|Publication number||US2924868 A|
|Publication date||Feb 16, 1960|
|Filing date||Sep 13, 1956|
|Priority date||Sep 13, 1956|
|Publication number||US 2924868 A, US 2924868A, US-A-2924868, US2924868 A, US2924868A|
|Inventors||Dyer Richard F|
|Original Assignee||Eastman Kodak Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (27), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Filed Sept. 13. 1956 All? EX/T R. F. DYER Feb. 16, 1960 JET DEVICE FOR BLOWING YARN AND PROCESS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 77754750 VAR/V RIC/MRO F DYER INVENTOR.
Feb. 16, 1960 R. F. DYER JET DEVICE FOR BLOWING YARN AND PROCESS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 13, 1956 I A/R/A/LET k '1- RICHARD E DYE/F INVENTOR. BY 42% 5.
ATTORNEYS JET DEVICE FOR BLOWING YARN AND PROCESS Richard F. Dyer, Kingsport, Tenn., assignor to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey September 13, 1956, Serial No. 609,642
Application 16 Claims. (Cl. 28-1) This invention relates to devices useful for treating filamentarymaterials. More particularly, this invention concerns jet devices adapted for use in blowing air onto yarn.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my appli-f cation Serial No. 400,544, filed December'ZS, 1953.
Inthetextile industry there are many instances where devices of the class described are utilizable in the handling and the treating of filamentary material such as filaments, fibers, yarn, thread, tows and the like. For example, in some instances such devices are useful in motivating the material. In other instancesthe devices may be used to apply a certain type of treatment to the attenuated material. Or, in a number of situations, combination of motivation and treatment may bedesired. 'The various purposes for which devices in accordance with the present invention may be utilized will be further apparent from the description which follows. 4
'Forexample, in US. Patent 1,683,478 the general use of an air jet to motivate filamentary material is described. In US. Patent 2,100,588 the use of an air jet to impart a curl to yarn filaments is shown and in US. Patent 2,067,- 251 and air jet is provided to fluff up and loosen up a bundle of filaments by placing them in a state of substantial but incomplete parallelism. The latter patent actually flufis up or bulks the yarn enough so as to require a yarn takeup speed after the jet which is less than the delivery speed to the jet, and the contraction in yarn length results in an increase in denier. This patent shows the use of the jet to motivate the yarn material.
"One difiiculty with these existing jet devices and other of the prior art, however, was their inefficiency particularly as regards the large volume of air at high pressures which was required to make such jets operative. in general, such jets were intended for processing heavy towsof yarn of say 20,000 denier with no particular attempt to use very high velocity air.
It is, therefore, apparent that the development of small, highly efiicient jet devices particularly adapted for the motivating and treating of yarns in the range of 55 to 5000 denier represents a highly desirable contribution to this art. For example, it has been found that by applying high velocity air to yarn the cost of movingthe yarn can be appreciably reduced, and also that under certain conditions novel and unusual yarn effects can be produced.
After extended investigation I have discovered certain novel jet devices which have utility for use in treating attenuated material, such as yarn, in various manners.
This invention has for one object to provide an improved device for use in motivating and/or treating filamentary material. Still another object is to provide a jet device as aforementioned which is particularly useful for applying a stream or air or similar fluid to yarn or the like material. Still another object is to provide a device which is of relatively simple construction and which is susceptible of use in various type of processes of treating filaments, fibers, yarn and the like material. A particular object is to provide a jet device that is especially adapted for use A 2,924,868 e e t dfeb- 1 60 in producing bulked. or lofted yarn. "Other objects will appear hereinafter. l I p a For'an understanding of my invention,"ref erence will be made to the attached drawings forming a partof the presentapplication. In the attached drawings,
Fig. 1' is a sectional, side elevation view of one of the preferred jet devices in aceo'rdancewith'the present invention. V, m2 J,- Figs. 2, 3 and 4 are'likewise sectional, side cleyation views of other species of jet devices.
Figs. 5 andv 6 are sectional views ofjajet generally corresponding to the jet of, Fig.1,or parts thereof for showing the tilting ofthe orificeplateas will be described hereinafter. I
Referring to Fig. 1, there'is shownin section the housing'oro'utside shell 10 of a'jetdevicein accordance with the present invention. Thisdevice is made up of the several inner members 7, 8, 11 and 12 which maybe assembled together, for example by means of the threaded plugs 13 land 36. A passageway ,14 extends through the jet device -so that the filamentary material such as yarn maybe passed from a position at 15 to exit at position 16. This passageway or channel 14 in members 7, Sand 12 is "of substantially uniform diameter except that at the lower portion thereof at 18 provision is made for causing some constriction of the passageway to a conical shape.
Also, the outer surface of thelower portion of member 8 is suitably tapered as at 27, say to an angle between 50 to 90, for providing inconjunction with the tapered surface 26 of orifice plate '37 an annular orifice or passageway for metering the air flow into the lower central passageway 21. This orifice plate construction 37 isan important feature, of my device aswill be explained in more detail hereinafter.
Referring further to lowermember, 11, there is provided at 21 a passageway of substantially uniforr'n diameter, which passageway, however, flares outwardly a fewdegrees, as for example between 3 to 12 in the portion 22.
The exact construction of this portion of my jet isof some importance in order to assure a maximum velocity of air with a minimum air pressure in the passageway of uniform diameter and a smooth transition, in the flared portion which exits to the atmosphere. For example, it has been found that highest efiiciency results when the length of the uniform passage 21 is about V2 to 1 times its'diameter and the diameter of the flared portion 22 at the exit 16 end is about 2 times the diameter of the uniform passageway 21, and the taper off, the flare is between 6 and 10 included angle. In'addition the inside diameter of the nozzle tip 30 should be about of the diameter of the uniform passageway in member 11. These conditions result in a maximum intermingling of air and yarn in member 11 and also when the members 11 and 12 are properly positioned causes a suction in passageway 14 which makes the jet self-threading and particularly suitable for removing and conveying yarn away from a godet or feed roll where no subsequent wind-up operation is involved. It was also noted'in using this jet design in the manner just described, i.e. to remove yarn from a roll, that the very high velocity of the air caused an appreciable separation and subsequent tangling or loopiness in the yarn when a large number of fibers made up the yarn strand. The increase in loopiness was much greater than had been obtained by previously known jet designs.
The upper portion of outside housing 10 is provided with a suitable inlet 23 such as a conduit, pipe, hose or the like for introducing the treating fluid such as air. This opening leads into the chamber 24 which chamber is of sufficient diameter to contain members 7 and 8 and to provide a relatively uniform space thereabout. The exact size of chamber 24 is not unduly critical. Preferably for the construction of this Fig. 1 being described, the open parts or the like.
diameter (before inserting parts 'I and 8) would be about a half inch. However, the diameter may be changed say to inch or 1 inch. With larger diameters deflectors could be inserted or a small amount of filling material such as Compressed wire or screening could beinserted if desired. However, the construction shown, gives good gas flow through the jet.
' It will be observed from the preceding description of my jet device that the internal construction thereof is such as to obtain a venturi effect on the, air flow. l have found that it is particularly'important in the jet construction to be used in processing yarn and .the like, that there be reasonably exact concentri'city; That is, there'should be accurate concentricity of the tip of the nozzle as at '30 and the opening of the orifice plate 31 andventuri throat as at 21. In other words, consideringthe device of Fig'. 1, passageway or channel 14 preferably is exactlyaligned with the opening in the orifice plate and with passageway 21, whichmeans that thespacing between surfaces 26 and 27 would be relatively uniform around the entire circumference thereof.
The importance of accurately aligning the parts has been demonstrated by test. Several jets were made up of substantially identical construction excepting that in a few of the jets the center line of certain of the parts, as parts 7 and 8, was off center a few hundreths of an inch. Such jets did not produce as good bulked yarn as those jets where the alignment was within one-hundreths of an inch. However, when the alignment of these jets was corrected, they produced good yarn.
The other parts in Fig. l are gasket 34, spring washer 25 and bottom plug 36. It is thought, as may be readily noted from the drawing, that it"can 'be seen these parts assist in permitting the tight assembly of the jet, yet so that it can readily be disassembied-for cleaning, replacement of By the construction just described I have found that a stream of air may be effectively applied to filamentary material passing therethroug'h. The air may be applied in varying amounts and under various pressures.
Reference is now made to Figs. 2 to 4 inclusive, showing various other species of jet devices.
In these figures are shown jets in which the orifice plates 41, 42 and 43 are positioned somewhat differently. These jets, excepting that of Fig. 2, are generally somewhat less efficient in operation than the jets of Fig. l or 2. The
' amount of suction obtained is small and in some-cases these two forms may not be self-threading. Insofar as imparting a loopy treatment to the yarn is concerned, they are about equal in performance to the jet of Fig. l but i require somewhat more airpressure to achieve the same degree of loopiness.
Their chief advantage is simplicity of manufacture.
However, in Fig. 2, as in Fig. 1, is shown a form of the jet which combines an orifice and a venturi which results in greatly increased efficiency and will impart improved loopiness to the yarn at lower air pressures than any of the'oth'er forms shown. The design proportions for this jet 'fallin the sam'erange as those for the jet of Fig. 1.
It is preferred to use wear resistant ceramic materials for the entrance tube and venturi so that excellent resistance to yarn abrasion can be obtained. That is, the parts 8, 11 and 12 may be made of a' commercially obtainable material known as Alsimag. The various other parts such as 7, orifice plate 37, housing and the like may be made from metal such as brass.
Fig. 4 is made up of the two parts, housing 51 and inlet tube 52 for the yarn, corresponding approximately to parts 10 and 7, 8 and 12 of Fig. 1. A suitable opening or other means is provided at 44 for-attaching a conduit pipe or otherwise providing for the introduction of the air or like fluid. However, in this species of construction of Fig. 4 there is the difference that there are provided two orifice plate members 43 and 45. These plate membets are providedwith tapered orifices 46 and 47.
In these species of devices of Figs. 2 to 4, here again 'it will be observed that there is concentricity of the tip or end of the nozzle and the openings or opening of the orifice plates. As indicated above, it is desirable that various parts are aligned so that the yarn or the like material being treated may travel in a reasonably straight, unobstructed path through the jet.
The various species of jets shown in Figs. 2 to 4 may be used in some instances for imparting special treatment to filamentary material. Or, in some ,instances where material of a diiferentsize (denier) than normal or common filamentary material is being processed, these species of jets may be of value.
In all of my jet constructions when the jets are to be used for bulking yarn, it is important that the jet give air flow that is smooth and straight with little turbulence and no swirling of the air stream, in order that proper bulking may takeplace. My jet constructions with, the various parts aligned asalrea'dy discussed in detail, permit such uniform air now to be accomplished. On the otherhand, if asw'irling or circular air flow does occur in the jet,'the centrifugal force of this air flow may be such that it keeps the yarn pressed. against the walls of the jet, thereby preventing the filaments from separating and forming loops. Consequently, improper jet construction and improper controlof the air stream in the venturiof such jets may adversely effect-the quality and production rates of bulked yarn. 4
Mynovel jet constructions which contain an orifice plate therein, also possess further advantages. For example, it is possible in my jetsto slightlytilt the orifice plate. This may be accomplished by placing a shim under one side of the orifice plate or grinding a small section away from. the shoulder of part 11, Fig. l. The amount of tilting of the orifice plate would be only a few hundrethsof an inch. Such tilting permits the production of bulk yarn with smaller loopsthan when the orifice plate is not tilted. 'Also, a slight tilting may assist in increasing 72. Since the jet shown in Fig. 5 otherwise is substantially similar to the jet of Fig. 1, further description of the other parts does not appear to be required.
The accomplishment of the tilting of the orifice plate as discussed above, may be further understood referring to Fig.- 6. In this Fig. 6 there is shown a part 71substantially corresponding to part 11 ofFig. 1. As indicated at 73, the shoulder 74 maybe ground off a slight amount, for example ',0022-.028 inch in order that the orifice plate aforementioned will be tilted slightly when the jet is assembled, p q
The jets of the present invention possess a number of other advantages as compared with prior art jets. The
ets of the, present invention generally permit-the use of lowerair pressurefthan jets heretofore used for the same purpose. The action of the jets of the present invention is much gentler on the yarn thanprior art jets- The small jets Ofthe present invention will accommodate most any size yarn from 75 denier to 900 denier withouthaving to make changes inthe jet parts. The large jets will handle from 900-7000 denier without changingparts.
The jet devices described above may be used. to process yarn, particularly to convert multi-filament continuous yarn into bulked yarn. In order to operate. the jet of Fig. 1, the air supply to opening 23 could be of the order of 5-50 lbs. p.s.i. Under such conditions the yarn coming off a Godet'roll would be motivated through the jet device at a tension of about .05 gram/denier for the purpose of keeping waste yarn from accumulating on the rolls during a dofling of bolbbins or a yarn break at the windup means. p
Theyarn emergin g from the jet positioned adjacent the Cu. Ft. Jet Air Per Hr.
Exhaust Jet. Air,
Air, c.f.m. c.f.m.
Tension, Gram/ Jet Air p.s.i. ga e g Denier In considering the above table, it will be kept in mind that lower .or higher pressures than those illustrated in the table may be used, and the particular pressure used is controlled, to some extent, by the type jet being employed. For example, referring to the jet construction of Fig. 2, pressures between 3 and lbs. p.s.i. are utilizable with good results.
Referring to the jet of Fig. 3, for example, the use of air pressure of the order of 7 to 9 lbs. produced good uniform loopiness in yarn passing therethrough.
In all of the jets described, it is possible to equip the orifices (or make the entire part) where the filamentary material may come in contact with the parts with suitable wear resistant surfaces. Ceramic materials containing titanium oxides, aluminum oxides and silica have been found to be quite satisfactory.
'The filamentary material resulting from the treatment of continuous multi-filament yarn in the several jets which have been described above, gives a product which may be used for substantially all the purposes for which comparable untreated continuous yarn has heretofore been used. That is, the treatment of the yarn in the jets of the present invention renders the yarn more bulky and softer but there are still obtained continuous filaments which may be woven into fabrics or otherwise used the same as yarn that has not been processed in the jet of the present invention. For example, a 300 denier cellulose acetate yarn having 75 filaments, when processed in the jet in accordance with Fig. 1, was converted into a prod net of the following characteristics:
Example 1 Input Yarn Output Yarn 360 Denier.
80 Ou.Ins./Lb. S.V.
Loopy, Worsted-like Appearance.
32 Cu.Ins./Lb. Specific Volume. Smooth Lustrous Appearance.
After twisting the foregoing yarns they were woven into a crowfoot satin as filling yarn. The warp was composed of 108 ends of 150 denier 38 filament .9 t.p.i. twist yarn.
The fabric had the following characteristics:
Input Yarn Fabric Output Yarn Fabric 300/75/22 Bright Luster. ssons/sz Bright Luster. 40 Picks/Inch. 36 Picks/Inch.
. 3.70 ozs./sq. yard fabric weight. 3.94 ozs./Sq. Yd.
.010 Fabric Thickness. .014 Fabric Thickness.
36.7 F. Temperature Rise. 30.7 F. Temperature Rise.
(High temperature rise indicates poor insulation properties.)
Fabric had smooth silky hand. Fabric had lofty, light, and
. worsted-like hand.
The jet used for processing this yarn had the following. T- dimensions: 1
Diameter of inlet to nozzle 12 .125".
Diameter of outlet of nozzle 8 .047". f
Diameter of orifice hole 31 .094".
Included angle of nozzle 8 60'.
Included angle of orifice 37 Entrance angle of venturi 11 35' Venturi throat diameter .106".
Venturi throat length .062".
Venturi exit angle 10? Air pressure used 8 p.s.i. gage.
Air usage 2.5 to 3.0 cfm. standard air.
Example 2 illustrates the processing of a heavy denier cellulose acetate yarn in a jet as shown in Fig. 1, but modified to handle large yarns. 1
Input Yarn Output Yarn 1800 Denier. 2200 Denier. Filaments. 110 Filaments.
.75 Twist t.p.i. 2. Smooth lustrous yarn.
.75 Twist t.pLi. Z. Loopy wool-like yarn.
The foregoing output ortreated yarn was 3 plied with 1% turns/inch S twist and tufted into a looppile rug to which the yarn imparted a high degree of cover,.resilience,and good wool-like appearance which could not beobtained with theuntreated input yarn. The jet used, for processing this yarn had the, following dimensions: 7
Diameter of inlet to nozzle 12 .156". 1 Diameter of nozzle outlet 8 .145". Included angle of nozzle 8 60". Diameter of orifice hole 31 .177". Entrance angle of venturi 11 60. Included angle of orifice 37 90. Venturi throat diameter 11 .189." Venturi throat length 11 .150"; Venturi exit angle 11 10.
Air pressure used 20 p.s.i. gage. Air usage 10 cfm. standard air.
However, the jet devices of the present invention-may also be used in the removal of waste yarn from Godet to feed rolls. The yarn removed by-means of the jets herein describedis by reason of its bulky separated filament state more readily redissolved and thus improves the recovery of waste yarn and its processing for respinning. Therefore, the exact manner of utilizing the jets herein described is not a limitation on the present invention.
While in the above description, reference has been made to treating of cellulose acetate yarn, in a similar manner other yarns such as cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, polyester, acrylic and the like yarns may be processed in a-comparable manner. The denier of the yarn is usually between -450. However, heavy denier, say 3000 to 8000 may also be processed. The number of filaments are preferably above30.
- I claim:
l. A jet device adapted for use in the textile industry, comprising an elongated outer member which includes a head portion and a tail portion, said member being provided with an air chamber in'the member, said air chamber communicating with a relatively thin ceramic orifice plate positioned between the head and tail portions, said plate merging into a flared venturi-type passageway, a tube member having a substantially uniform passageway therethrough positioned in the air chamber so that said passageway discharges into said orifice-plate, the apparatus assembly. being characterized in tbat the passageway and the orifice member are in relatively accurate concentricity. r
2. A jet device adapted for use in the textile industry, comprising an outer member which'has head and tail sections; said member being provided with'an air chamber in thehead section, said air chamber communicating with an orifice plate positioned about mid-way of the member, said orifice plate connecting with a venturi member, an elongated tube member provided with a substantially uniform passageway therethrough positioned in the air chamber, which-passageway is positioned to discharge into the centerof said orifice plate, the apparatus assembly beingcharacterized in that allof the passageways through the jet "are-in accurate concentricity.
'3. A jet device particularly adapted for treating continuous multi-filament yarn to convert the yarn to bulked yarn, whichcomprises a jet housing which housing is provided with an inlet adapted for the introduction of arr into an air chamber within the interior of said housing, a
tube member-"provided" with a-passageway-of substan tially uniform diameter positioned in one end of said housing'and'leading through said air chamber, a wider passageway on the other end of said housing and a relatively thin slightly tilted orifice plate within the housing positioned so that the first-mentioned passageway and the air chamber discharge through said orifice plate into the last-mentioned passageway.
4. A'jet device particularly useful for treating continuous multi-filament yarn, comprising an elongated jet 1 housing having an inlet on the side thereof adapted for the introduction of air into an air chamber within the interior of said housing, a tube member positioned in one end of'said housing, said tube'member being provided with a substantially uniform passageway therethrough, which passageway and tube member terminate in a conical tip, said tube member being comprised of a plurality of parts removably positioned in the end of said housing, a venturi-type tube member having a flared exit portion removably positioned by means of a threaded plug in the other end of said housing, and an orifice plate having a tapered orifice therein positioned between the two tube members, said tube members and orifice plate being aligned so that yarn entering one end of the device may pass in a substantially straight line tluough the device and out of the other end thereof.
5. A jet device as in claim 4 but in which the orifice plateis tilted not more than a few hundredths of an inch. 6, 'A jet device particularly adapted for treating con- I tinuous multi-filament yarn for converting the yarninto bulk yarn comprising a jet housing provided with an inlet means on the side of the housing for introducing air into an air chamber of about V2," diameter within the interior of the housing, an externally relatively smooth tube member provided with a substantiallyuniforrn passageway of less than A" diameter extending through said air chamber, said tube closing up one end of said air chamber, an orifice plate positioned on the other end of said air chamber and aligned with'said tube so that said tube can discharge substantially concentrically through the opening in said orifice plate and the other end of said housing being provided with a removably positioned venturi-type of tube.
7. A jet device adapted for use in the textile industry, comprising an elongated outer housing, including a head portion and a:.tail portion, said housing being provided with an air chamber in the head thereof, said air chamber communicating with a relatively thin orifice plate positioned about mid-way of the housing, said orifice plate being at least approximately centered in the housing, another member provided with a substantially uniform pasageway therethrough positioned in the air chamber,
rate axial alignment.
tion-and a diverging exit portion of less than '30 in cluded'angle located below said orifice plate,-the apparatus assembly being characterized in that the passageway, orifice plate, and venturi member are in relatively accuthereof, the air"chamber communicating with a relatively thin orifice plate positioned generally adjacent the exit end of the air chamber, the aforementioned tail member being positioned generally adjacent the orificeplate on the opposite side thereof from the air chamber, this venturi tail member being characterized in that it is composed of a converging section, a short parallel tube-like section and a diverging section. v
9. A jet device for bulking yarn comprising a housing separated into an upper and lower section by sagas. inlet pipe leading to the side of the housing, a gas chamber within said housing, a tube which terminates in a conical 'tip leading through said gas chamber,'and at least one thin plate orifice positioned belowsaid tipand a venturi nozzle positioned below said thin plate orifice, the apparatus being characterized in that said tip and said or'ificeare positioned in.v relatively accurate concentricity.
a 10; A jet device adapted for use in the textile industry, comprising an outer member which has head and tail sections, said member being provided with an air chamber in the head section provided with an inlet for the introduction of a gaseous media into said chamber within the head section, said 'airchamber communicating with an orifice plate positioned about mid-way of the member, said orifice plate connecting with a venturi member, an elongated tube member provided with a substantially uniform passageway therethrough positioned in the air chamber, which passageway is positioned to discharge into the center of said orifice plate, the apparatus assembly being characterized in that all of the passageways through the jet are in accurate concentricity.
11. An apparatus for treating a plurality of strands ofcontinuous multi-filamcnt yarn which apparatus is adapted to convert static air pressure into velocity pressure with a minimum of air turbulence and a maximum of streamlined flow, said apparatus comprising a body member having upper and lower portions, a tube terminating in a nozzle threaded into the upper portion of said body member and extending into the body member, an orifice plate having a centrally positionedorifice located within said body member so that said orifice is aligned with said nozzle, a venturi tube abutting said orifice and threaded into the lower portion of said body member,
said venturi tube having an entrance throat and a straight continuous multi-filament yarn which apparatus is adapted said other member being positioned to discharge at least approximately into the center of said orifice plate, a venturi member composed of a converging portion of less than 135"includedang1e,.a short cylindrical throat perto convert static air pressure .into velocity pressure with a minimum of air turbulence and a maximum of streamlined flow, said apparatus comprising a hollow body member having upper and lower portions, a tube terminating in a nozzle securely afiixed to the upper portion of said body member and extending into the body member, an orifice plate having a centrally positioned orifice located within said body member so that said orifice is aligned with and is closely associated with'said nozzle, a venturi tube abutting said orifice and securely fastened vto the lower portion of said body member, said venturi tube having an entrance throat slightly largerthan said orifice,
9 V and a straight portion approximately equal to the diam eter of said orifice, an exit throat in the lower portion of said venturi, said exit throat having a taper whereby air fiow is at very high velocity through the orifice, loses velocity in the entrance throat but regains velocity in the straight portion and thereafter expands evenly and loses velocity in the exit taper.
13. A process for treating continuous multi-filament yarn, which comprises introducing said yarn into a jet containing a nozzle, plate orifice and venturi and into the center of a column of high velocity streamline air flow in association therewith, impinging said air flow at a low angle of incidence onto said yarn in such a manner that the yarn is maintained substantially in the center of said streamline air flow, while at the same time being thoroughly admixed with the air, in sequence decelerating and then accelerating said streamline air flow to a high velocity and then evenly decelerating said streamline air flow such that the yarn is caused to expand radially, then contract and reform into yarn while being maintained in the central portion of the air stream and abruptly removing said treated yarn from the streamline air How in a radial direction.
14. A process in accordance with claim 13 wherein the streamline flow which while exerting forces in axial and radial directions on the yarn does not exert any torque forces which would cause the yarn to twist or turn to any substantial extent.
15. The process in accordance with claim 13 wherein the streamline flow is free of any centrifugal motions of the air flow which might tend to push the yarn filaments against the walls of the venturi.
16. A process in accordance with claim 13 wherein the orifice plate is aligned with and is closely associated with said nozzle so that the rate of air flow is substantially equal at each point around the annular opening formed by the nozzle and the plate orifice.
References Cited in the file of this patent .UNITED STATES PATENTSv 2,622,961 Finlayson et al. Dec. 23, 1932 2,667,964 Miller Feb. 2, 1954 2,670,154 Sutherland Feb. 23, 1954 2,783,609 'Breen Mar. 5, 1957
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|U.S. Classification||28/273, 406/194|