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Publication numberUS2921601 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 19, 1960
Filing dateDec 5, 1955
Priority dateDec 5, 1955
Publication numberUS 2921601 A, US 2921601A, US-A-2921601, US2921601 A, US2921601A
InventorsFisher Jr Hiram H
Original AssigneeBaker Oil Tools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tubular string control valve
US 2921601 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

`Ian. 19, 1960 H. H. FISHER, JR 2,921,601

TUBULAR STRING CONTROL VALVE Filed Dec. 5, v1955 ,.rllll'lllllullllll VEN TOR.

BY 4 MMM El( 0g; f

l' 2,921,601 Ice I Patented Jan. 1 9, 1960 TUBULAR STRING CONTROL VALVE Hiram H. Fisher, Jr., Houston, Tex., assignor to Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Application December 5, 1955, Serial No. 550,899

' 12 Claims. (Cl. 137-496) The present invention relates to lluid valve devices, and more particularly to valve devices to be incorporated in tubular strings that are to be disposed in well bores.

ln the running and use of tubular strings in well bores, such as tubing or drill pipe, it may be desirable to embody an upwardly closing back pressure valve therein to prevent upward flow of lluids into the tubular string. Such back pressure valve, however, will permit fluids or fluent materials to be pumped down through the tubular .string to a location below the valve. The material pumped down through the tubular string may erosively wear the back pressure valve, particularly whenl such material embodies abrasive particles, like sand used in a hydraulic formation fracturing operation in the well bore, or abrasive laden drilling mud used in the drilling of the well bore.

An object of the present invention is to provide a back pressure valve device to be incorporated in a `tubular string disposed in a well bore, which is capable of preventing upward flow of fluid in the tubular string during its lowering in the well bore, as well as at other times, the valve device being protected to prevent or minimize erosive wear 'therein when fluids are pumped down the results in the protection of the valve device to prevent erosive wear thereon.

A further object of the invention is to provide a bjack pressure valve device of the character indicated, which is protected against erosive wear during the existence of .a pressure dilferential within the tubular string above `the valve.

This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of a form in which it may be embodied. This form is shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. lt will now be described in detail, for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that such detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best delined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

Figure 1 is a longitudinal section through a valve device, with the valve in closed position;

Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. l, with the valve in open position;

Fig. 3 is a cross-section taken along the line 3--3 on Fig. l;

Fig. 4 is a cross-section taken along the line 4-4 on Fig. 2.

The valve apparatus A disclosed in the drawings is adapted to be incorporated in a tubular string B extending to the top of a well bore, by means of which the apparatus is run therein. The tubular string B may consist of tubing or drill pipe, or the like, extending to the top of the hole, the valve device itself ordinarily being secured to another subsurface tool C therebelow.

As specically shown, the valve device A includes an outer tubular housing 10 formed in several sections. Thus, an upper housing section 11 has an'upper threaded box 12 threadedly mounted onto the 'lower pin end 13 of a section of tubing or drill pipe B. The lower portion of the upper housing 11 is threadedly secured within the upper threaded box portion 14 of a lower housing section 15, which has a threaded box 16 threadedly attached to the upper pin end 17 of the lower tool C,'which may be the body portion of alower packer. If the apparatus is incorporated in a string of drill pipe used for rotating a drill bit, the lower tool C may be a drill collar or a` drillbit. Y

The upper housing section 11 has an upper head portion 18 extending inwardly from an enlarged cylinder housing bore 19 which extends downwardly from the upper head portion to an intermediate head 20 threadedly secured to the upper portion of the lower housingsection 15 adjacent the lower end 21 of the upper housing section. This intermediate head 20 has a bore 22 therethrough, which is surrounded by a downwardly facing valve seat 23 vadapted to be engaged by a valve head 24 that can be disposed within an enlarged chamber portion 25 between the lower end of the intermediate head 20 and the upper end of a lower head 26 extending inwardly from the main portion of the lower housing section 15.

The valve head 24 is movable upwardly into engagement with the downwardly facing valve seat 23 to prevent upward flow of fluid through the valve apparatus. It is in the form of a llapper valve head suitably fixed to an arm 27 having outer bifurcations 28 pivotally mounted upon a hinge or pivot pin 29 extending transversely through a pair of spaced lugs 30, which depend from the intermediate head 20 adjacent the inner wall 31 of the enlarged chamber. The flapper valve head 24 tends to drop by gravity into a generally vertical position completely displaced from the path of downward fluid travel through the valve apparatus. The valve head 24 is swingable upwardly into engagement with thevalve seat 23, being urged toward such position by a spring 32, including an intermediate coil portion 33 wound around the hinge pin 29 between the lugs 30. From the coil portion 33, a spring arm 34 extends across the valve head arm 27, tending to urge it upwardly, unwinding of the coil portion of the spring being prevented by another spring arm 35 extending from the coil portion and engaging the intermediate housing head 20. i

The spring 32 urges the valve head 24 upwardly into engagement with the valve seat 23, but the valve head can, nevertheless, be moved downwardly against the force of the spring to an open position. To insure against leakage of fluid between the valve head 24 and the seat 23, the latter may have an annular groove 36 therein, receiving a suitable seal ring 37, such as a rubber O-ring', which will engage the marginal portions of the sealing face 38 of the valve head. Proper sealing engagement of the sealing face 38 against the valve seat 23 and the seal ring 37 can be achieved by having the openings in the arms 28 through which the hinge pin 29 passes elongated in a direction normal to the plane of the head tudinal direction when engaged with its seat 23.

` When the apparatus so far described is secured to tubular stringk B and is lowered in the well bore, any iluid in the latter will hold the valve head 24 upwardly against its seat 23, preventing entry of such fluid in an upward direction into the string B. Similarly, assuming that the apparatus is used in connection with a well packer, or the like, any tendency for; uid to ow upwardly into the tubular string B will be precluded by the upward movement of the valve head 23 and its sealing engagement against the valve seat 23. It is apparent that the valve functions as a back pressure valve, tending tol prevent upward ow of fluid in the tubular string B. However, the head 24 can swing downwardly away from its seat 23, so as not to prevent downward ilow of lluid in the tubular string.

During the downward passage of fluid in the tubular string B, such iluids could impinge upon the valve head 24, and even upon the valve seat 23, in view of the turbulence that would be created as the lluid discharged into the valve chamber 25, causing erosivewear on the parts and', at times, shortening the life of the valve device to a considerable extent. Such erosive wear would be most pronounced when sand laden uids were pumped down the'tubular string B during the performance of a hydraulic formation fracturing operation in the well bore, which is usually conducted in conjunction with a packer C anchored in packed-olf conditionin a well casing (not shown). VAccordingly, after the operation in the well bore has been performed, the upward movement of the valve head 24 into engagement with its seat 23, to close the valve, might result in leakage thereby, if not complete failure of the valve mechanism. Similarly, if the back pressure valve were employed as a drill pipe oat valve device, then the downward pumping of drilling mud, and the like, through the string of drill pipe B and through the valve device A would result in erosive wear on the valve parts, wherein they would be* unavailable for sealing the drill pipe B against upward ow of fluid therein, in the event a blowout tended to occur during the drilling operation.

The present invention prevents the erosive wear on the back pressure valve device by protecting the latter. Such protection can be complete, as by fully covering the liapper valve head 24 and preventing any fluent materials pumped down the tubular string B and through the valve device A from engaging the dapper valve head 24. For that matter, such fluids are even prevented from having any elfect upon the valve seat 23 and its seal ring 37` As specifically disclosed, a valve controlling tubular sleeve member 40 is slidably mounted in the housing 10. This sleeve member includes a lower portion 41 slidable in the intermediate head 20, this lower portion preferably terminating in a downward and inwardly tapering end 42. The lower sleeve portion 41 is integral with an intermediate portion 43 of larger outside diameter than the lower portion, which, in turn, is integral with an upper portion .44 that may be considered as a piston of still greater-diameter than the intermediate portion, this piston being slidable along the enlarged cylinder bore 19 of the housing 410.

Thetubular control sleeve 40 preferably has a cylindrical inner bore 45 of a diameter at least equal to the diameter of the bore of the tubular string, to which the valve apparatus is connected, so that no restrictions to downward ow of fluid through Vthe apparatus are provided by the sleeve 40 itself. To insure the proper guiding ofliuent substances downwardly into and through the .sleeve 40, the upper portion 46 of its bore may be inclined in an upward and outward direction.

.The .control sleeve 4l)` is adapted to occupy an upper position'within the housing I0, determined by engagement of its upperend with the upper head 18, in which positionthe lower end .42 of the sleeve is disposed above the valve seat '273. 'When in this position, the control sleeve 40 will not preclude upward swinging of the flapper valve head 24 into appropriate sealing engagement with the valve seat 23 and its seal ring 37. The sleeve 4l), however, can be shifted downwardly in the housing 10 to the extent determined-by engagement of the stop shoulder 47, provided by the lower end of the intermediate diameter portion 43, with a companion stop shoulder 48 projecting upwardly from the intermediate head 20, in which position the lower portion 41 of the sleeve valve is disposed within the central bore 49 through the lower housing head 26 and completely across the dapper valve head 24. When the sleeve valve is in this position, fluid pumped downwardly through the tubular string B will continue on through the control sleeve 4l? and down through the lower head 26 and into the lower tool or tubular member `C connected to the lower head. Inasmuch as the protectivesleeve. 40 completely covers the flapper valve head 24, no fluids or fluent substances can impinge upon the latter, since it is fully protected. Fluids are prevented from entering the chamber 2S containing the valve head 24 and the valve seat 23, which precludes anylluid turbulence within the chamber that might have any deleterious effect upon the valve seat 23 and its seal ring 37.

Thecontrol sleeve 40 is normally urged toward its upper position, free from interference with the llapper valve head 24, by a helical compression spring 50 disposed around the control sleeve within the housing between the intermediate head 20 and the piston 44. This spring exerts adequate force tending to elevate the control sleeve 40 to its maximum upward position in engagement with the upper housing head 18'. When in this position, as described above, the lower end 42 of the control sleeve is disposed substantially above the location 0f the valve seat 23', and will not interfere with upward movement of the valve head 24 into engagement with the latter and its seal ring 37. When a uid pressure dlferential' is present within the tubular string, such as accompanies the pumping of lfluent material down- V wardly through the latter, then such fluid pressure is effective to shift the sleeve 40 to its downward position against the force of the spring 5 0, Ito completely cover the valve head 24 and shift the lower portion 41 of the control sleeve into the lower head bore 49. Such action occurs hydraulically and automatically.

Leakage of fluid in `both directions between the piston 44 at Ythe upper .end of the control sleeve and the wall 19 of the cylinder is prevented by appropriate seal rings 51, which are received within peripheral grooves 52 in the piston andl which slidably seal against the cylinder Wall. Leakage of fluid between the lower portion 4l ofthe COntrol sleeve and the intermediate housing head 20 is Vprevented by vone vor `more seal rings 53, such as rubber or rubber like D rings, disposed in an internal circumferential groove 54 in the intermediate head, and slidingly sealing against the periphery of the lower portion 4I `of the .control sleeve.

It is apparent that the annular area R of the upper piston portion 44 of the vcontrol sleeve 40, over which tluid pressure within the apparatus is acting, is substantially greater than the yannular area S across the lower end of Vthe small diameter `portieri .41 of the control sleeve. Accordingly, there is a differential area facing in an upward direction and over which the uid pressure within the tubular string B and apparatus A is acting, to provide a substantial force capable `of shiftingthe control sleeve 40 downwardly against the resisting'force of the return spring 50. Whenever a pressure differential exists within thetubular string B in an amount capable of overcoming the resisting force of the helical spring Sli, the control sleeve 40 is shifted downwardly to displace the valve head 24 completely to one side, fully covering such valve head and bridging vthechamber 2S in which it is conned. Downward movement of the control sleeve 40 within the housing 10 is facilitated `by bleeder holes string thereabove.

g aminot 5.5 provided at the lower portion of the upper housing section 11, which will allow uid to ow freely between the region externally of the 'housing 10 and the annular space S6 between the control sleeve 40 and the housing.

Ihe specific apparatus A described has several uses. If secured to the upper portion of a lower packer C and run in the well bore on a tubular string B, the control sleeve 40 will occupy its upper position during the lowering of the apparatus in the well bore, with the valve head 24 engaging the valve seat 23, to prevent upward ow of fluid through the valve apparatus and into the tubular When iiuent materials are pumped down the tubular string, the pressure diierential will act in a downward direction over the control sleeve 40, shifting it downwardly against the force of the spring 50, to displace the valve head 24 completely to one side of the central passage through the apparatus, with the lower portion 41 of the control sleeve extending into the lower head bore 49. The uent material can then pass completely through the apparatus withoutacting upon the valve head 24 or its seat 23. Upon the relieving of the pressure within the tubular string B, the spring 50 will elevate the sleeve 40 above the valve seat 23, whereupon the spring 32 will engage the valve head 24 with its seat. Any tendency for uid to pass upwardly through the valve head is thereby prevented, which will preclude the return iiow of any iiuent material that may Yhave been pumped down through the tubular string B, back thereinto. The tubular string B and apparatus A may be elevated in the well bore, and if there is any tendency for uent materials, either gaseous liquid, or combination thereof containing relatively solid material, to ow up- Wardly, the valve head 24 will engage its companion seat 23 and prevent such upward ilow of uent materials.

Accordingly, it is evident that a back pressure valve has been provided which is available to prevent upward flow of fluid in the tubular string whenever such tendency occurs. Yet fluids can be pumped down the tubular string B and through the apparatus A without contacting the back pressure valve parts and erosively wear and damage the same.

The apparatus A can also be used as a drill pipe oat valve to enable a string of drill pipe B to be oated in the well bore, and also to prevent blowouts in the well bore. During the lowering of the string of drill pipe B in the well bore, the flapper valve head 24 will engage its seat 23 preventing liuid from entering the drill pipe. When the drilling operation is to commence, the mere pumping of drilling iiuid down through the string of drill pipe B will shift the control sleeve 40 to its lower position, displacing the valve head completely to one side ofthe apparatus and placing the lower portion 41 of the control sleeve within the lower head bore 49, in which position it completely protects the valve head, as well as the valve seat 23. Accordingly, any tendency for drilling mud, or other drilling iiuids, to erosively wear the parts is completely eliminated. So long as fluid is being pumped down through the drilling string, the control valve head 24 is displaced to one side. However, should a blowout tend to occur, then the greater pressures from below will immediately shift the control sleeve 40 back to its upper position, and will allow the valve head 24 to v swing upwardly into engagement with the valve seat 23. The predominant pressure below the latter will act over the whole area of the control sleeve 40 to return it to its upper position free from an engaging relation with the flapper valve head 24, since uid under pressure can act in an upward direction over the annular area S of the lower control valve portion 41, and also pass through the bleeder holes 55 for upward action on the downwardly facing stop shoulder 47 and downwardly facing portion of the piston 44.

Accordingly, it is evident that the apparatus can be used as adrill pipe iloat and function as a safety device in pre- 6 venting blowouts, as well as enabling the drill string B to be oated into the well bore. However, during the actual drilling operation in the well bore, the back pressure valve 24 is completely protected from the erosive action of the drilling mud.

rlhe inventor claims: s

1. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore and through which iluid from the tubular string can How, said housing being movable in the well bore with the tubular string; back pressure valve means in said housing adapted to open to permit ow of fluid from the tubular string through said housing in one longitudinal direction and adapted to close to prevent iiow of iiuid through said housing and into the tubular string in the opposite longitudinal direction; and means through which fluid from the tubular string can flow and shiftable by iiuid pressure in the tubular string and said housing into engagement with said back pressure valve means to hold said back pressure valve means in open condition while permitting liow of fluid from the tubular string through said housing in said one longitudinal direction, said shiftable means having means associated therewith whereby said shiftable means is movable from engagement with said back pressure valve means when fluid tends to ow in said housing in the opposite longitudinal direction to allow said back pressure means t-o close.

2. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to ybe secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore and through which fluid from the tubular string can ilow, said housing being movable in thel well bore with the tubular string; back pressure valve means in said housing adapted to open to permit ow of uid from the tubular string through said housing in one longitudinal direction and adapted to close to prevent flow of iiuid through said housing and into the tubular string in the opposite longitudinal direc-V tion; means through which fluid from the tubular string can liow and shiftable by iiuid pressure in the tubular string and said housing into engagement with said back pressure valve means to hold said back pressure valve means engaging said shifting means in open condition while permitting flow of fluid from the tubular string through said housing in said one longitudinal direction; and means for shifting said shiftable means out of engagement with the back pressure valve means to allow said back pressure valve means to close.

3. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted' to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore and through which fluid from the tubular string Vcan flow, said housing being movable in the well bore with thetubular string, said housing having a valve seat; a valve head movable into engagement with said seat to prevent How of fluid in said housing in one longitudinal direction; means` for disposing said valve head out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to permit flow of uid from the tubular string in said housing in the opposite longitudinal direction; and a control member in said housing shiftable by lluid pressure in the tubular string and said housing into engagement with and substantially fully across said head to hold said head out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to prevent substantial contact of said head by fluid flowing from the tubular string through said housing in said opposite longitudinal direction, said control member having means associated therewith whereby said control member is movable from engagement with said head when uidtends to flow in said housing in said one longitudinal direction to allow said head to engage said seat.

4. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a Well bore and through which fluid from the tubular string can how, said hous` ing being movable in the well bore with the tubular` string, said housing having a valve seat; a valve headY movable into engagement with said seat to prevent flow of iiuid in said housing in one longitudinal direction; means Y' for disposing said valve head out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to permit flow of fluid from the tubular string in saidhousing in the opposite longitudinal direction; acontrol` member in saidhousing shiftable by iluid pressure in the tubular string and said housing into engagement with and substantially fully across said head to hold said head; out of engagement with said seat to `one side of said housing to prevent substantial contact of said head by fluid flowing from the tubular string through said housing in said opposite longitudinali direction; and means for shifting said' control member out of engagement with said head to allow said head to engage said seat.

5. In valve apparatus: -a housing adaptedv to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore and through which fluid from the tubular string can flow, said housing being movable in the well bore with the tubular string, said housing having a valve seat; a valve head movable upwardly into engagement with said seat to prevent upward flow of fluid in said housing; means for disposing said valve head downwardly and out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to permit downward ow of lluid from the tubular string insaid housing; and a control sleeve in said housing shiftabl'e by fluid pressure in the tubular string and said housing downwardly into engagement with and completely across said head to hold said head out of engagement withT Said seat completely to one side of said housing to enable ilud to ow downwardly from the tubular string through; said housing and sleeve without contacting said head, said control sleeve having means associated therewith, whereby said control sleeve is movable upwardly from engagement with said head when fluid tends to flow upwardly in said housing to allow said head to engage said seat.

6. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well borel and. through which fluid from the tubular string can flow, said housing being movable in the well bore with the tubular string, said housing having a valve seat; a valve head; movable upwardly into engagement with said seat to prevent upward ow of iluid in said housing; means for disposing said valve head downwardly and out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to permit downward flow of iluid from the tubular string in saidl housing; a control sleeve in said housing shiftable by lluid pressure in the tubular string and said housing downwardly into engagement with and completely across said head to hold said head out of engagement with said seat completely to one side of said housing to enable lluidfto how downwardly from the tubular string through said housing and sleeve without contacting said head; and spring means engaging said sleeve to shift said sleeve upwardly in said housing out of engagement with said head to allow said head to engage said seat.

7. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore and through which fluid from the tubular string can flow, said housing being movable in the well bore-with the tubular string, said housing having a valve seat; a valve head movable upwardly into engagement with said seat to prevent upward flow of iluid in said housing; means for disposing said valve head downwardly and out of engagement with said seat to one side of said housing to permit downward flow of lluid from the tubular string in said housing; and a control sleeve in said housing having a resultant upwardly facing pressure actuatable area subject to the pressure of fluid in the tubular string and said housing above said sleeve to shift said sleeve downwardly into engagement with and completely across said head to hold said head out of engagement with said seat completely to one side of said housing to shield saidv head from luid flowing downwardly through said housing and sleeve, said controly sleeve having means associated therewith, whereby said control sleeve is movable upwardly from. engagement with said head when huid tends to ow upwardly in said housing to allow said head to engage said seat.

8. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in atubular string disposable in a well bore, said housing having a central passage surrounded by a valve seat and through which iluid. from the tubular string can ow; a valve head pivotally mounted on said housing and swingable upwardly into engagement with said seat; and a control sleeve in said passage shiftable by lluid pressure in the tubular string and said housing downwardly into engagement with and across said head to hold said head out of engagement with said seat, said control sleeve having means associated therewith whereby said control sleeve is movabler upwardly from engagement with said head when lluidv tends to llow upwardly in said housing to allow said head to engage said seat.

9. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore, said housing having a central passage surrounded by a valve seat and through which huid from the tubular string can flow; a valve head pivotally mounted on said housing and swingable upwardly into engagement with said seat; a control sleeve in said passage shiftable yby fluid in the tubular string and said housing downwardly into engagement with and across said head to hold said head out of engagement with said seat; and spring means in said housing engaging said sleeve to shift said sleeve upwardly out of engagement with said hd to allow said head to engage said seat.

l0. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a Wellbore, said housing having an upper central passage surrounded by a valve seat and a lower central passage, both of said passages being communicable with the tubular string to receive lluid therefrom; a valve head between said passagespivotally mounted on said housing and swingable upwardly into engagement with said seat; and a control sleeve in said upper passage shiftable -by fluid Ipressure in the tubular string and said housing downwardly completely across said head and into said lower passage to hold said head from said seat completely to one side of said passages to prevent contact of said head by lluid flowing downwardly from the tubular string through said housing and sleeve, said control sleeve having means associated therewith whereby said control sleeve is movable upwardly from engagement with said head when huid tends to ow upwardly in said housing to allow said head to engage said seat.

ll. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted tobesecured in a tubular string disposablein a well bore, said housing having an upper central passage surrounded by a valve seat and a lower central passage, both of said passages being communicable with the tubular string to receive fluid therefrom; a valve head between said passages pivotally mounted on said housing and swingable upwardly into engagement with said seat; and a control sleeve in said upper passage having a resultant upwardly facing pressure actuatable area subject to the pressure of lluid in the. tubular string and said housing above said sleeve to shift said sleeve downwardly completely across said head and into said lower passage to hold saidl head from said seat cornpletely to one side of said passage to prevent contact of said head by uid flowing downwardly from the tubular string through said housing and sleeve, said control sleeve having means associated therewith whereby said control sleeve is movable upwardly from engagement with said head when huid tends to ow upwardly in said housing to allow said head to engage said seat.

l2. In valve apparatus: a housing adapted to be secured in a tubular string disposable in a well bore, said housing having an upper central passage surrounded' by a valve seat and a lower central passage, both of saidf passages being communicable with the tubular string to receive lluid therefrom; a valve head between said passages pivotally mounted on said housing andl swingable upwardly into engagement with said seat; a control sleeve in said upper passage having a resultant upwardly facing pressure actuatable area subject to the pressure of fluid in the tubular string and said housing above said sleeve to shift said sleeve downwardly completely across said head and into said lower passage to hold said head from said seat completely to one side of said passage to prevent contact Iof said head by fluid flowing downwardly from the tubular string through said housing and sleeve; and spring References Cited in the le of this patent means engaging said sleeve to shift said sleeve upwardly 10 2,797,705

to permit said head to engage said seat.

UNITED STATES PATENTS Fortune July 14, 1931 Scott Aug. 11, 1931 Mason July 4, 1933 Otis Apr. 18, 1939 Hacker June 13, 1939 Page Apr. 27, 1954 Frantz July 2, 1957

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Classifications
U.S. Classification137/496, 251/339, 166/321, 137/515.7, 175/318, 137/504
International ClassificationE21B34/00, E21B21/10, E21B21/00, E21B34/08
Cooperative ClassificationE21B2034/005, E21B34/08, E21B21/10
European ClassificationE21B21/10, E21B34/08