US 2921456 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 19, 1960 A. M. EVANS KNITTED UNDERGARMENT Filed Jan. 26, 1956 United States Patent G KNI'ITED UNDERG ARMENT Aubrey M. Evans, Barneveld, N.Y., assiguor to Duofold Inc., Mohawk, N.Y., a corporation of New York Application January 26, 1956, Serial No. 561,596
Claims. (Cl. 66176) This invention relates to a knitted undergarment and more particularly to an undergarment having two independent layers of knitted fabric interlocked only at spaced wales. Such a two-layer fabric is found in the U.S. patent to Bellis No. 709,734, dated September 23, 1902. Fabrics of the Bellis type have been on the market continuously since that date and have established a reputation for warmth. However, the demand has been for even greater warmth without making the garment more clumsy and without any sacrifice of the ability of the garment to stretch. Attempts have been made to change two-layer knitted garments to give additional warmth but heretofore these have resulted in reduced extensibility and reduced flexibility. The present invention provides a simple way of altering the old Bellis fabric to give greater warmth without changing the other qualities of the garment. My garment is characterized by the formation of defined air pockets over areas of the garment, the pockets being defined by spaced laid-in bulky stretchable yarn forming the coursewise sides of the air pockets and holding the two knitted fabrics apart, while the interlock points of the fabric form the walewise sides of the pockets and draw the layers together at those wales. The resultant deep air pockets give greater warmth and do not interfere with the flexing and stretching of the garment.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a simplified view of an undershirt turned inside out, made according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of a few of the air pockets of the garment of Fig. 1, theenlarged portion being marked on Fig. 1 with the reference numeral 2.
Fig. 3 is a view in vertical section through a wale of the portion of the garment shown in Fig. 2, taken on the line 3-3 of that figure.
Fig. 4 is a diagram of the stitches and laid-in yarn ineluding one interlocked stitch of the portion of the garment of Fig. 2, the garment being shown completely relaxed.
Fig. 5 is another diagram of the stitches and yarn of Fig. 4 showing how the knitted layers and yarn can expand equally.
Fig. 6 is a diagram of a few of the stitches of Fig. l with the wales of the back layer oifset to one side to make the interlooping of the yarns clearer.
The type of two-layer weft knit fabric of the Bellis patent, known commercially as Duofold two-layer fabric, has two complete independent webs or layers 7, 8, as shown in Fig. 6, the inner layer 7 generally being made of cotton, for comfort, and the outer layer 8 of wool or a blend of wool and other fibers, for warmth.
As stated, the two webs are each complete and are independent of each other. They are connected, i.e. interlocked, only at spaced wales and courses. The interlock connections or points are formed by yarn of the knitted fabric from either one or both layers. In the example shown in the drawings there are interlocking stitches 9 from the inner layer 7 of the fabric extending across to the outer layer 8 and knocked over in company with the stitches 10 of the outer layer. This is the type of interlock shown in Fig. 6. It produces small holes 11 in the inner layer of the garment, as indicated by the dots in Fig. 1.
These stitches have a tendency to drawthe two layers together or at least to limit the extent to which the layers can separate at the points where the interlock stitches 9 are present. It has'been found that when two or more of the stitches 9 are present in the same wale of the fabric and they are not too many courses apart, the two layers of fabric in the wale-where these stitches are present tend to stay closer together than'wales Where the stitches 9 are not present. I do not find this tendency in the fabric where interlock stitches are present in the same course rather than the same wale.
It has been proven conclusively that locking an air space next to the body is conducive to much greater warmth than that obtained from theordinary type of garment. This has been known for a long time. The present invention takes advantage of the above-mentioned interlock stitch phenomenon found in wales but not courses, to produce well-defined air pockets over the whole garment.
It can be seen in Fig. 1 that the space between the tying or interlock stitches in the walewise direction is less than in the coursewise direction. One suitable spacing is. to place an interlock stitch every eighth course and only every twelfth wale. In the body of the garment the two layers are therefore normally tied together only every eight courses vertically and every twelve wales horizontally.
The two-layer garment heretofore known with the in-' any air space which existed in the fabric when dormant will be collapsed or destroyedbecause the two layers come together. Furthermore there is no restriction at all,
against the air moving in a walewise direction. Thus, there are no defined air pockets in the prior art garments.
The present invention provides air barriers in the coursewise direction separating the two fabric layers at spaced intervals. This is done by laying in bulky stretchable yarn 12 in the coursewise direction between the two layers at spaced intervals only. The spacing is shown as equal to the spacing in a wale of the points of interlock stitches 9 between the two layers of knitted fabrics. Two strands can be laid in together, but preferably one strand between each two courses containing interlocking loops or stitches. The barriers are shown widely spaced. The air space between one air barrier and the next is preferably much larger than a barrier itself. The laid-in yarn should be fairly large in order to keep the two layers of fabric properly wedged apart when the garment is stretched coursewise (horizontally). In the drawings it is slightly larger in diameter than an interlock stitch 9. It must also be stretchable to an extent which does not limit the extensibility of the garment. This is necessary because the garment must be stretched to be put on. Preferably the laid-in yarn plays no significant part, i.e. causes no significant change in the elasticity of the garment. I have found that Helanca crimped nylon yarn has the proper bulk and stretchability, but many other bulky yarns with good stretchability will give the desired result. The yarn could be a natural or synthetic yarn, rubber or non-rubber, provided it has bulk and stretches sufficiently without high tension. Preferably it should not contract the garment when the latter is dormant, i.e. not being worn. As shown by Figs. 4 and 5, the laid-in yarn and the knitted layers expand and contract together.
The laid-in yarntpreferably does not contract. the fabric.
further than the fabriclwould contract without it..
As shownin the preferredembodiment of the drawings,
oblong structures which serve as defined air pockets of good depth (see Fig. 2). With this structure the air pockets are not wiped out when the garment is stretched on the body. The top-and bottom of each pocket are the air barriers formed by the laid-in yarn 12while the other two sides, i.e. the ends, are formed by the drawing together of the two layers of fabric at the wales where the interlocked stitches 9 are present. Thus there is depth at all times to the air space between the two layers and yet the layers are held in compact relation at all times.
It will be observed that the present invention provides defined multiple air pockets which can be located in all areas of the garment without introduction of any blanket type structure or loss of flexibility or of stretchability.
What is claimed is:
1. A knitted undergarment having two independent layers of knitted fabric interlocked by their own yarn but only at spacedwales andspaced courses, in which. bulky stretchable yarn is laid but only in courses widely spaced, this bulky yarn beingpresent only at eachcoursewise edge of each space which it is desired to form into an air pocket, thereby defining the coursewise sides of the pockets, the laid-in yarn holding the layers apart the maximum distance permitted by the interlocking stitches and the walewise ends of the air pockets consisting of partial closure of the space between the layers at the wales where the interlocking stitches are located.
2. A knitted undergarment comprising two layers of knitted fabric united only at spaced wales and courses by stitches of the knitted fabric, in combination with coursewise air barriers spaced at intervals corresponding to the spacing of the union of the fabrics in the walewise direction, said barriers comprising laid-in bulky stretchable yarn; and the wales containing points of union of the fabric tending to restrict the passage of air in the coursewise direction; whereby definite air pockets are created throughout the garment and added warmth is produced.
3. A knitted undergarment having two layers of knitted fabric united by stitches of the knitted fabric of one layer interlocked in the other layer but only at spaced wales and spaced courses, in which defined air pockets are obtained by laying bulky stretchable yarn in the fabric but only in widely spaced courses; whereby the two layers are held apart with added air space between the yarns and the interlocked stitches hold the fabrics togetherin the walewise direction, the defined air pockets thus formed adding to the warmth of the garment.
4. A knitted flexible undergarment having two independent layers of knitted fabric connected only at spaced wales and courses by interlocking stitches made of yarn from the layers, theseinterlocking stitches being spaced apart walewise and coursewise but spaced fewer wales than courses, in combination with bulky stretchable yarn laid in the fabric between the layers in a coursewise direction but not in a walewise direction and only at well spaced intervals, the laid-in yarn forming the coursewise sides of defined air pockets in the undergarment, the interlocking stitches tending to draw the layers together at the wales where those stitches are present compared to the other wales, thereby partially closing the space between the layers at those wales and forming the ends of the air pockets; whereby defined air pockets are created and a warm garment is produced.
5. A knitted flexible and stretchable undergarment comprising two independent knitted layers of fabric interlocked only at spaced wales and courses by yarn from the knitted layers, the connection being made by stitches spaced apart walewise and coursewise but spaced fewer wales than courses, there beingspaced air barriers separating the two layers in a coursewise direction formed of.
bulky stretchable yarn laid in at intervals approximating the walewise spacing of the interlocking stitches, the interlocking stitches tending to draw the layers together along the wale lines where they are located; whereby a fiexiblestretchable undergarment with defined air pockets is created.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 709,734 Bellis Sept. 23, 1902 853,667 Williams May 14, 1907 853,668 Williams May 14, 1907 1,118,062 Scott Nov. 24, 1914 2,372,497 Johnson et al Mar. 27, 1945