US 2922200 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 26, 1960 H. N. ATWOOD ETAL 2,922,200
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept 20, 1956 INVENTOR Harr Nfliwood Mel/1e i ATTORNEYs Jan. 26, 1960 N'ATWOOD ETA'L 2,922,200
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 laze-- /5 30 INVENTOR m 22 20 Harry Nfliwooa Ne llre D, Atw od ATTORNEYS H. N. ATWOOD Jan. 26, 1960 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 20, 1956 INVENTOR /5 HarryNJ YZ-w'oaJ Nfi/lle .D- Atw v ATTORNEYS! United 7 States This invention relates to the construction of an edifice. More particularly, the invention is concerned with the use of specially constructed hollowcomponents as the principal elements for construction of substantially all of an entire building; The'buildings may be dwellings, commercial structures, and in fact, a wide variety of utilitarian structures.
An important element of the invention is in the hollow components, referred to for convenience, as tubes, which are comprised essentially ofan inner or hollow .core member which is reinforced by an outer, or as desired, both an inner and an outer covering of a plastic material. Theseplastic reinforced cores are given such added strength by the plastic covering as to be usable in the construction of all parts of an edifice where the core members would otherwise fail to possess the requisite strength factors. However, as hereinafter set forth, the
plastic must possess certain characteristics and must be 7 bonded to the core in a specific manner.
The tubes in this invention are utilized in joined multiples for the construction of the floors, walls, ceilings, roof, columns, joists, for framing the openings, making the doors'and windows, skylights, and other elements of a building which might ordinarily be made of solid wood, steel, bricks, lumber, cement, and other customary conventional materials, and yet will possess the essential strength factors, while at the same time with only a-frac tion of the usual weight mass.
This invention makes possible the use of materials which otherwise would be unsuitable for the purposes herein utilized. It also eliminates any need for the use of decorative coatings and provides for permanent decorause in a variety of climates and are not afiected by temperature'changes'withina range as great as 350 degrees Fahrenheit to 140 degrees belowfzero Fahrenheit. Consequently, no changes of temperature within the extreme ranges thereof ordinarily encountered in adwelling, or most commercial or industrial structures, will have any adverse effects. Due to the mode of construction 'employed in this invention, the building remains dry and is not affected by even the running of heavy moisture through those of the tubes employed in which the core is covered both on the inside and on the outside with the plastic, as hereinafter more specifically described.
The hollow cores make possible the use of the tubes or any desired ones thereof as conduits for carrying pipes, wiring, and the like, and are themselves usable as water conduits, heating, and air-conditioning, so that any desired parts of the floors, walls, or ceilings, or any partitions, can be made to serve for the distribution of heating or cooling. At the same time, since according to this invention, there is no limitation as to cross-sectional configuration of any or all of the tubes, nor any limitation as to color schemes,'or as to which of the tubes are opaque or as to which are either wholly or partly translucent or transparent, selected ones of assembled multiples of the tubes can be used to admit light or serve as windows in any parts of the building. Also, any of the tubes desired to be so used can serve as housings for lighting. v V 7 When the cores are plastic reinforced, as hereinafter described, they possess great compressive strength and the cores need not be of great thickness while at the same time, the plastic in comparison to the thickness of the core will need be only fractionally as thick. When the tubes are joined, in multiples in the manner herein described, the strength is multiplied beyond the mere sum of the components. When the cores are reinforced with plastic, both interiorly and exteriorly, the strength factor, compressive and otherwise, is even more greatly increased. The core is actually locked in. Any core to which the plastic is applied as a reinforcement has a skin-stress strength which will prevent buckling under loads othertive finishing of the interior and exterior of thebuildings.
The invention is distinguished from and must not be confused with the heretofore known constructions involving the uses of hollow tiles, or juxtaposed hollow masonry elements which are laid up or joined with Portland cement or the like, to construct only certain portions of a building and which necessarily involve skilledlabor. In this invention, the building can be constructed in much less than the time required for ordinary conventional con struction-and with a minimum of any skilled labor. At the same time the use of the invention reduces costs to a considerable degree in other respects.
A building constructed in accordance with this invention is fire resistant, lightweight, has inherent insulating properties, and is free from damage by insect or parasite Wise sufiicient to cause rupture.
It is important to note that in this invention, the plastic is the reinforcement for the core, contrary to mere rein forced plastics, such as commonly known.
Since the plastic can be any of a variety of colors or color combinations'and has a tough, wear-resistant, water repellant characteristic, as well 'as the ability to remain attack, as well as free from numerous other deterioration unaffected by weather conditions within the temperature ranges foregoing described, no decorative exteriorly applied extraneous coatings, such as paint, etc., are required. The decoration is a permanent part of the building.
Other advantages and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent from the appended drawings and detailed description, given as an illustrative embodiment.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a building constructed in accordance with the invention, part of the roof being omitted to disclose the interior.
Figure 2 is a view showing in perspective and partly in section one way of assembling components of the building.
Figure 3 is a view showing in perspective and partly broken away, of each of a representative group of various configurations, of the hollow components used in this invention.
Figure .4is a fragmentary elevation showing a transparent or translucent hollow component as a part of a multiple assembly.
Figure 5 is a section on line 55 of Figure 4.
Figure 6 is an elevational view showing a group of "iPatented Jan. 26, 1960 hollow components. used. as
transparent. or translucent a window.
Figure 7 is a detail sectional view on line 7-7 of Figure.6..
Figure. 8rise azdetail; vertical sectional view. showing a means of.- loading. certain. Ofi the. hollow. components; for a foundation. or added stability.
Figure. 91 is. an elevationahview of another.- form of window;
Figure 10 is a detail sectionalview. on line 1010.of Figure 9,. i 1
Figure 1 1 is. a detail. perspective view. illustrating a hollow componentusedasapipeconduit.
t Figure 1 2is: a view. similar to: Figure; 1.1 showinguse of a hollow. component.asrahousing-for a lighting means. Figure 13v isa; view'similar tQFigures'lI and 12 showing. use of a.hollow: componentas a.duct, for heating or.
' Figure. 14.v is, a detail; sectional. view I showing a form t of construction. for: a .skylight,,or the-like.
Figure. 15; is. a.de.tail. sectional view on 1ine'15-15 of Figure. 1.
Figurev 16. is. an; enlarged detail, sectional view showing two of the hollow components joined by fusing,
Figure.17 is a view similar to.Figure 16 showinganother means of connecting-the'hollow components to each other.
The building shown in. Figure 1, indicated generally at 10, represents a dwelling which obviously may have any desired configuration and may be constructed according to any desired. architectural plan. Hence, the dwelling shown in Figure l is merely by way of general illustration.
The building 10 has; a roof 1-1 which in Figure. 10 is shown, as-only; partially completed in order to disclose a representative portion of the interior generally indicated at 12. The roof 11.has a skylight14-which may be located in any-portionof the roof andmade of any size or configuration. The skylight14is constructed of a multiple of joined building components 15 which will befurther herein described in greater detail. These components 15, for purposes of the skylight structure and for other purposes which will become apparent, may. be either wholly or partially transparent or translucent and may be alternated with opaque similar components, Other portions of the roof 11, likewise-constructed ofjoined components 15 may be of opaque or transparent or translucent materials. For purposes of. reference one of the components 15 has been numbered but it will be understood that this numeral represents all the-components generally except as other identified.
The entire dwelling 10 is constructed of the joined multiples of components 15, including the windows 16, walls 17, partitions 18, floors 19, and such other customary structural elements as would ordinarily involve plaster, wood, metal, bricks and other conventional materials. As seen in Figure. 1, thecomponents 15 are of a generally rectangular cross-sectional configuration. However, as illustrated in Figure 3. a. variety. of other shapes, such as 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, and-.15e, may be employed, as well as numerous others, limited only by whatever shape or configuration may be. desired.
The components 15, herein sometimes referred to for convenience of reference as'tubes, are comprised of an inner element-20, and an outer element 21 referred to as a plastic covering or skin; Each tube 15 or any of them, may also have an inner covering or plastic skin 22, as shown in the'crossrsection. of some of the tubes seen in Figure. 5, wherein one. of the tubeshassuch inner skin 22 and the others. have, only the outer skin 21'. These tubes or components, insofar as the core or inner element 20 is concerned, may be,of natural or synthetic fibrous, porous, or. otherwise, formed materials, which of themselves do not possess the requisite strength factors for the purposes, herein; employed, but when they are. reinforced andstrengthened. by eitherthe inner skin 22 and outer skin 2 l as shown in Fig. 15,01 merely the outer skin'21,
they are thenusable for purposes, where previously, metal, solid lumber, or built-up materials have to be employed.
Taking, for example only, such a material as the well known Celotex, or composition board, and reinforcing it with the plastic skin 21 or skins 21 and 22, these skins being relatively extremely thin in comparison to the thickness of a wall of the core20, a hollow building component 15 is created which as heretofore explained possesses great strength. The plastic skinis bondedtto the core 20 by the application of heat to the skin. The temperature towhich the plastic is subjected is about 350 degrees Fahrenheit or until the plasticbecomes sticky or, tacky. This heat need only be applied for a matter of a few seconds and the skin pressed tightly tothecor'e: The skin is smoothed so as to be free of wrinkles and to remove any air bubbles or pockets. When the skin has been smoothly adhered to the core, the heat is removed. The skin sets and adheres to thecore. almost. instantly, usually.in two or. three seconds.
The plastic .employed is a polymeric ester,.that is a poly.- esterresin more particularly such as polyethylene terephthalate, which has the property of being unaffected by extremes. of temperature ranging from as great as. about 350 degrees above zero Fahrenheit to 140.. degrees below zero Fahrenheit and is invulnerable to insect and vermin attack is moisture repellant, and possesses great strength and resistance to tearing, fracture, and bursting. A component 15 constructed as herein described and of the same outer dimensions as for example, a piece of the same dimensioned solid lumber possesses greater strength.
The components 15, for the purposes herein described, of constructing the building 10 are employed in joined multiples. The components are joined and integrated by means of their skins 21, by temporarily heating the skins until tacky or sticky as hereinbefore explained and pressing the skin surfaces-to each other. In the example shown in Figure 2, the components may be arranged and integrated. in. edge-to-edge relationship with their ends 23 closed by inserts 24 or seated in channels 25 which may simply be halves of components 15 of suitable dimensions. Completedassemblies may have corners 28 added thereto andthese may also be formed from a component 15. The channels 25 may be cut away as at 29 to provide a suitable joint.
An illustration of an assembly of tubes 15, with a transparent or translucent tube between two opaque tubes is seen in Figure 4.
As seen in Figure 7, tubes 15 are of an inner core and an outer plastic skin as before described, or as desired, when certain of the tubes are transparent or translucent, such a tube 30 may be of entirely reinforced plastic in which the skin is bonded to the core and in effect fused therewith so as to become a laminated composite of plastics in the form of a hollow tube or component for present purposes.
In Figure 8, components 15, joined with each other, are loaded with concrete or other filler 32 to form a foundation or to give additional stability to a portion of the building.
Figures 9 and 10 illustrate a form of window 16 in which what would ordinarily be a framed glass is actually a sheet of plastic 31 retained in and joined with components 15 in the same way as the components 15 are themselves bonded or joined to each other to form multiples.
Figures 11 and 12 respectively illustrate how a pipe 33 may be inserted through the hollow center of a component tube 15 or a lighting tube 34 placed within a translucent or transparent component 15 so as to serve for illuminating desired portions of the building. Figure 13 illustrates how a hollow component 15 may serve as a duct for heat, air, cooling, or fluid transmission.
Figure 14 illustrates how the components, in various shapes,,may be joined to ,form a skylight 14.
Figures 16' and 1,7 illustrate a detail of the skin joining of components 15. As" seen in Figure.16', the-skins are virtually fused, whereas in Figure 17, the bond is formed by means of a plastic cement 36 which gives the same functional results. This type of cement may be sprayed on skins to be joined, and sets instantly to form a permanent bond such as the bond formed by the other method of joining herein described.
It is important to note that the entire building is formed of joined hollow plastic-reinforced components in which the plastic is a reinforcement as distinguished from a reinforced plastic.
In constructing a building in accordance with this invention, the components are pre-formed in the desired shapes for the various parts of the building, cut where necessary for special interfitting, and are joined to form the walls, roof, windows, doorways, and the like, for the building. As the whole procedure is merely that of bonding one tube to another, a minimum of skilled labor is required. Any errors are easily rectified by readily removing and inserting tubes. The doors, panels, and any trim components are formed entirely of tubes joined to the desired dimensions. Room plans are a matter of choice and may easily be altered at any time, during construction, or after the building is constructed. Removal of a tube or portion thereof does not affect the rest of the structure. Color and other decorative schemes are obviously unlimited. Painting is not required since the finish is built-in with the plastic skin. Special conduits for utilities and other functional purposes are not required since any tube may serve. Also closing the tubes at the ends will provide sealed dead-air insulation. Conversely, any desired ventilation may be had by opening or leaving open ends on any of the tubes, without adverse effects on the remainder. In short, for the first time, a building is provided which is so unique as to defy comparison with any prior known construction.
Since each unit is essentially its own load bearing member, having an additional strength factor derived from adjacent ones of the multiples of tubes, special load bearing members will not generally be required, as for example, to take care of a snow load on the roof, or for instance in the pressure forces exerted by high winds and unusual strains and stresses.
What is claimed is:
A building construction including a plurality of preformed .structural building elements with each of said elements comprising an elongated tubular body, a plastic sheet adhesively secured to .the inner surface of said body, and a plastic sheet adhesively secured to the outer surface of said body for reinforcing said body, said elements being secured together by adhesion of the plastic sheets secured to their outer surface, said plastic sheets being formed of polyester resin and said body being formed of a pourous fibrous mass.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,593,831 King July 27, 1926 1,693,742 Bemis Dec. 4, 1928 2,112,241 Hyde Mar. 29, 1938 2,414,125 Rheinfrank Jan. 14, 1947 2,755,216 Lemons July 17, 1956