US 2924962 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
c. NETTL-E b 16 1960 L 10N Fe f WALL CONSTRUCT 4 Sheets-SheaJC l Filed D60. 2, 1954 Feb. 16, 1960 L. c. NETTLE WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 2. 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Larry C.Nel:l:le
BY a; ML
4%51f ATTORNEYS Feb. 16, 1960 L. c. NETTLE 2,924,962
WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed D60. 2. 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENT OR Larry C.Nei'i'le Feb. 16, 1960 L. c. NETTLE WALL CONSTRUCTION 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 2. 1954 27 sa so 52 a' Larry C Nettie 0.. Vla-Cf @Hi BY? I M ATTORNEY .Y
2,924,962 e WALL CONSTRUCTION Lawrencel Clarence Nettie, Reno, Nev. i i Application DecemherZ, 14934, Serial No. 472,730
1 claims'. (CM2-16) V forming and assembling the panels into buildingl walls.
More particularly, the invention relates to cast wall panels of light-weight mineral aggregates, such as pozzuolana, pumice, trass', vermiculite, and like materials tious materials, with or withoutgas-forming additions `to form expandedaggregate masses;
4The present invention makes possible the elaboration of mineral aggregates, of the character described, which United Stef@ met ,Q
of volcanic origin, compounded with suitable centeno- 2,924,962 Patented Feb. 16, 1%30 of special, break-away casting frames, comprised of frame members mutually abutted and secured to form a casting frame, thesaid membersincorporating means for demountably holding core tubes and metal inserts in place during the casting operatiom additional object ofthe presentinvention is the provision of casting frame elements of squareV channel shape, and incorporating means for securing the assembled frame elements in interlocked, casting postion, the
4said elements incorporating specialforming members for imparting desired surfaces to thecase wall rnemhers.`
VOther objects ofthe present invention include novel methodsof beth forming and erecting the novel building panels; herein, and the `spe ci al compositions used for forming the light-weight casting material.
With these andV other y objects in view, which may be incident to my improvements, the inventionV consistsin the parts and combinations to b e hereinafter set forth .and claimed, with the understanding that the several necessary elements, comprising my invention, may be `varied in construction, proportions and arrangement, witliout departing from the spirit and scope of the appendedslaimsf Y.
l lIn order to' make my invention more clearly underst ood, I have s hown inthe accompanying drawings means for carrying the same into practical eiectwithout limitthe improvements in their useful applications to the particularconstructions, which `for the purpose of exare in abundant and relatively cheap supply in the western sections of the United States. In these sections there is an unsatisfied demand for low-cost, one-story housing units, garages, and small manufacturing units'.y
Cinder block constructionf is relatively costly, due to the fact that its use is restricted to relatively high-cost labor areas, inthe vicinity of large coal-buming power plants, which are the main source of the raw material. Additionally, cinder block construction involves the handling and erecting of; a-multiplicity of relatively heavy blocks into anybuilding, which blocks mustbe cemented in place inthe usual manner, by high-priced 4skilled labor.- Furthermore, because of the weightandV bulk of cinder blocks, the use of' stagings and other construc- Vtion impedimenta is required, greatly increasing the cost 'ratinginterlocking and securinglmeans, andadaptedto be mounted on andfixedlysecured to the usual concrete-footings.- The units can be handled mostleasily, Aand are readily assembled intocompletedstructuresby unskilled labor,v
`,and with amin'imum of supervisionlight-weight'buildings-constructions formed of preformed, wallheight panelspf specialconstruction, interlocked by novel interlockinglmeans, and securedtol the foundations, ina simple andfehcient manner.
It isv an. object of therpresent invention to provide V' It'isa'nother object ofthe present invention fto provide y novel buildiiigwall panels of light-weightmaterial, severallv''einbod-ying .al plurality1 of parallel, uniformly spaced, full-length tubularV core members, whereby the vinternal structure of the'panelsis physically enhanced and their weight is' greatly reduced, all without sacrificing any dev sp'e'cial interlockingmeans `for wall: panelY assemblies.
hot-he obictfiof tletpresent'invention isttheprov'ision p lana'tion, have been made' the subject of illustration.
f In the drawings, like numerals refer to similar parts throughout thel sever-al views, of which u Figure 1- isa perspective View of an assembled casting frame, as mounted on a casting platform, and showing tubular cores held in parallel, spaced" relation, one portion of the frame including a portion of the cast embedment forming a wall panel;
`Fig. v2 is aA transverse cross-section taken on line 2--2 of Fig. l, and showing the embedment of the tubular cores and the locking and securing inserts in the cast wall panel;
vFig-:3 is a fragmentary longitudinal section taken on 1ine'3--3 of Fig. 1, and showing' the method of mounting the tubular cores in the casting frame;
Fig'.4 4 is any enlarged horizontal cross-section on line 4-4 of Fig. 6, of an inter-panel joint showing tapped locking inserts with locking studs in place, and engaged in andby a special tubular locking key;
F Fig. 5 isa perspective view of the locking key of Fig. 6V is a front elevation of a'wall panel assembly mounted'on its foundation, the panel interlocking means and wall tie-down means being shown in' phantom view;
. Fig. 7l isl a top plan view' of the assembly of Fig. 6, showingthe cap ttings of the Wall assembly; and
Fig: 8-is a detail, in broken section, of atie-down rod and the Ymethod of securing it in place onthe foundation `and inthe cap channel.
Turning now to the drawings, and with particular reference to the showings of' Figs. 1-4, the fabrication or casting of the novel wall panels will be described.
- Casting' frame A special feature of primary importance with` respect to the economical elaboration of cast wall panels is the castingframe. The vnovel casting'frame 10, is'"forme`d of channels of square cross-sectionA having bottoms 11, andI sides 12, 13. The sides 12, 13, are formed witha suitable number of pairs of aligned slots, theislots'f being designated generally bythenumeral 14. The channels arecut into matching leugthsto form pairs ofside frame meinb'ers 15, 1S", the end frame members 16, 16'. For
15, 1S will be 9'6 long, while the members 16, 16' will be 9 long. The outer faces or bottoms 11 of side frame members 15, 15 will severally incorporate full-length semi-cylindrical forming elements' 17, 17',V welded or otherwise secured thereto. The end fratrie members will severally incorporate uniformly spaced Ystuds or spacing lugs 18, secured to the bottoms by welding, or m any other suitable manner.V The lugs 18 on members 16, 16'-, will line on common centers, so that the core tubes.' 21, lof a castV panel 20, are rigidly maintained in their desired parallel, spaced relation. t
The casting frame members, as shown in Fig. l,- are secured intheir desired cooperative relation, on any suxtable casting platform 19, by securing means 19Vpassed through the aligned slots 14 and into the platforms- 'The securing means', as shown, may comprise bolts 14 adapted to thread into nuts 13' embedded in the castingv platform 19. The elongated openings 14 in the top sides of the frame members are used when another form is-'poured on top of the bottom one. Thus, a number of units having no apertures and of the same size, can be set up and poured one on top of the other. Similarly, units having the same aperture arrangement can be bolted together" and poured in like fashion, thus saving ground space. As will be described more in detail hereinafter, the semicylindrical forming elements 17, 17', of the side casting frame members may incorporate mounting means, not t, shown, for detachably securing tapped panel locking lugreceiving inserts 22, at least two such inserts being provided for each side of the panel. For mountlngy indoor or outdoor wall trim, base-boards, picture molding,- andv ture in a simple manner, as is clearly illustrated-by the the like, flanged nuts 23 will be suitably secured in fthe frame, and will be xedly embedded in the ca st wall.
Cast panels and locking details The panels 20 Will comprise front and back wall surfaces 25, 26, with semicylindrical end grooves 27, formed by the side framing members of the casting frame, and top and bottom surfaces 28, 29, respectively. The top and bottom surfaces are pierced by the core tubes, and
it will be noted that the inter-core spaces, when filled with the cast embedment, will form spaced, parallel, vertical supporting sections, or stanchion elements of full panel length and thickness, with their width being determined by the inter-tube spacing. These elements will be transversely joined and cross-braced by the outer or surface coatings of the panels. Thus, in a panel six inches thick, cored by tube 4 inchestin diameter, the
stanchions or vertical load-supporting sections will-be six inches thick, while the integral surface skins will be one inch thick. Any transverse cracks developing in a cast wall panel will not be propagated through the width of the panel, but will be diverted longitudinally on extending to a relatively core tube.
thin (71) skin section overlyinga As shown more particularlyin 4 and 5, abntted wall panels are expeditiously joined together and interlocked in the followingmanner:
The semicylindrical end grooves 27 of the wall panels 20 incorporate tapped inserts 22, embeddedtherein, with QL locking lugs 33 screwed into the tapped inserts 22, keying members 30 are fitted-on .and over the lugs by slipping the slots 31 over the Shanks 34 of the lugs, whereby the curviform rear surfaces 36 are engaged by the inner surface of the keying member, and the surface of an end groove 27 is engaged by the outer Ysurface ofthe key. To insure positive locking engagement of the keys in place, slight tapping of the upper edge with a mallet or hammer will do. Becauseof the ease'of attachment of the keys 30 to a panel, they maybe'attached to one end of a panel, before erection hito-a wall structure, the
apposing endsjof juxtaposed panels being slid downwardly thereagainst, so that the lugs 33 will be received byV and in the upturned keying slots 32 of the keying members; In this case, .the'top 'of the panel can be tapped to secure its-drive fit in the keys, and assure posiytive bilateral joining ofjthefwaligned and-apposed wall panels. f Y g v`'1` he wallV-panelsare assembled'to form a wall strucshowings of Figs. 6-8, inclusive. VTurning now to these figures, and more particularly to Figs. 6 and 8, the wall foundation and associated elements will be described.
Wall foundation When a wall is to be erected, the usual concrete or masonry base or foundation 40, is laid in place. Such baseswill Ybe of any suitable-dimensions, and laid on the ground, or in trenches, as the particular design calls for. The top surface 41, of the foundation should be truly at, a spirit level being the usual instrument used to check on the surfacel Whether the foundation be fabricated of concrete, brick, or masonry, anchor rods 42 must be embedded therein. These members comprise a shank sectiony 43 having an angular'hook or offset 44 at the bottom, and adapted for locking engagement in and by the embedment forming the foundation 40. The upper end 45 of the shank is threaded, and extends a sufcient distance above the level of surface 41 to insure positive locking engagement with a threaded hollow coupling 46. This coupling is a doubly hanged, internally threaded cylinder having concentric-top and bottom anges 47, 48, of equal diameter, and'adapted to receive cores 21 of panel 20 in slip fit thereover. The bushings ory couplings 46 are Yof a sufficient height to provide apositivev vertical support for thercores 21, and thereby for the wallY panel of which they form a part.
,The bushings 46 are adapted t0 threadedly receivev the threaded bottom-ends 51eof'the tieY rods 50, whose upper threaded-ends-SZ receive nuts53'and associatedwashers 54. --Thetie rods arefs'omewhat longer thanf'the height of the V'wall` panels,l andk forni` vertical extensions of anchors 42. As shownin the drawings, two` anchors and associated tie-rods are'` provided for tyingdown each wall panel, and are preferably spaced Aapart: to register with and be fitted in the end vcores of a wall panel. It will, of course, be understood,that any desired number of anchors may be used, as the type of construction dictates. In assembling the Ypanels in'place, the foundation crew will rst secure the bushings 46,in place, suitable gaskets 49 being placedv thereunder-and over anchors 42 to provide a suitable yieldable bearing surface for the bottom flange 48 of the bushing.
VMounting of the wall panels Turning now` to the showing of Figs. 6 and 7, the preferred method of erecting the improved wall panels herein into a self-sustaining wallwilllbe' described.
As noted above, the anchor rods 42 are firstvcapped by the bushings 46. The starting vpallel'is fitted on` and over its aligning and anchoring bushings, and secured to a corner post, or other vertical structural element, not shown. The free end 27 of thepanel' may previously have been fitted with its locking keys. 30, and thev next panel is lifted in place, care beingrtakenthat the locking lugs 33 engage their locking slots 32`in keys 30 simultaneously with the engagement of they appropriate cores 21 on and over the bushingsi 46. When a sufficient number of panels, have been set up to' form a Wall, or any desired section thereof, a cap channel orY channels 55, is fitted on and over the topsy 28 of the assembled panels. In this operation, and: especially in case a number of channel sections are used, i'tf is important to make sure that continuous channel lb earing members are applied on and over the abutted sides 27 of juxtaposed and interlocked panels l20.
The channels 55 have a. foraminous top 56, and depending sides, designated generally by the numeral 57. The top 56 is provided with aligned apertures 58, on equal centers with the cores4 21v of the panels 20, and adapted to be fitted in register therewith. With the channel or channels 55in place on and over the top of the panel assembly, a requisite number of tie rods 50 are passed through apertures 5S and registering, bushingmounted cores 21, and are threadedlyv engaged with the bushings 46, the threaded lower ends being engaged y therein and thereby. Washers 54 and nuts 53 are then fitted on and overV the threaded upper ends 52 of the tie rods 50. The nuts 53 areA taken up and tightened enough to impose a positive locking` tension-i on the tie rods, whereby the cap channels 55 are brought into positive bearing engagement on and over the tops of the wall panels to secure them in place in mutual supporting position, and properly aligned to form a wall. To secure'uniform tension of the tie rods,` conventional tension wrenches may be used' to. tighten up the nuts 53. These wrenches are well-known onthe market, and can be set tol apply any desired`pressurewhich can be regulated by the job foreman or superintendent, sorthat eyen4 the huskiest, but unskilled' laborer can use them with impunity.
The cap channels can also serve for the mounting of roof structures, not shown, and which form no part of the present invention. Additionally, the anged nut inserts 23, as noted above, can serve to mount any and all kinds of inside and outside trim, as may lbe desired. The foundation-wall joint may be sealedin any suitable manner, as by means of cementitious or plastic grouts, applied by pressure guns, or laid in place before the panels are mounted in place. The bottoms of the panels may be open to the air, and a circulation of air up through the hollow cores to the top will make for a cool wall structure. Of course, forced draft iiow of cold or hot air through the walls will serve to provide radiant cooling or heating from the walls, and Without requiring any Valteration of the wall structures.
Wall openings A special feature of this invention is the casting of standard light-weight panels of uniform dimensions, and
the forming of wall openings in place, on the job. This feature makes for highly economical operation, as it does away with the necessity for special casting frames and fitrnents for the special casting of door panels and window panels.
The inter-panel joints can be filled as shown on Fig. 4, with a suitable filler, for example, a mixture comprising three parts rock fragments (MW), two parts sand, and one part Portland cement, or the casting mixture may beused as a filler,and continuous inner and` outer wall surfaces formed without any. breaks therein.`
The units are set in place' on a conventional foundation with anchor bolts placed in a conventional manner. A dowel is screwed `onto the anchor bolt which serves as a pilotextending up threeinches into the hollow unit and a tye rod vmade of vthree-quarter pipe equal to the height of the unit plus the top plate thickness, installed through the top plate andthe hollow aperture and screwed into the dowel on the foundation and set with a nut and washer installed on'the` top of theplate, thus firmly holding the` unit to the foundationas shown in Figure 8. At least two of these tie rods shall" be placed in a unit depending on the "width: of the, unit.
After' ten daysthe unitsfcan betaken to the job and set up by hoisting the unitfin4 place', plumbed and braced and` locked in place with each joint filled with concrete, thus making a'six inch by twelve, inch column every eight feet or the width of the unit, thus making a complete one piece wallV regardless of'lines', straight or off-set. After the walls are securely fastened to the foundation from the plate above and the joints locked and filled, you have wall construction that is ireproof, earthquake proof, termite proof, moisture proof, sound proof, and insulated, which will insure extra long life with class A construction, at a cost much less than frame construction.
Labor costs are atV a minimum as very little skilled labor is needed, as a' unit can be poured and trowled to a high finish in about thirty minutes. The windows, sash and doors, if" of metal construction, are cast in and are ready to be glazed when set` up.A If frame windows and doors are used, theV apertures are cast in to size and ready to install; The conduits and other items can also be cast in and ready' to hook up; lThe' surfaces are highly finished and are-treated so asto-make them waterproof and ready to take paint as you would paint wood. Aluminum silica gel with color can also be used which gives a permanent glaze that will: become a: part' of the unit. No plastering is needed in either the inside or the outside, but can be plastered on therinside if wanted. An eight foot by eight foot unit can be set and anchored in thirty minutes, thus making aV sixty-four foot square wall in less time than it would take to saw a few rafters. This is one hundred and twenty-eight square feet of w-all per hour.
Any type of wall construction can be used, as to design, and any type of roof can' be used;` as' well as a secondstory framecan be used. Inthe` case of home garages, and like buildings, the roof can be prefabricated and bolted on as soon as walls are set up.
While I have shown and described the preferred embodiment of my invention, l wish it to be understood thatV I do not confine myself to the precise details of construction herein set forth by way of illustration, as it is apparent that many changes and variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention or exceeding the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed:
1. A building wall construction comprising a plurality of abutted and inter-locked cast wall panels, severally incorporating semi-cylindrical end grooves and parallel longitudinal ducts, said end grooves embodying locking studs; locking means engaging locking studs of adjacent panels whereby the panels are held in interlocked relation; a structural footing subjacent the panels; threaded anchor bolts spacedly embedded in the footing, and so constituted and arranged as to provide at least two such bolts for the end ducts of each of the panels; threaded bushings threadedly engaging the threaded anchor bolts, said bushings being generally conformed to the ducts fitted thereon and thereover; tie rods in the ducts fitted over the said bushings, said tie rods being threadedly engaged in and held by said bushings, whereby to form vertical extensions of the anchor bolts; and channel cap r analgesia f 'members fitted on androver the tops of adjacent-wall panels, said cap members being apertured to -receive the 4threaded upper ends of the ktie rods; nuts threadedlyengaging the tie rods, whereby `to force the capmembers in biasing bearing engagementen and over .the wall panels, and the wall panels are forcedlinto positive seating engagement with the footing wall, thejopenings defined by f being filled .with a tures incorporating diametrically opposed keying slots` extending a major portion ofthe length of the tubulatures,
-said slots being mutually reversed, and severallyadaptefd to receive said locking lugs of abutted panels, a structural footing subjacent the panels; threaded anchor bolts spacedly embedded in the footing, and so constituted and -arranged as to provideat least two such bolts for the end ducts of each ofthe panels;threaded bushings threadedly engaging the threaded anchor bolts, said bushings being generally conformed to the ducts fitted thereon and thereover;.tie rods in theducts fitted over the said bushings,
jacent end grooves ofthe panels are filled with a settable Y plastic mass, andthe surface of the mass isy flush with the Ysurfaces of the bilaterallyadjacent wall panels. f l
j 3. BuildingwallV constructionaccording to claim 2, characterized by thefact that the plastic mass filler is comprised of material having the vCharacteristics of the wall panel material. f
4. A building wall construction comprising a plurality of abutted and interlocked cast wall panels, severally in.- corporating semi-cylindrical end grooves and parallel longitudinal ducts, said end grooves embodying locking studs; locking means engaging locking studs of adjacent panels whereby the panels are held in interlocked relation; a structural footing subjacentV thepanels; threaded anchor bolts spacedly embedded in the footing; threaded bushings threadedly engaging the, threaded anchor bolts, said bushings being generally conformed tothe ducts fitted thereon andthereover; tie rods in the duets fitted over the said bushings, said tie rods beingv threadedly engaged in and held by. said bushings; and Vchannel cap members fitted on and over the tops of adjacent wall panels, said cap members being apertured to receive the threaded upper ends of the tie rods; nuts threadedly engaging the tie rods, whereby to force the cap members in biasing bearing engagement on and over the Wall panels, and the wall panelsV are forced into posiitve seating engagement with the footing wall.
5. A building- Wall construction comprising a plurality of abutted and interlocked cast wall panels, severally incorporating semi-cylindrca1 end grooves and parallel longitudinal ducts, said end grooves embodying locking studs; locking means engaging locking studs of adjacent panels whereby the panels are held in interlocked relation, said locking means comprising cylindrical tubulatures adapted for close fit in the cylindrical grooves formed by and Ibetween abutted wall panels, said tubulavsaid tie rods being .threadedly engaged in and held by said bushings, whereby to form'vertieal extensions of the .anchor=bolts; channel'cap members fitted on and over the'tops of adjacent wall panels, said cap members being apertured to receive the threaded upper ends of the tie rods; and nuts threadedly engaging the tie rods, whereby -to force the cap members in biasing bearing engagement on and over the wall panels, and 4the wall panels are forced into positiveA seating engagement with the footing Wall, and theopenings defined by adjacent end'grooves of the panels being filled with asettable plastic mass.:
6. Building l,wall construction according to claim 5,
characterized by the fact that the openings defined by adjacent end grooves of the panels are filled with a settable plastic mass,iand the surface of the mass is fiush with the surfaces ofthe bilaterally adjacent wall panels.
7. Building wall .construction according to claim S, characterized by the fact that the plastic mass filler is ycomprised `of material having the characteristics of the wall panel material. Y Y
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