom units or 2.5 electron volts with respect to ground. It requires absorption of a wavelength of approximately 8118 Angstrom units to produce this end result. This wavelength represents the difference between 12,680 Angstrom unts, or the energy level at which the metastable is formed, and the vibrational energy level to which the metastable is raised. At this higher vibrational energy level the coiled spring is stretched, so to speak, to a degree commensurate with the energy absorbed. This vibrational level would represent the addition of vibrational energy of the order of 1.52 electron volts to the initial electronic energy of 0.98 electron volt when the metastable was formed.
After this radiant or photon energy is absorbed, the resulting vibrational energy will normally remain with a molecule for a period commensurate with its actual metastable life. Vibrational energy may be given off as photon emission as the distance between the atoms decreases. If all of this electronic and vibrational energy is lost in one jump, the emission wavelength will be 4936 Angstrom units which corresponds with a total energy loss of 2.5 volts as the molecule drops to a ground state. Oxygen has a resonant emission and does not follow Stokes Law governing energy transfers. If the energy loss takes place in a sequence of jumps or energy drops, the emission Wavelengths will be correspondingly longer.
Under conditions of relatively clean dry air, the earth's lower atmosphere has a definitely positive space charge. Ram, fog, increased humidity, or even abrupt changes positive ions in relatively .clean dry air of the earth's lower atmosphere may be of the order or 40 to 60 seconds, While at high altitudes they may have a life of 300 seconds or more. These positive molecular ions have a high affinity for water vapor, and in the presence of moisture, to which they readily pass their energy by collision, they are abruptly reduced. The reduction of these positive molecular ions to a ground state involves intermediate excited and metastable molecular states (Fig. 15). I
The higher, energy levels of molecular oxygen produced at sea level are of kinetic origin rather than of radiant origin. There are four separate conditions under which molecular oxygen may emit short-wave ultraviolet photons as a result of its absorption of kinetic energy, and one condition under which it may emit longer-wave ultraviolet photons as a result of its absorption of radiant energy. Ultraviolet photons produced under these different conditions have difierent wavelengths. The abundance of wavelengths of ultraviolet photons which may be emitted by molecular oxygen under these varying conditions seems wellestablished betwen 1570 Angstromunits and 3800 Angstrom units. The difierent conditions under which molecular oxygen may: emit, or cause the emission of, ultraviolet photons are as follows: These processes are listed in the orderof their wavelength emission:
First (1570 Angstrom .units to 1760 units).As a positive molecular. oxygen ion is reduced by collision with a water molecule as it simultaneously attaches a free electron, it may drop from 12.3 volts to any one of the various vibrational energy levels of the 2 metastable state. Energy transferred to water molecules by these positive molecular oxygen ions as they are reduced may be of the order of 7.0 volts to 7.86 volts. This would result in ultraviolet photon emission of the order of 1570 Angstrom units to 1760 Angstrom units.
Second (1760 Angstrom units to 2060 Angstrom units).As a positive molecular oxygen ion is reduced by collision with water molecules, it may dropin one jump to any one of the various vibrational energy levels of the 2,-) non-metastable excited molecular state depending upon the exact amount of energy lost. Radiation from this excited state as it in turn drops to ground, immediately converts this excitation energy into radiant energy. The net amount of energy lost by these various vibrational energy levels as they drop to ground may vary from 6.0 volts to 7.0 volts. Ultraviolet photons given off will then be of wavelengths of the order of 1760 Angstrom units to 2060 Angstrom units.
Third (2060 Angstrom units to 2430 Angstrom units).As a-positive molecular oxygen ion is reduced by collision with water molecules, it may drop to any one of the non-metastable excited energy levels of the 2;) state. In the one jump drop from 12.3 volts to this excited state, the net amount of energy imparted to water molecules by collision may vary from 5.0 to 6.0 volts. The wavelengths of ultraviolet photons emitted by these water molecules as they drop to zero volts will be commensurate with the net amount of energy received, which may be of the order of 2060 Angstrom units to 2430 Angstrom units.
Fourth (2430 Angstrom units to 2800 Angstrom units).The 25*) metastable state is created as a positive molecular oxygen ion collides with a water molecule and simultaneously attaches a free electron as it drops in I one jump to any one of the various vibrational energy levels of this metastable state. As metastables of these various energ levels again collide with Water molecules and transfer their energy, they drop to ground as the water molecules likewise drop to zero volts. Ultraviolet photons given olf by these water molecules may vary irom some 2430 Angstrom units to 2800 Angstrom units.
.Fu'flh (2,800 Angstrom units to 3800 Angstrom -units).--The A,) metastable state of molecular oxygen may be formed from the ground state by absorption of infra-red photons of 12,680 Angstrom units. This iruadiation may be eflected by means of a tungsten filament infra-red lamp, or by the infra-red rays of a carbon are, or both. After this first step has taken place, further .absoption of photons of a photospot or carbon arc spectrum may raise the combined electronic and vibrational energy of the oxygen molecule, for example, to a 3.25 volt or a 4.42 volt level, or higher with respect to ground. This represents absorption of vibrational energy of 2.27 volts to 3.44 volts with respect to the first-formed meta- .Stable level, i. e., 0.98 volt. As these metastables collide with water molecules and drop to ground, they give oif their combined electronic and vibrational energy in one iump. Ultraviolet photons given ofl will be of the order Of 2800 Angstrom units to 3800 Angstrom units.
Under certain variable conditions which may be present in inspired air, oxygenmolecules in their positively ionized, excited and metastable states have the potential of producing emission of wavelengths varying from 1570 Angstrom units to 3800 Angstrom units by giving up their energy to water molecules on the mucous surfaces of the respiratory tract or in the alveoli of the lungs. By means of equipment specified herein, combined metastable states and vibrational energy levels up to some 5.08 volts can be created in diatomic molecular oxygen by means of radiant energy. Above this energy level, positively ionized, excited and metastable molecular and atomic states of oxygen are created in this equipment by means of the kinetic energy of electron impact in an electric field. The end effects of radiant energy and kinetic energy overlap in the 2$) metastable state of molecular oxygen.
Oxygen of inspired air is the means by which ultraviolet rays are expressed and delivered in an organism. Positive molecular oxygen assumes the role of a catalyst in the lungs as it is reduced. Blood protein and other "carn'ers absorb radiation photons from metastable diatornic and atomic oxygen and positively charged diatomic oxygen ions of inspired air, and carry this energy to cells of an organism. Molecular oxygen and atomic iron of cytochrome oxidase of a cell combine to furnish energy for the cell. Both positively ionized and metastable oxygen are present in controlled amounts in the oxygen of inspired air supplied by the methods and means disclosed herein.
The electronic transition from the 22 ground state of molecular oxygen to the A metastable state takes place at 12,680 Angstrom units. The infra-red drying lamp operating at 2500 K. has its relative energy peak at about 11,500 Angstrom units, which is the closest available means to this transition wavelength. A continuous spectrum rather than a line spectrum is essential to bring about this transition. A line spectrum such as that produced by a mercury vapor lamp, for example, may not have the discrete line of transition and would thus be of no effect.
The number of metastables created will be directly proportional to the volume of the gas and the number of photons per second of that specific wavelength produced. In other words, the rate of absorption of that wavelength is proportional to its intensity. Where the volume of the gas is larger, there will be a greater number of molecules available in the path of the photons. More photons per second of a critical wavelength produced, and more oxygen molecules in the path of these photons to absorb them, results in a greater metastable population being created in the gas.
Likewise more photons per second at 10,000 Angstrom units which is the approximate relative energy peak of a 375 w. infrared lamp operating at 2960" K.; or at approximately 8,500 Angstrom units which is the relative energy peak-of a photo-spot lamp Operating at 3400' :K.; will result in a relatively high incidence "of photons per second of wavelengths between 8500 Angstrom units and 12,680 Angstrom units being absorbed by the A,) metastables created. However, the photo-spot lamp has a relative energy of some at about 6800 Angstrom units, so a relatively large number of photons per second of wavelengths between 6800 Angstrom units and 8500 Angstrom units will be available.
At the electronic transitional level to the A,) metastable state, i.e., 12,680 Angstrom units, the oxygen molecule carries electronic energy of 0.98 volt. As these metastable molecules absorb additional photons, they take on vibrational energy. For example an 12,000 Angstrom units photon corresponds with an energy of 1.03 volts; an 11,000 Angstrom units photon corresponds with an energy of 1.12 volts; a 10,000 Angstrom units photon corresponds with an energy of 1.23 volts; a 9,000 Angstrom units photon corresponds with an energy of 1.37 volts; and an 8,000 Angstrom units photon corresponds with an energy of 1.54 volts.
If a A metastable is created which carries 0.98 volt of electronic energy, and to this is added from 1.03 volts to 154 volts of vibrational energy, the total energy can ried by the metastable will be of the order of 2.0 volts to 2.5 volts. Since these vibrational energy levels are discrete or specific and known, there may be several of them in the level between 2.0 and 2.5 volts. As these metastables collide with water molecules and give up their combined electronic and vibrational energy in one jump to the water molecules, their emission spectrum, via the Water molecules, will likely be a continuous spectrum as they drop to ground. Water molecules are closely packed, contrasted with a gas, and will likely produce a continuous spectrum under these conditions. Incidentally, the life of the vibrational energy levels of these metastables runs concurrently with the life of the meta stable states.
Thus by means of photon absorption of wavelengths starting with the critical wavelength of 12,680 Angstrom units, and adding to it photon absorption of wavelengths varying from some 8000 Angstrom units to 12,680 Angstrom units, we can build up a combined electronic and vibrational energy in A metastable oxygen molecules of from 2.0 volts to 2.5 volts. Since 2.5 volts correspond with 4936 Angstrom units and 2.0 volts correspond with 6170 Angstrom units, with a potentially continuous spectrum between these energy levels, the drop from these energy levels to ground in one jump would result in an emission spectrum by these molecules which would likely carry all lines and vary from some 4936 Angstrom units to 6170 Angstrom units. As these meta stables drop their combined electronic and vibrational energy to Water molecules in one jump in the alveoli of the lungs, hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and other energy carrier entities of the blood will be irradiated by these wavelengths. Hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and also cell cytochromes are known to have critical energy ab sorption lines or bands which fall within this range of wavelengths.
Having now described the positively ionized and metastable states, and the vibrational energy levels of these metastable states of atmospheric oxygen and how they are created, I will now describe my apparatus whereby these energy states in storage-tank oxygen and in atmospheric oxygen can be created in air to be inspired. Referring to the drawings:
Fig. l is a diagram, in the nature of a flow chart, indi-' cating the character of the various parts used in combina tion in the present apparatus, and their relationship to each other.
Fig. 2 is a side view of an apparatus embodied by thepresent invention for the treatment of oxygen of inspiredair', and illustrating its mode of use.
7 Fig. 4 is a vertical section taken through an oxygen .treating apparatus of another, or alternative form, em-
bodying the principal features of the present invention .therein.
Fig. 5 is a wiring diagram for the electrical devices or parts of the apparatus of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal, central sectional view of an alternative or modified form of ionizer and irradiation chamber using radio-active material for the creation of :both positive and negative air ions.
,Fig. 6a is a cross section on line 6a6a in Fig. 6. Fig. 6b is an enlarged sectional detail on line 6b6b .in Fig. 6a.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged, central sectional view of another similar form of apparatus.
Fig. 8 is a vertical section of still another form of ionizer and irradiation means, especially for use with apparatus of the type shown in Fig. 11.
Fig. 9 is a horizontal section taken on the line 9-9 in Fig. 8.
" Fig. 10 is a central longitudinal section of yet another modified form of apparatus, equipped to receive tank oxygen.
' Fig. 11 is a view illustrating the mode of use of the apparatus of Fig. 8.
Fig. 12 is a sectional view of ionizing and irradiation means in combination with a present day type of air conditioner.
Fig. 13 is a vertical section of a combined air conditioning unit and ionizing and irradiation means.
1 Fig. 14 is a front elevation of the same.
I Fig. 15 isa graph that is explanatory of the energy states and spectra of diatomic molecules of oxygen, the .vibrational energy levels being schematically represented.
In thefollowing specification, the invention has first been discussed with respect to the end effects of both radiant and kinetic energy in producing certain positively ionized and metastable states of oxygen of outdoor air; secondly, it has been considered in respect to different means whereby the various electronic energy states and vibrational energy levels of oxygen can be created mechanically for human or animal consumption in inspired air, and finally it has been considered in respect to the physiological and biochemical end effects produced directly or indirectly as a result of energy carried by these various created energy states of oxygen of inspired air.
The flow chart illustration of Fig. 1 is applicable to each of the various types of apparatus herein illustrated and described. It is indicated in Fig. 1 that air is drawn through air filtering pads 10 into an air cooling and dehumidifying chamber, designated in its entirety by numeral 11, and from this the cooled and dehumidified air is drawn by action of a suction blower 12, and forcibly discharged through an ionizer 13, and thence into an irradiation chamber 14, from which it is expelled through an outlet nozzle 15 to be received directly into the respiratory tract of the patient beingtreated.
It is also indicated in Fig. 1, that pure oxygen from a source of oxygen supply 16 may be admitted to the air stream at a point between the blower 12 and ionizer 13 or between the ionizer 13 and irradiation chamber 14. The air cooling and dehumidifying equipment is here shown to include a compressor unit designated at 19.
In the several other views of the drawings, I have shown various modifications, or alternative forms of apparatus to be used for the present treatment of oxygen, each of which alternative or modified form conforms, in a general way, to the arrangement and use of parts shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1. Each of these various apparatuses will hereinafter be individually described, and its mode of use explained. First, the apparatus that has been illustrated in Fig. 4, and which is typical of devices for general use will be described. This apparatus comprises an enclosing housing or cabinet of upright, box-like form,
whichis designated in its entiretyby-reference numeral 20. It may be constructed of wood, or be made of other suitable materials according to requirements. This housingis horizontally divided intermediate its ends by two vertically spaced, horizontally disposed partitions, 21 and 22, thus defining three separate compartments in the housing which are herein designated, respectively, as the upper compartment 23, the intermediate compartment 24, and the lower compartment 25.
Extending laterally from one side of the main portion of the housing or cabinet 20 and at the level of the upper compartment 23 for practical purposes, is a box-like housing designated generally by numeral 26 which encloses a compartment 27. Supported within the compartment 27 is the irradiating equipment comprising a horizontally disposed, cylindrical vessel 30 of jar or bottle form, having an outwardly tapering neck portion- 31 at its receiving end, and equipped at its opposite or base end with a centrally located discharge or respiratory nozzle 32. The vessel 30 provides therein the irradiation chamber 30'. The neck portion 31 and the nozzle portion 32 extend through opposite end walls of the compartment 27. For the functional support of the vessel 30, I provide the supporting cradles 30c beneath its forward and rearward end portions as shown. For most satisfactory results, the irradiation chamber 30. is cylindrical, from ten to twelve inches in diameter and from sixteen to eighteen inches in length. The vessel 30 is formed of Pyrex glass, or other similar material of suitable kind and its surface is extcriorly silvered or otherwise plated or coated to provide it with a reflective inner surface.
In view of the fact that silvering eventually oxidizes and its reflectivity is thus impaired, I prefer at present to cover the vessel 30 with thin aluminum foil which has excellent durability as well as reflectivity. This I cover with sheet copper to eliminate oxidation. Aluminum has an ultraviolet reflective efliciency of approximately percent, and also is adequately reflective of infra-red and visible rays.
Formed in the top wall portion of the cylindrical irradiation vessel 30 in alignment longitudinally thereof,
'are two circular openings, 32 and 33, in which the glass bulb portions of electric irradiation lamps 34 and 35 are supported in the manner shown in Fig. 4. In apparatus presently being used, the lamp 34 is a 375 w. infrared drying lamp designated in trade as an R-40 type. The joint between la'mp bulb 34 and edge of the opening 32 in which it is fitted preferably is sealed by insertion of an asbestos cloth gasket, or other suitable heat resistant material whereby, in use of the device, escape of gas or air from the chamber at this joint is prevented. The lamp 35 applied to the opening 33 is an R-40 type photo-flood or photo-spot lamp of 500 w. capacity. It, likewise, has the bulb portion thereof sealed in the opening 33 by an asbestos gasket to eliminate possibility of gas leakage through the joint.
The two lamps, 34 and 35, are mounted in the usual manner, in sockets 34' and 35' that are fixed to a horizontal panel 37. The panel is supported by elongated bolts 38 that extend upwardly from a supporting diffusion wall in the lower part of the compartment 27. The housing 26 has a top wall 26x attached by hinges as designated at 39, for upward opening.
Air that is supplied to the irradiation chamber initially enters the present air treating apparatus through one or more air filtering pads 40 that are suitably mounted in one end of an air entry duct 41 that is contained horizontally in the compartment 24 with its inlet end extended from the compartment. It is in the inlet end of this duct that the filter pads 40 are fitted for easy removal or replacement when such is desired or necessary.
The air duct will be extended only slightly from the cabinet, as seen in Fig. 4, when room air is to be utilized. However, his ordinarily desired that outside air be used and in such case the duct would be extended, as may be required, to a window or to any other opening provided for reaching an outside air supply.
The air filtering pads 40 preferably are of the pliotron type, that is, they employ filtering material therein that has a natural charge of static electricity with the property of attracting and holding the very finest of dust particles.
Contained in the duct 41 at the inside of the filter pads 40 are two sets of air cooling coils 42 and 42 through which a cooling medium is caused to be circulated. For this purpose the coils are connected, as herein shown, with the pump 44 of the compressor unit 19; this being contained in the lower compartment 25 of the housing 20. Outside or room air is drawn into the duct 41 through the filter pads 40 and cooling coils 42 and 42' by action of a common type of suction and blower unit which is herein designated in its entirety by numeral 45. This unit employs a pressure type, or squirrel cage type, of fan and has a housing 45h of involute form with a centrally located air inlet connected by an air tube 46 to receive air from the discharge end of duct 41. This communicates with a duct 48 leading upwardly therefrom and opening into the base end of a box-like ionizer housing 50 that is contained in the lower part of the cabinet compartment 23. The ionizer presently will be further described.
From the top of the ionizer housing 50, the ionized air is discharged through a tubular connector 51 into the medial portion of a horizontally disposed tube 52 that has an open end portion extended coaxially into the neck portion of the irradiation vessel 30; the tube passing through a sleeve 54 of Lucite or other suitable non-conductive material that is fitted within the bottle neck.
In the other end portion of tube 52, beyond the juncture of the connector 51, the tube is fitted with spaced insulating plugs 5555' which are of rubber and of Lucite respectively, and extending centrally through these, eoaxially within the tube into the neck portion of the chamber 30', is an oxygen supplying tube of glass 56 of small diameter. Connected to the outer end of tube 56 is a flexible rubber tube 57 leading from a suitable source of supply of oxygen, such as a tank; valve means being provided at the tank or in the connection in the usual way for controlling the supplying of oxygen through this tube to the irradiation chamber.
It is to be understood that the various parts of this apparatus that are directly contacted by the treated air, especially in the ionization and irradiation operations, are made of glass, or of a similar non-conductive material of that character. This applies especially to the housing 50, tube 52, tube 56, chamber 30 and connecting arts.
p A small glass tube 57x is shown in Fig. 4 to extend from outside the cabinet into the duct 48 just below the ionizer housing. This is provided for the delivery of storage tank oxygen to the cooled air therein if such should be desired.
It is shown in Fig. 4 that the duct 47 extends beyond duct 48 and opens into the lower end of chamber 27 and that a gate valve 58 is hinged therein in such manner that it can be adjusted by a suitable handle means located outside the cabinet, to a position as shown in full lines, whereby all air from the fan unit 45 will be caused to be diverted through duct 48 to the ionizer, or it may be adjusted to various intermediate positions, one of which is indicated in dotted lines, at which desired proportionate amounts of the conditioned air will be caused to be discharged into the base of the chamber 27 for upflow through the perforations 59 of a diifusion plate or partition wall 60 that horizontally divides the chamber 27 below the irradiation vessel 30, for cooling the chamber and walls of the vessel.
To permit the desired circulation of cooling air about cylindrical vessel 30, the top wall 26x of compart -ment 27 is formed with a plurality of air discharge perforations or ports 62. Additional air circulation in the compartments of the cabinet is effected by use of a small fan 63 set in an opening 63' formed in the vertical wall between compartments 23 and 27; the compartment 23 having air inlet openings in its opposite wall as shown in Fig. 4 at 64.
In order that cooling of the vessel 30 may be eflected without utilizing any of the cooled air from duct 47, I have provided an auxiliary suction blower unit 65 with an intake 65x that opens through a sidewall of the cabinet to receive room air. A discharge duct 66 leads from blower 65 and opens into the duct 47 beyond the valve 58 for delivery of this room air into the lower portion of chamber 27 for upward diffusion through the perforated partition wall 60.
It is immaterial just what type of refrigerating or cooling unit 19 be used. However, it is preferred that the cooling coils 4242 be maintained at such temperature that moisture in the entering filtered air will be collected as frost thereon, and thus the air will be de-humidified. In order to obtain such sharp cooling, the capacity of compressor 44 should be substantially greater than the cooling coil capacity. In the present instance the ratio is approximately 2 to l. The first coil 42 may be designated as a frost magnet" in that it will collect the major portion of the moisture from the air passing by. The second coil 42' remains relatively free of frost, which acts as an insulating medium, and will cool the incoming air even further. For example, where the air is cooled to 0 F. at this point, the maximum grains of moisture per cubic foot of air that it could carry would be .560. To show the temperature of air after passing the coil 42', I provide the dial thermometer 42T; this being located exteriorly of the housing 20 where it can be easily seen. As this air passes through the ionizer and irradiation chamber of the unit it picks up heat and especially from the walls of the irradiation chamber, so that upon its reaching the outlet 32, of the irradiation chamber, it will be approximately at room temperature, i.e. about 70 F. This air will then have a relative humidity of the order of 6%. The desirability for removing a major portion of the moisture from the air is due to the fact that water vapor is poisonous to all of the energy-carrier states of oxygen which have been considered herein, except negative ions. The air intaken through the filter pads and then subjected to the cleaning, cooling, and dehumidifying operation is hereinafter referred to as conditioned air.
The ionizer of this apparatus, "as contained in housing 50, comprises a horizontally disposed metallic screen 70, constituting a positive electrode. Extended across the housing, immediately above the screen, are one or more metal tubes 71 constituting the negative electrode. The positive electrode is up stream from the negative electrode. These two electrodes are connected to a source of supply of electricity, as presently explained in connection with the description of the wiring diagram in Fig. 5. When voltage, impressed across the electrodes, is increased to a value corresponding to a voltage gradient between them of about 10,000 volts per centimeter, the free electrons produced at the rate of several per second per cubic centimeter of indoor air by cosmic rays and by other agencies, will begin to be accelerated between collisions with air molecules to suflicient velocity to ionize oxygen molecules. With this voltage gradient, a few electrons will attain a sufiicient velocity to remove electrons from the oxygen molecules with which they collide, and the resulting free electrons will free other electrons so that an avalanche of free electrons will move rapidly toward the positiveelectrode. I prefer to utilize electrodes of suflicient area that enough ionization of oxygen will occur at a voltage gradient below that required to ionize nitrogen molecules.
This above means for andmethod of ionizationis immense with that which has been fully described and illustrated in my U.S. Patent No. 2,415,659 and will not be further discussed herein.
The wiring diagram for the electrical devices used in the apparatus has been shown in Fig. 5. In this view, power or current supply lines are designated at A and B. ,Circuit lines 75 and 76 lead from these power lines directly to the lamps 34 and 35 which are connected thereto in parallel, as is also the motor 63m of the air circulating fan 63. A switch 77 is interposed in wire 75 to open or close this lamp and motor circuit.
The compressor unit 19 is connected to the current supply lines 7576. by connecting lines 7980, and this cirjcuit is under control of a switch 81 interposed in wire '80. The motor which operates blower unit 65 is connected to the current supply lines 7576 by wires 84 and 85 and this circuit is under control of a switch 86 interposed in line 84. The motor of auxiliary blower unit 45 has a circuit connection 88 that leads to the supply line 76, and has a circuit connection 89 that leads to the supply :line 75 through a variable transformer 90, preferably ,of the type available on the market under the trademark l owerstatf This circuit is controlled by a switch 91. The ionizer electrodes 7071 are connected with the circuit lines 7576 through a variable transformer 95 that is controlled by a switch 96. Other instruments used in the electrical system are as indicated diagrammatically. 3 Assuming the apparatus of Fig. 4 to be constructed as illustrated and described, its mode of use is as follows:
Before seating the patient for treatment, the circuit control switches of the electric circuits for the compressor unit 19, the blower 45 and blower 65 are closed. The variable transformer 90 for the blower 45 is then so set as to cause the blower to move the intaken air quite slowly past the cooling coils 42 and 42 in order to prevent the formation of any excessive amount of frost on the coils before treatment of the patient is started.
I As soon as the temperature of the air passing the coils reaches some 20 -F. or lower, the ionizer control switch .96 is closed and the ionizer variable transformer 95 is adjused to about 1.0 kv. to let the transformer-rectifier warm up. The patient, equipped with dark glasses, is 'then seated in a proper position relative to the machine, for example as seen in Fig. 4. The valve damper 58 is then adjusted to a position to direct conditioned air through the ionizer, and to shut off air being delivered .by blower 45 to the chamber 27. The variable transformer for the blower 45 is then turned up to cause air to be forced through the ionizer and irradiation chamber in a gentle breeze. Lamp switch 77 is then turned to ,on and the variable transformer 95 of the ionizer is adjusted to a voltage reading of approximately 9.0 kv. at which voltage current measured across some 300 megohms resistance will register of the order of some ten to twenty thousandths of a microampere, thus indicating a substantial degree of ionization between electrodes 7071.
Air to be treated will be drawn inwardly through the filter pads 40 and cooling coils 4242' by action of the suction blower 45. This intaken air is thus first cleaned of substantially all particles of dust and other foreign matter. In its contact with the cooling coils 4242', moisture is extracted from the air and is retained as frost on the coils. The amount of moisture removed from the air can be regulated by controlling the temperature of the air at the coils, and thus the absolute humidity of the air as it enters the ionizer and irradiation chamber can be controlled within desired limits.
The filtered and dehumidified air is discharged through ducts 47 and 48 into the ionizer 50 where it is ionized and discharged into tube 52 and thence into the irradiation chamber 30'. Lucite plug 55' centers the oxygen line, and prevents a backlash of air in tube 52. Through the establishment and proper control of voltage, as impressed across the electrodes 70--71 of the ionizer 50, the desired ionization of oxygen will occur without sub- 'stantial ionization of nitrogen. Insofar as ionization of the oxygen is concerned, I follow, in the construction and mode of use of the ionizer 50, the teachings of my pre-- viously mentioned US. Patents Nos. 2,343,338 and 2,- 415,659.
The flowing air stream passes from the ionizer 50 through duct 51 and tube 52 into the irradiation chamber 30' and, under the influence of the regulated pressure of constantly entering air, it is caused to progress through the chamber and to be discharged through the nozzle 32. A patient taking treatment, positioned with the entrance of his respiratory passages immediately in front of the discharge end of the nozzle 52, receives the benefit of the ionized and irradiated air in the normal respiratory function. The rate of flow of air through the irradiation chamber is so regulated that the metastable states of molecular oxygen created therein will be carriedv to the intake of the respiratory passages of the patient during the early part of their normal life span, and yet will not be excessively wasted to the outer atmosphere. The actual life of an oxygen metastable depends primarily upon its metastable state, its vibrational energy level and the conditions of its immediate environment, and may vary from some two to ten seconds. The positively ionized state, under conditions as indicated above, will have a life expectancy of some sixty seconds or more.
In consideration of the above, it is important that the outlet port or inspiring mask as used inthe previously described devices, and those later to be described, be located between three and thirty inches down stream from the last point of maximum intensity of irradiation of the stream of air or gas in the irradiating chamber or conduit. Furthermore, the conduit or chamber through which the air is caused to flow for irradiation purposes should be of such diameter that a maximum cross-sectional area of the gas to be irradiated in the chamber will be Within the optimal range of maximum intensity of radiation produced by the means employed.
The normal treatment period of a patient is from five to fifteen minutes per day, the average time being about ten minutes per day and three days per week. For patients with stubborn cases of rheumatoid arthritis this treatment period may be increased to fifteen minutes per day. When the treatment period is over and the patient removed, the ionizer variable transformer is turned back to zero and the switch 96 opened. Also, the lamp switch 77 is opened. The air damper 58 is adjusted to close the entrance to duct 48 and force the cold defrosting air up around the irradiation chamber. The compressor switch is opened, and the variable transformer for the blower 45 is turned up to full power. This causes a large volume of air to be drawn through the coils to effect quick defrosting. This is continued until the coils are completely defrosted. The machine is then ready for'repetition of the cycle of treatment.
Next describing the apparatus of Fig. 2 which is an improvement upon that disclosed in my US. Patent No. 2,415,659 in that it employs'heating and direct air irradiation means in the decompression chamber in ad dition to the ionizing means.
In thisview, a closed cylindrical decompression chamber 110, horizontally disposed, is equipped with a bed 111 for support of the patient thereon in position for treatment, as shown. A vacuum pump 112, operated by an electric motor 113, is connected by an air pipe 114 with the chamber for air extraction. Also, electric heating coils 115 are provided in the lower part of the chamber. At the top are infra-red irradiation lamps 116, 117 and an ultraviolet lamp 118.
Mounted upon the chamber 110 is a housing 120 containing air filtering pads, and air coo-ling coils which may be like, and used for the same purpose as those described in connection with the air filtering and cooling apparatus of Fig. 4. A blower unit 121 is connected by aduct 122 withthe housing 120 to draw air thereinto andthrough the cooling coils, and to then deliver the cold', 'dehumidified air through a duct 123 into an ionizer 124, whichcomprises. electrodes like those of Fig. 4, previously described and used in 'the same manner for the ionizing of airthat passes through the ionizer. The ionized air is discharged from the ionizer housing downwardly and directly into the upper end of a cylindrical irradiation chamber 125 that'is open at its lower end to deliver the irradiated air directly to the patient.
The irradiation-housing '125 mounts irradiation lamps J34 and,1-35 in sidewall openings thereof, in the same manner and in the same relationship relative to the direction of flow of ionized air, as the lamps are seen in 'Fig. ,4, and these lamps have suitable circuit congeclions, and they operate in the same manner as lamps [and 35, previ'ously described, to irradiate oxygen of down flowing ionized air stream.
In this apparatus, the ionizer housing 124 is made of Plexiglas and the irradiation chamber 125 is made of yrex glass. The irradiation chamber 125 is exteriorly fried with aluminum foil, silvered, or otherwise coated, for light reflecting purposes.
ionized and irradiated air is discharged from the irradiation chamber. directly to the patient as supported by the bed 111; the treatment being similar to that of administering oxygen to a patient by oxygen tent method.
As a feature of construction, the irradiating housing as seen in Fig. 3, is equipped at opposite sides of its upper end portion with suspending flanges-140, slidably eggageable with opposedly related supporting flanges 1 l fixed to the top wall of chamber 110. This means agaupport provides foreasy removal of the irradiation unii from the treatment chamber when such is desired.
manner of use ofthis device is as described in connection with the device of any previously mentioned Patent No. 2.415.659.
Next describing the bedside apparatus illustrated in Fig.8 and 9 and shown in use in Fig. 11. This apparatus is intended for use in lieu of the common form of oxygen tent'used by hospitals. As seen in Fig. 11, the apparatus comprises a vertically disposed ionizing and irradiation chamber 150 of glass, in cylindrical form and exteriorly silvered or otherwise equipped to cause inward reflection of light. The chamber 150 is suspended f use from one end of a counter-balanced lever arm 1 I that is adjustably supported by a base standard 152 that permits movement and easy adjustment of the appara'tus in positions for use.
I The irradiation chamber 150 is of the cylindrical form shown in Figs. 8 and 9. It is equipped at its upper end with an air inlet 155 containing a fan 156 operable by an electric motor 157 for drawing air into the inlet and then eflecting its downward fiow through air ionizing means contained within the upper end portion of the chamber. The ionizing means as here shown comprises the metal screen electrode 70' and metal tube electrode 71', likethose of the apparatus of Fig. 4 and similarly connected in an electric circuit. At the lower and of the cylindrical housing 150 is an outlet neck 160 to which a respiratory mask 161 is adjustably fixed for ggplication over the nose and mouth of the patient, as
in Fig. ll.
fgo'ntained in the irradiation chamber 150, which is made of Pyrex glass and externally silvered, or otherwise equippedfor. inward reflection, is a glass irradiation tube 162 of cylindrical bulb-like form. This is supported coaxially of the chamber from its upper and lower ends, respectively, by a spider 163, and a horizontally disposed, perforated partition wall 164, each of non-conguotivo material. The housing 150 preferably is about l" in diameter and 18" long. The tube 162 is about 2%" in diameter. Oxygen is fed into the upper end of tubelfil through a glass tube'166 of small diameter that leads outside the chamber and to which a rubber 14 tube 167, leading from a source of oxygen supply, attached.
Irradiation of the oxygen in the tube and that of the air in the chamber is effected by use of a carbon arc and a lamp arranged as best shown in Fig. 9. The 1rradiated air and oxygen is discharged into the electrically non-conductive mixing chamber 168 formed between the perforated partitions wall 164 and lower end wall of the cylindrical housing 150, and from this is discharged through the outlet and mask 161 to the patient.
Important in this apparatus is the fact that the tube 162 is made of Corning glass, Vycor brand No. 791, which is highly transmissive of infra-red wave lengths, and also of ultraviolet wave lengths as short as 2540 Angstrom units.
The chamber 150 is formed between its ends with an irradiation port with a filter glass covering 170' enclosed by a housing 171 containing electrodes 173- 173 between which the carbon arc is formed; this housing extending outwardly from the chamber, as in Fig.9. Adjacent the housing, the chamber has an opening 174 containing an infra-red lamp 175 of 375W or higher wattage.
The first electronic transition from a ground state to the first molecular metastable state of oxygen takes place at 12,680 Angstrom units. The peak of the relative energy curve of a tungsten filament infra-red lamp is at about 11,500 Angstrom units, which makes it a suitable source of energy for increasing the A metastable population of the irradiated gas.
The carbon arc lamp used can be operated on alternate ing or direct current, preferably a direct current is used. I prefer to use a modern carbon arc lamp as an irradiation source rather than a high pressure mercury arc lamp, because it supplies a continuous spectrum whereas the mercury arc produces a line spectrum. In a continuous spectrum all lines are present, and with an adequate intensity of irradiation energy, an adequate metastable population will be created in the gas.
The modified form of equipment illustrated in Fig. 6, which is a central sectional view taken in a horizontal plane and looking upward, comprises an irradiation chamber or conduit 175 of Pyrex glass, exteriorly covered with a light reflective covering designated at 176. The irradiation chamber has a discharge neck 177 at one end and an air intake neck 178 at its opposite end. Contained in or associated with the chamber, are the irradiating lamps 179-179' which correspond to those used in the irradiating chamber of Fig. 4 and they will not be further described.
Located at the receiving end of the irradiating chamber and coaxially aligned therewith, is a duct 180 of Plexiglas; this duct being open at one end to receive conditioned air. The inner end portion of the duct, designated at 1802:, is substantially enlarged, and it has a central opening, opposite the intake, that registers with the intake neck 178 of the chamber 175.
Mounted within the intake portion of duct 180 are a plurality of spaced Plexiglas bars 182 and applied to the side faces of these bars are strips 183 of polonium foil. Air entering the duct 180 passes between the polonium strips, which are optimally spaced from each other to obtain the maximum efliciency of ionization by means of alpha particles as the entering gas passes the strips.
Located in the enlarged portion 180:: of the duct, downstream from the polonium strips, are screens 184 and 184A. The screens are in parallel planes placed several inches apart. The screens are of Wire mesh; the screen 184 being of approximately mesh while the screen 184A is of a relatively fine mesh.
The screen 184 is positioned across the air entrance end of the enlarged portion 180x of the duct 180, and it is grounded as indicated at 185.
The screen 184A has its peripheral portion laminated between Plexiglas plates 186186'. These plates are fit,
ted to the duct walls, and they have their central portions cut away for easy flow of the gas through the screens and thence into the chamber 175. An electrical connection 187 leads from the screen 184A to one side polarity reversing switch 188 which in turn is electrically connected by Wires 189189 to the secondary of a transformer-rectifier 190. This enables the screen to be selectively charged, either positively or negatively. A resistance, not indicated, of the order of 1000 ohms may be placed in the ground connection of 188 and switched into the ground circuit when said ground circuit is made positive. A variable transformer 191 in the primary circuit permits the intensity of the electrical charge to be varied. The main purpose of screen 184 is to act as an equalizer of the field across the face of screen 184A. Since it is grounded and of relatively large mesh, few if any negative or positive ions will be attracted to it.
As ion pairs are created in the air stream by the kinetic energy of alpha particle impact with air molecules as they pass the polonium foil strips, said ions will be carried by the air stream through screen 184 and for the most part to screen 184A. When the screen 184A is positively charged, the negative ions will be attracted to it and largely removed from the air stream, While the positive ions will be repelled and will pass through the screen. When-the screen 184A is negatively charged, the positive ions will be attracted to it and largely removed from the air stream, while the negative ions will be repelled and will pass through the screen. The screen 184 should be of relatively large mesh so that the repelled ions can readily pass through it and not be excessively repelled, and yet it should be substantially smaller than the mesh of screen 184A. By varying the intensity of the electric charge, as by means of the variable transformer 191, the relative space charge of the air down stream from said screen 184 can be varied within a substantially wide range before it enters the irradiation chamber 175.
' In the use of this equipment, as is also true in the use of the devices of other modifications, the outlet part of the irradiation chamber may have an extension tube 192 of suitable material leading therefrom to an aspirating mask 192'; such a tubular extension being of suitable material and from twenty-four to thirtyinches long. This provides for the accommodation of wheel chair and bed pat1ents.
The device shown in Fig. 7 is similar to that of Fig. 6 especially in the form and use of the irradiating chamher, and to this like reference numerals have been applied to corresponding parts. The gas intake duct, however,
is provided with an additional enlargement 1802 up.
stream from the screen containing enlargement 180x and in this an electric field is created between two electrodes 193-194 one of which is positively and the other negatively charged. This particular ionizer is operated like that described in my prior patents, previously mentioned, except lnstead of the positive electrode being a metal screen, it is a metal tube of the same type used for the negative electrode. in the diatomic oxygen molecule of the air stream as these molecules pass through the electric field and are bombarded by electrons in place of by alpha particles as previously cited.
The method and means of air ionization disclosed by the device of Fig. 7 gives a substantial qualitative and quantitative control of ionization of air molecules. Due to the relatively high velocity and number of electrons present, with respect to alpha particles, previously cited, this method and means is especially well adapted for the ionization of air molecules in air conditioning apparatus wherein a substantial air volume and air velocity is essential.
The design and relationship of the two screens in Fig. 7 is the same as that of Fig. 6. Care should be taken, however, to place the ionizing electrodes far enough pp- Ion pairs are thus created primarily .16., stream from the electrically charged screen that field infterference will be largely eliminated. H v
Fig. 10 illustrates a slightly modified formof ionizing and irradiating means that is equippedt'o' have the entering air stream supplemented with tank oxygen. In this sectional view the parts have been given reference numerals correspondingt'o like parts shown in Fig- 4, that have previously been described and they will not herein be further described. Theoxygen supply pipe is des gnated by reference'numeral 57A and i t-enters the ionizing portion of thechamber upstream fromthe ionizing element. v
Fig. 12 illustrates use ofthe present ionizing and irradiating method and means in combination with an air filter. This shows room or outside .air being drawn intov the unit housing 200 through a filtering pad 40A and forced by fan 45A to the ionizer and irradiating means which have here been given reference numerals corresponding to like or equivalent parts as shown in Fig. 4. v In Figs. 13 and 14, I have illustrated a combined room air conditioner with my ionizing and irradiating means, and have provided for use of'the room air conditioner independently of the latter. Briefly described, the air conditioning unit is designated in its entirety by reference numeral 300, and it is of conventional form, typical of those which are disposed in a window or wall opening for reception of outside air. This unit 300 is enclosed by a housing 301 having opposite side, top, bottom and front walls, the latter "including a hingedly mounted door 302 which comprises the upper half of the front wall and is adapted to be swung downwardly from its closed position, to an open position so that airfrom the unit 300 can flow directly into the room. I g
Mounted on top of the housing 301 is the ionizing and irradiating unit which is designated its entirety by numeral 305. This unit, enclosed in a box-like housing 306, is shown as being substantiallylike the unit of Fig. 12, previously described, except that itsair intake, as fitted with a filter pad 40B, is in the bottom wall and is arranged to receive conditioned air from a top opening 307 in the housing 301. Reference numerals as applied to the ionizing and irradiating apparatus'of Fig. 12 are employed in Fig. 13 where they designate parts of like kind. r e
In the use of the combination of Fig. 13-, this patient positions himself properly to receive the irradiated air from chamber 30 in a manner like that shown in Fig. 4.
Laws governing physics and physical chemistry are identical with laws governing biophysics and biochemistry, except that in the latter case these laws are projected into a different and more complex environment. It has been estimated that a single drop of water contains something of the order of 2 l0 water molecules, and one cubic inch of air at sea level contains an even larger number of air molecules. When we consider that some twenty percent of these air molecules by volume are oxygen, it seems apparent that the number of positively ionized and metastable oxygen molecules created in inspired air by the method and means disclosed herein will be relatively minute. As a result these energy carrier states of oxygen of essentially clean dry inspired air, in their rapid passage through'the respiratory tract,'are substantially surrounded and protected from contact with water molecules by millions of normal air molecules. However, a certain percentage of these energy carrier states of oxygen will collide with water molecules of the mucous surfaces of the respiratory tract, and will give up a part or all of their energy,'as the case may be, to said water molecules in one jump.
Sympathetic nerve ends are commonto the epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa, just as they are to'the outer skin surfaces of an organism, and they'are subject to stimulation by the radiant emission of energy-carrier states of oxygen of inspired air. 1 Others of these energy- QQIIiGr states of oxygen of inspired air will reach the 17 alveoli of the lungs where they likewise will give up their energy to water molecules by collision, as previously shown, with resulting radiant emission. Radiant emission released in the respiratory passages and in the lungs by these energy-carrier states of oxygen of inspired air seemingly assumes the role of a continuously renewed catalytic action. As previously indicated, the emission spectrum produced by the reduction of positively ionizedv molecular oxygen will have actinic properties. The beneficial physiological and biochemical effects produced by irradiation of the outer skin surfaces by means of actinic rays of certain wave lengths are known to the healing arts. More immediate and direct results are obtained by the reduction of positively ionized oxygen molecules in the alveoli of the lungs, whereby blood in minute vessels is directly irradiated by a multiplicity and a sequence of infinitesimal ultraviolet radiations which are given off by positive molecular oxygen ions and by higher vibrational energy levels of metastable and excited non-metastable states of inspired oxygen.
Metastable states of oxygen of higher vibrational energy levels created by photon absorption, also give off radiations as they collide with water molecules in the respiratory tract and in the alveoli of the lungs. The wave lengths of these radiations are largely in the near ultraviolet, visible and near infra-red spectra. Hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and the cytochromes of cells are known to have their critical absorption bands or lines largely withinthe visible spectrum. The importance of the visible spectrum both biologically and therapeutically, seemingly has not heretofore been adequately understood or appreciated. The direct irradiation of the blood in the alveoli of the lungs by this multiplicity and sequence of infinitesimal amounts of Visible and infra-red rays, is in reality an amplification of natures normal method of delivering energy to an organism by means of energy carrier states of oxygen of inspired air. Optimum conditions are not common to outdoor air, and my method and means corrects this. Clinical evidence obtained to date in hypertension cases indicates that the use of predominately positive ionization per se is contra indicated since it tends to increase blood pressure, while the use of the irradiation means by itself tends to produce a similar end effect. However, when these two means are combined, as indicated herein, a sudden drop of blood pressure produced in hypertension has been observed.
Results obtained 'by the use of this method and means as shown in Fig. 4, in certain'types of pathological conditions have been good. One of the main end effects of this therapy seems to be the oxidation or disintegration of certain amounts of hyperplastic tissue to the end that chronic inflammatory conditions are relieved. In clinical tests conducted at General Hospital Clinic over a period at more than twelve months, positive results were obtained in various types of pathological conditions both for respiratory inflammation including bronchitis and for hypertension cases which responded under a schedule of one treatment per day.
Research with which I am familiar, and which was conducted with small animals, has shown that ACTH (adnenocort/icotrophic hormone) is released from the pituitary by comparatively low concentrations of small positively charged atmospheric ions of inspired air. ACTH is known to release cortisone item the adrenal cortex. Negatively charged small atmospheric ions of inspired air produced different physiological end effects upon the pituitary-adrenal axis. Diatomic oxygen metastables and vibrational energy levels of these metastables of inspired air, seemingly produce physiological or biochemical end effects which act as a balance upon the end effects produced by positive and/or negative small ions of inspired air. Clinical results obtained suggest that optimal quantitative inter-relationships of these energy-carrier states of inspired oxygen, may produce in the pituitary l8 adrenal axis an optimal hormone spectrum such as can be produced by the good or healthy emotions.
Clinical research conducted over a twelve month period has shown that oxygen of' inspired air treated jointly by means of radiant and kinetic energy has therapeutic end effects which are superior to those produced by these means applied severally. Seemingly the joint and simultaneous application of these means in sequence produces a balanced effect, and avoids any undesirable end effects which previous investigators may have attributed to small positive ions of inspired air, such, for example, as producing headache.
In order to simplify the wording of the claims and to give more difiniteness to the elements thereof and to impart a better understanding of certain terms or expressions used therein, the following definitions are here given:
The term conditioned air has reference to room air or outside air that in its natural condition is suitable for the present use, or air which has been subjected to cleaning, filtering, cooling and dehumidification to that extent desired or required to prepare it for the present use, either by means like or similar to that herein shown and descibed or by other suitable means.
The term conduit as herein used to designate the chamber through which the conditioned air is caused to flow for irradiation, 01-. for ionization and irradiation, designates any form of tubular duct or passage of suitable material, which is of such diameter or cross-sectional area as to confine the air stream within the limits for optimal irradiation by the irradiation means as therein used.
The expression "activating oxygen as used herein includes adding energy to oxygen molecules or atoms either to move an electron from an inner orbit to an outer orbit, or to remove an electron entirely from the influence of the atomic nucleus. The expression activating oxygen also includes the addition of energy to an oxygen molecule whereby the distance between the .atoms of the molecule is increased thus causing the molecule to vibrate.
A metastable atom or molecule is understood to be one to which energy has been added to move an electron from an inner orbit to an outer orbit where it reaches a more or less stable state of equilibrium, and from which state it drops back to its .normal orbit as it gives up this energy. I
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Apparatus for treating conditioned air for respiratory purposes comprising an air duct for confining a flowing stream of air, a radioactive material disposed within the receiving end portion of said duct, a screen disposed within the duct down stream of the said radioactive material, means for applying a positive electric charge of potentially variable intensity to the screen, and means down stream of the screen for irradiating the air stream with light of wave lengths comprising a part of a continuous spectrum lying between 3000 Angstrom units and 13,000 Angstrom units, and means for causing a stream of conditioned air to flow through said tube to first subject it to the ionizing effects of said radio active material, thence through the screen to effect variation'in'the space charge in the air stream and thence to irradiation.
' '2. The method of heating air for respiratory purposes which comprises passing a stream of air through a first treating zone, in said treating zone ionizing oxygen molecules under conditions producing insubstantial ionization of nitrogen, passing the stream of air from said first treating zone through an electric field of selected polarity and thence through a second treating zone, and in said second treating zone applying to the stream of air a band of radiant energy extending between wavelengths of about 3000 Angstrom units and about 13,000 Angstrom units which includes the visible light and infra-red portion of the spectrum to increase the percentage of oxygen metastables within the stream including ionized oxygen molecules.
3. The method of claim 2 in which oxygen molecules are ionized within said first treating chamber by application to said stream of air of an electric field extending between closely spaced positive and negative electrodes through which passes said stream of air and in which moisture is removed from said stream of air before passage through said first treating zone for substantially lowering the relative humidity thereof.
4. The method of treating air for respiratory purposes which comprises passing a stream of air through a first treating zone, in said treating zone ionizing oxygen molecules under conditions producing insubstantial ionization of nitrogen, passing the stream of air from said first treating zone through an electric field of selected polarity and thence through a second treating zone, and in said second treating zone applying to the stream of air a band of radiant energy extending between Wavelengths of about 3,000 Angstrom units and about 13,000 Angstrom units which includes the visible light and infra-red portion of the spectrum to increase the percentage of oxygen metastables within the stream including ionized oxygen molecules.
5. The method of claim 4 in which, prior to entry of said stream of air into said first treating zone, there are performed the steps of cooling the stream of air to lower its temperature and removing moisture from said stream to provide for said first treating zone a stream of air of low relative humidity.
6. The method of,claim 4 in which said stream of air in said first zone is ionized by application thereto of rays emanating from radioactive material.
7. The method of generating radiant energy with wavelengths in the ultraviolet band of the spectrum for application to .moist surfaces inaccessible to direct radiation but accessible by way of a stream of air, which comprises dehumidifying a stream of air, passing the dehumidified stream through a first treating zone, in said zone ionizing oxygen molecules under conditions producing insubstantial ionization of nitrogen, passing said partially ionizedv stream through a second treating zone, in said second treating zone applying to the stream of air radiant energy from the visible portion of the spectrum and including wavelengths ranging from about 1750 Angstrom units to about 13,000 Angstrom units to increase the percentage of oxygen metastables within the stream relative to the ionized oxygen molecules, and thereafter applying said air to said inaccessible moist surfaces for generation of radiant energy in the ultraviolet range produced upon reduction of the energy levels of said oxygen molecules'due to their contact with water molecules at said moist surfaces.
8. The method of treating filtered and dehumidified air for respiratory purposes which comprises directing a stream of air through an electric field extending between closely spaced positive and negative electrodes, said field being of sufficient intensity to ionize oxygen molecules and to produce some oxygen metastables but of insuflicient intensity to ionize substantial amounts of nitrogen therein, thereafter passing said stream of air through an irradiation chamber, and applying to the stream of air passing through the irradiation chamber a band of radiant energy from that portion of the spectrum' which includes visible light and infra-red and lying between about 1750 Angstrom units and about 13,000
Angstrom units for producing additional oxygen metastables to increase the ratio of oxygen metastables reltially ionized stream of air through said irradiation chamber, irradiating means mounted in relation to said irradiation chamber for applying to said partially ionized stream of air pas-sing therethrough radiant energy within the band of wavelengths between about 1750 Angstrom units and about 13,000 Angstrom units and of sufficient intensity to raise some of the oxygen molecules to a higher energy level to increase the percentage of oxygen metastables Within said partially ionized stream, and means for delivering to a point of use from said irradiation chamber said stream of air.
10. The apparatus of claim 9 inwhich there are provided filtering means and heat-exchange means for filtering, cooling and dehumidifying said stream of air before passage into said treating chamber.
'11. The apparatus of claim 10 in which said ionizing means comprises closely spaced electrodes, means for applying a voltage theretofor establishing an electric field between said electrodes for ionization of oxygen molecules and without substantial ionization of nitrogen molecules, and means including a screen having an electric charge of selected polarity through which said partially ionized stream of air passes for removal from said stream of air of ions of polarity opposite to that of said screen.
12. The apparatus of claim 11 in which there is provided means for varying the intensity of the charge of said screen.
13. Apparatus of the character described comprising. an ionizing chamber and means therein employing electrical voltage for the ionization of oxygen of air delivered.
through said chamber, an irradiation chamber providing. an air-directing duct connected to receive ionized air from said ionizing chamber and to discharge it therefrom and.
containing therein an irradiating means for applying.
radiation to the air and oxygen passing through the chamber for raising the energy level of the oxygen, the walls of said irradiation chamber being transparent and having exteriorly thereof aninwardly directed reflecting means for reflecting inwardly of said chamber said radiation, and means for effecting a controlled flow of a stream of air through said ionizing chamber for ionization of oxygen molecules therein and thence through said irradiation chamber for irradiation of said stream.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,659,085 Cunningham Feb. 14, 1928 2,213,403 Miller Sept. 3, 1940 2,415,659 Steel Feb. 11, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS 429,352 Great Britain May 28, 1935