US 2922411 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 26, 1960 J. SKINNER 2,922,411
STARTER FOR MOTORS Filed April 29, 1959 FIG. I
JAMES L SKINNER United States Patent Of STARTER FOR MOTORS James L. Skinner, Memphis, Tenn.
Application April 29, 1959, Serial No. 809,800
Claims. (Cl. 123179) 2,922,411 Patented Jan. 26, 1960 ice;
a casing 13, preferablycylindrical in shape, which casing includes a top 15 and a bottom 17, both of which are preferably removably attached as by screws or the like. Casing 13 is divided into an upper compartment 19, an intermediate compartment 21 and a lower compartment 23 by anupper partition 25 and a lower partition 27. A drive shaft or shaft extension 29 rotatably extends vertically through casing 13 adjacent the center thereof.
Casing 13 is adapted to be mounted on top of the engine by means of brackets 31 or the like that are attached to the casing and adapted to be attached to the frame of the engine, as for example, like the manner of attachment shown in my said Patent No. 2,857,984, so as to allow the end of the engine shaft, indicated as at 33, to be attached to the enlarged lower end 34 of shaft extension 29 by suitable means as by threadedly coupling shaft 33 to shaft extension 29 as best shown in Fig. '1. Thus it will be understood that extension 29 formsan extension of the engine shaft 33 and rotates therewith. Although shaft extension 29 is illustrated as being in end-to-end alignment with shaft 33,
' it will be understood that the shafts 29 and 33 may which comprises a rotatably mounted rod having a gear keyed thereon which is constantly in mesh with another gear of the spring winding mechanism, a handle engaged in a socket in said rod and movable between a released position and an engaged position relative to said rod, and means urging said handle into said released position at all times. except during the winding operation, thereby preventingits rotation and the danger of harm therefrom when the power spring is permitted to unwind to start the motor.
A further object is to provide a check spring wound in the opposite direction from the power spring, thereby preventing damage from back-lash to the end of the power spring at the point where it is attached.
A further object is to provide an additional or alternate means to prevent the above-mentioned damage by ner of accomplishment will be readily understood from the following specification upon reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view taken as on a vertical plane through the center line of the starter of the present invention and with certain parts being shown in elevation and parts being broken away for purposes of illustration.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken as on the line II-II of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken as on the line Ill-HI of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a further enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken as on the line IVIV of Fig. 1 and showing the end of the handle in elevation.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary top plan view of the device of Fig. 1, with the cover and the winding handle removed.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken as on the line VIVI of Fig. 1. j Referring now to the drawings in which the various parts are indicated by numerals, motor starter 11 includes 1 be arranged otherwise, as for example, in parallel spaced relationship, and operably coupled together, as for example, 'bya belt and pulleys, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
A spindle 35 is rotatably mounted on shaft extension 29- with the shaft extension extending through a longitu'dinal bore in the spindle, and with bottom 17, upper partition 25 and lower partition 27 beingzprovided with apertures therethrough-to accommodate spindle 35. Interiorly of intermediate compartment 21, a ring 37 is totatably mounted on'spindle 35 with the spindle extending axially thereof. Also, interiorly of intermediate compartment 21 and disposed around ring 37 is a spirally coiled power spring 39 fixedlyattached adjacent its inner end as at 41 to ring 37 and fixedly attached adjacent its outer end to casing 13, as at 43. Power spring 39 is coiled in a clockwise direction from ring 41 to casing 43 when viewed from above, as shown by the portion of the spring in Fig. 2. Spindle 35-is enlarged adjacent ring 37 and is provided with a bore 45 extending from the outer periphery of the spindle radially inwardly for a portion thereof. A plug 47 is slidably mounted in bore 45 for movement between extended and retracted positions. Ring 37 is provided with a cam surface which includes a substantially radially extending step 49 and an between the bottom of the bore and the inner end ofplug 47 to urge the plug outwardly into engagement with ring 37. It will be understood that counterclockwise rotation (as viewed from above) of spindle 35 by means to 'be described hereinafter causes the side of plug 47 to engage step 49, as shown in Fig. 2, to urge ring 37 counterclockwise and thus wind power spring 39. In the unwinding of power spring 39, which operation will be described hereinafter, ring 37 is rotated clockwise by the power spring which causes step 49 to engage the side of plug 47 and carry the spindle clockwise therewith, which clockwise rotation of the spindle is transmitted to extension shaft 29 by means to be described hereinafter which, in turn, causes conjoint rotation of the engine shaft 33 to start the motor. It will be noted that when all of the energy of power spring 39 is expended, ring 37 can come to a dead stop, but spindle 35 can continue to'rotate clockwise due to the momentum of the spindle.
This continued clockwise rotation of spindle 35 relative to ring 37 causes the cam action of the arcuate portion 51 to depress plug 47 into the retracted position in bore 45 thereby completely disengaging ring 37 from spindle 35. Thus from the foregoing, it will be understood that a cam actuated clutch means is provided between ring 37 and spindle 35 which prevents damage to the end of power spring 39 at attachment 41. a
Additional means is provided for preventing this damage, which additional means is in the form of a check spring 55 that is disposed interiorly of lower compartment 23. Check spring 55 is attached at its inner end as at 57 to a ring 59 which, in turn, is fixedly mounted at the time when it is needed.
It Will be understood that if desired, both the check spring 55 and the heretofore described cam actuated coupling means between ring 37 and spindle 35 may be provided as shown in the drawings. However, it will be understood that either onemay be used alone and the other omitted without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
An upstanding rod 63 is rotatably mounted in a bearing 65, which bearing'is attached to upper partition and extends through the upper compartment 19. Fixedly attached to an enlarged portion 66 on the lower end of rod 63 is a gear 67 which is constantly in mesh with a gear 69 that is fixedly mounted on spindle so that turn of rod 63 is efie'ctive to turn spindle 35. Rod 63 13 for a portion and terminates in an upper or distal end 71, which is provided with an upwardly opening socket 73 therein. A pair of notches 75 radially extend outwardly in opposite directions from socket 73 at the extends upwardly through bearing and above casing distal end 71 of the rod. A handle '77, which comprises i i a knob 79 upstanding from one end of an elongated horizontal shank S1, and-a depending stud'83 depending from the end of shank 81 opposite from knob 79, is supported by rod 63 with stud 83 removably and slidably extending in the socket. In addition, handle 77 includes a pair of projections 85 disposed adjacent stud 83 and extending in opposite directions therefrom so thatthe projections are adapted to engage notches upon downward pressure on handle 77, whereby rotation of the handle is effective to rotate rod 63 to wind power spring 39 in a manner heretofore described; Resilient means, as a compression spring 87, is disposed in socket 73 between the bottom of the socket and the lower end of stud 83 to urge the handle upwardly for disengaging projections from notches 75 when downward pressure is released from the handle, thereby preventing rotation of the handle by 'rod 63 during unwinding of the power spring 39.
In upper compartment 19, a circular casting 89 having an axle bore is fixedly secured to spindle 35 with the spindle extending through the axle bore thereof. Casting 89 includes an annular wall 91 extending upwardly through an enlarged bore 93 in top 15. Casting 89 forms part of an assembly 94, which assembly additionally includes a top 95 that is preferably formed of plastic or the like so that it is transparent, and which top is provided with a depending rim 97 which fitsover annular wall 91 and is removably secured thereto as by means of screws 99. Also, assembly 94 includes'a ring 101 having an inner set of ratchet teeth 103 on the interior thereof, which ring is preferably secured toannular wall 91 as by the same screws 99, which secure top 95. Around the periphery adjacent the lower end thereof, casting 89 is provided with ratchet teeth 105 which are engaged by a pawl lever 107 having a pawl arm 109 and a handle 111 angularly extending from arm 109. iawl lever 107 is pivotally mounted on upper partition 25 by an upstanding stud 113 fixedly mounted on the upper partition and extending through a socket in pawl lever 107 adjacent the intersection of pawl arm 109 and handle 111. A spring 115 mounted from upper partition engages pawl lever 107 to urge the lever into engagement with ratchet teeth 105. Handle 111 extends exteriorly of casing 13 through an opening 116 in the side of the casing so that the handle may be grasped to release pawl lever 107 from ratchet teeth 105.
In the enclosure defined by casting 89 and top 95 is mounted a disc 117 which is fixedly secured to shaft extension 29 as by means of a nut 119 and a key 121, which nut is threadedly engagedon the threaded end portion 123 of shaft extension 29 and which threaded end portion extends through a bore in the disc so that the disc is anchoredbetween nut 119 and a shoulder '124, at the juncture of the lower end of the threaded end portion 123 and the mainbody of the shaft in spaced relationship with casting 39. A lever 125 isv pivotally mounted on disc 117 as by a bolt 127 or the like secured to the disc and extending upwardly through an aperture in the lever. Lever 125 includes an outer pawl arm 129 and a longer andheavier inner arm 131. An upstanding stud 133 is mounted on disc 117 and adapted to be engaged by outer pawl, and 129 to limit rotation of lever 1'25 in a clockwise direction. A stop 135 attached to disc 117 is adaptedto be engaged by the inner arm 131 to-limit rotation of the lever 125 in a counterclockwise direction. r
Another lever 137 similar'in construction to lever 125 is likewise pivotally mounted on disc 117 on the opposite side of the disc from lever 125 and by means of a bolt 139 or the like. Ina similar manner, lever 137 is provided with an outer pawl arm 141, an inner arm 143, a stud to limit rotation in a clockwise direction and a stop 147 to limit rotation in a counter clockwise direction. .A tension spring 149 extends between lever 12S adjacent the pivot point thereof to inner arm 143 adjacent the outer end thereof, and a similar tension spring 151 extends between lever 137 adjacent the pivot point thereof to inner arm 131 adjacent the outer end thereof, whereby urging levers 125, 137 into an extended position in which outer pawl arms 129, 141 engage ratchet teeth 103. Levers 125, 137 are preferably arranged so that as one of the pawl arms 129, 14-1 is engaged atthe end of a tooth, as for example, like that shown for pawl arm 129 in Fig. 5, the other of the pawl arms isriding up on an intermediate portion of the tooth, as for example, like pawl arm 141 shown in Fig. 5. Stops 135 and 147- are so arranged that levers 125 and 137 are pivotable in a counterclockwise direction from the heretofore described engaged position with ratchet teeth 105 to a disengaged position free from the ratchet teeth.
Ari-oil hole 153 ispreferably provided in top 95- which permits easy lubrication of the unit since -oil introduced in hole 153 will seep under disc 117 and down between shaft 29 and spindle 35. In addition, a thrust bearing 155, is preferably arranged so that the upper race 157 thereof is fixedly attached-to the underside of bottom 17 and the lower race 1'59 thereof is fixedly attached to enlargement 34 of extension 29. Thrust bearing is preferably of known construction with ball bearings 161 interposed between races 157, 159=so-'that the race-1S9 is rotatable relative to race 157. i
To wind starter 11, handle 77 is pressed downwardly 'so that projections SSengage notches 75 and-the handle is then rotated clockwise as viewedifrom above, which causes clockwise rotation of gear '67, which, in turn, causes counterclockwise rotation of gear 69 :carrying with it Spindle 35 in counterclockwise rotation which winds spring 39. It will be understood that during the above counterclockwise rotation of spindle 35, the entire assembly 94 including casting 89 is carried in a counterclockwise direction and the spring is prevented from unwinding by pawl lever 107 engaging ratchet teeth 105. Also, it will be understood that ratchet teeth 103 are thus carried counterclockwise relative to disc 117, which relative motion is permitted due to the arrangement of the ratchet teeth 103 and levers 125, 137, as is best seen in Fig. 5. After the power spring 39 is wound, as above described, handle 77 is released. Starter 11 is now in a ready condition for starting the motor, which action is initiated by pushing inwardly on handle 111 to rotate pawl lever 107 clockwise as viewed in Fig. 6, which disengages pawl arm 109 from ratchet teeth 105 and permits power spring 39 to unwind. The unwinding of power spring 39 causes clockwise rotation of spindle 35, which carries ratchet teeth 103 clockwise therewith. Since levers 125, 137 are in engagement. with teeth 103, disc 117 will be carried clockwise which, in turn, will rotate extension shaft 29 and thereby rotate the engine shaft 33 to start the motor. As the engine fires and picks up speed, disc 117 will begin to rotate: at a rapid rate. The centrifugal force created will cause inner arms 131, 143 to move away from the center of the disc, which, in turn, will pull the pawl arms 129,. 141 in towards the center and out of engagement with. ratchet teeth 103. This condition will exist as long as the engine runs. When the engine stops and there existsno centrifical force on lever arms 131, 143 they arepulled back into the starting position by the springs 149, 151.
From the foregoing description, it is apparent that thestarter of the present invention provides basic improvements over previous starters of this type. Thus the starter of the present invention provides improved safety cranking means to prevent danger or harm from rotation. of the handle. In addition, means is provided for cou pling the power spring to the spindle so that the power" spring at its inner attached end will wear longer than: heretofore possible. Also, it will be apparent that new and improved means is provided for transmitting the- .energy of the power spring to the engine shaft.
Although the invention has been described and illus-- trated with respect to a preferred embodiment thereof,.
it is to be understood that it is not to be so limited. since changes and modifications may be made therein. which are within the full intended scope of this invention. as hereinafter claimed.
1. In a motor starter of the type provided with a casing: and a coiled power spring in said casing fixedly attached. at the outer end to said casing and a spindle rotatably mounted in said casing on a drive shaft operably coupled. to the shaft of the motor with which the starter is used, a. ring rotatably mounted on said spindle, said power spring: being coupled at the inner end thereof to said ring,. said spindle being provided with a bore extending from. the outer periphery thereof radially inwardly for a por-- tion thereof, a plug slidably mounted in said bore for" movement between extended and retracted positions, said. ring being provided with a cam surface in the interior thereof for said plug to ride against, means for urging said. plug outwardly into engagement with said cam su1face,. said cam surface including a substantially radially ex-- tending step and an arcuate portion extending from the outermost end of said step eccentrically inwardly rela-- tive to said spindle, means for rotating said spindle, said ring being rotatable by said spindle through en-- gagement of said plug with said step upon rotation of' said spindle in one direction to wind said power spring,. said plug being movable to said retracted position by the action of said cam surface upon rotation of said spindle relative to said ring in the opposite direction to said one direction upon unwinding of said spring whereby said ring is adapted to be operably disconnected from said spindle after the energy of said spring has been expended, an assembly fixedly mounted on said spindle for rotation therewith, said assembly including an inner set of ratchet teeth, a disc keyed to said drive shaft, at least one lever pivotally mounted on said disc, said lever including an outer pawl arm and an inner arm, resilient means urging said inner arm towards the center of said disc and thereby urging said pawl arm outwardly into engagement with said ratchet teeth, said pawl arm and ratchet teeth being so arranged that rotation by saidpower spring of said assembly and thereby said ratchet teeth is elfective'to cause rotation of said disc therewith thereby operably coupling said spindle and said drive shaft during the unwinding of said power springto start said motor, said inner arm and said resilient means being so arranged that after start of said motor, the rapid rotation of said disc by said motor causes centrifugal force to be exerted on said inner arm to move said inner arm outwardly against the force of said resilient means to disengage said pawl arm from said ratchet teethand permit said motor to rotate free of said starter.
2. In a motor starter having a coiled power spring and having means adapted for winding said spring in one direction and including a rotatably mounted spindle, the improvement in means for coupling said spindle and said spring, said improvement comprising a ring rotatably mounted on said spindle, said spring being fixedly coupled at the inner end thereof to said ring, said spindle being provided with a bore extending from the outer periphery thereof radially inwardly for a portion thereof, a plug freely slidably mounted in said bore for movement between extended and retracted positions, said ring being provided with a cam surface in the interior thereof for said plug to ride against, means for urging said plug outwardly into continuous engagement with said cam surface, said cam surface including a substantially radially extending step and an arcuate portion leading from the outermost end of said step eccentrically inward towards said spindle and being arranged so that when said spindle is rotated in a winding direction relative to said spring said plug engages said step to urge said ring in conjoint rotation with said spindle to wind said spring and being arranged so that during unwinding of said spring said spindle is adapted to overrun said ring and cause said cam surface to push said plug inwardly and permit said spindle to rotate independently of said ring.
3. In a motor starter having a coiled power spring and having means adapted for winding said spring in one direction and including a rotatably mounted spindle, the improvement in means for coupling said spindle and said spring, said improvement comprising a ring rotatably mounted on said spindle, said spring being fixedly coupled at the inner end thereof to said ring, cam follower means freely mounted in said spindle for unrestrained movement between extended and retracted positions relative thereto, said ring being provided with a cam surface in the interior thereof for said cam follower means to ride continuously against, said cam surface including a substantially radially extending step and an arcuate portion leading from the outermost end of said step eccentrically inward towards said spindle and being arranged so that when said spindle is rotated in a winding direction said cam follower means engages said step to urge said ring in conjoint rotation with said spindle to wind said spring and being arranged so that during unwinding of said spring said spindle is adapted to overrun said ring and cause said cam surface to push said cam follower means inwardly and permit said spindle to rotate independently of said ring.
4. In a motor starter of the type having a coiled power spring and having a spindle rotatably mounted on a drive shaft operably coupled to the shaft of the motor with which the starter is used and which spindle is rotatably driven in one direction by unwinding of said power spring, the improvement in means for coupling said spindle and said drive shaft, said improvement comprising an assembly fixedly mountedon said spindle for rotation in said one direction therewith, said assembly including an inner set of a plurality of ratchet teeth extending substantially around a circle, each of said teeth including an ,end and an intermediate portion, a disc keyed to saidld ive shaft, a pair of levers pivotally mounted on said disc, each of said levers including an outerpawl arm and an inner arm, resilient means urging said inner arm towards the center of said disc and thereby urging said pawl arm into engagement with said ratchet teeth, said pair of levers being arranged so that as the pawl arm of one of said levers is engaged at the end of a tooth the pawl arm of the other of said levers is riding up on the intermediate portion of another tooth, said pawl arm and ratchet teeth being so arranged that rotation by said power spring of said assembly and thereby said ratchet teeth is efiective to cause rotation of said disc therewith thereby operably coupling said spindle and said drive shaft during the unwinding of said power spring to start said motor, said inner arm and said resilient means being so arranged that after start of said motor the rapid rotation of saiddisc by said motor causes centrifugal force to be exerted on said inner arm to move said inner arm outwardly against the force of said resilient means to disengage said pawl arm 8 from said ratchet teeth and permit said motor to rotate free of said starter.
5. ,In a motor starter of the type having a spindle rotatably mounted in a casing on a drive shaft operably. coupled to the shaft of the motor with which the starter is used andhaving a coiled power spring attached at one end to said spindle and at the other end to said casing for rotatably driving said spindle by unwinding of said power spring, the improvement in said motor starter comprising a coiled check spring attached at one end thereof. to said casing and attached at the other end to said spindle, said check spring being weaker than said power: spring and being coiled in the opposite direction from said power spring, and said check spring being arranged so that when said power spring is substantially unwound said check spring is tightly wound and acts as a brake for said power spring.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,167,562 Hutter Jan. 11, 1916 1,579,031 Reider Mar. 30, 1926' 2,266,865 Herrington Dec. 23, 1941 2,568,136 Weimer Sept. 18, 1951 2,804,173 Millar Aug. 27, 1957- 2 857984 Skinner Oct. 28, 1958 2,875,851 Vakos Mar. 3, 1959