US 2926414 A
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PRODUCTION OF MECHANICAL EFFECTS- ON LIGHT-WEIGHT FABRICS Ernst Weiss and Fritz- Vonaesch, Wattwil, Switzerland, assignors'ta-Heberleim PatentCorporation, New York, N .Y.,,a, corporationzof N ewrYork'.
N Drawing. Application January 18, 1955 Serial No. 482,655
Claims priority,.application Austria April 15,1954
3. Claims; (CI; 26-69)- This invention relates to a process for producing me chanical pattern or all-over effects, such as embossing and plain calender effects on fabrics, especially light weight fabrics.-
The expression light-weightfabrics as -herein used is intended to refer to cotton fabrics having a count in the order of 45 to 150 threads per inch and English yarn numbers of 50 to 200 in the warp and filling: Such fabrics areexemplified by, but not restricted to, cotton muslins, cotton voiles, percale and cotton Geisha fabrics as referred'to herein below.
We have found, in accordance with our inventiomthat the application of heat-setting resins to such light-weight fabricswith subsequent application of goffering, friction calendering or similar relatively rough mechanical processing causes severe strains insuch light-weightfabrics andithey. frequentlybr'eak or tear during the'pro'cess tocause. a. large proportion of--seconds-.- This is" not only true. in all-over treated fabrics, but it is" also especially... true in cases, where the mechanical effects are to be applied in the form of pattern effects, resulting in fabrics which will be only partly covered with a durable lustrous finish or an embossedeffect.
The principal object of this invention, accordingly, is toprovide, a simple etficient process for such treatment of light-weight fabrics, which shall substantially; over,-
come the difficulty mentioned and produce a series of products having the effects mentioned.
The invention accordingly consists of the novel products: asawell as the novel processes and steps of processes' according 'towhich such products are manufactured, thespecific embodiments of which are-described heremafters'by way ofexample and in accordancewitli'which weynow prefer to practice the invention;
Inzaccordance with our: invention-we use-.a light weight fabric;;havingacount in the :order of 45 to-150 threads penmch -and'Englishi yarn numbers of 50 to 200 in the Warp andafilling, that has previously been'shrunk. To
thisrfabric a resin precondensate is applied," whereupon it-is: mechanically-treated as by calendering to -give an embossed, Schreiner, moire orplain calendering effect, foniexampletl The fabric is then heatedto setth e' resin.
The productsopreparedis a shrunk light-weight cotton fabric: havingla. mechanical effect thereon ofthe kind mentioned above, either asan over-all effect or asa patterned effect which is permanently fixed bymeansof a thermosetting resin. Thei-preshrinking of the light weight fabric is performed with caustic soda solution of about22-30 B. or caustic potash solution of about 24-30"- B. Such' shrinkage may be effected at any time inthe processprior to the application of the. resin precondensate. grey goods'or maybe carried out after, kier-boiling or after the bleaching of-such grey goods.
The light-weight fabrics which may be employed'include cotton muslin,-- cotton-voile,- percale and-"cotton Geisha cloth. For the production of local' mechanical That is, it may be carried out on the' States Patent 0 ice efTects' fabricS pre-dyed' in lighter shades and/or color printed fabrics can be provided in conformity to. the designated pattern with a resinrcompound containing color pigment. if desired. The usual color printingcan be applied side by side of the resin printing. If darker shades are. desired next to light-colored mechanical ef fects, the fabric may be subsequently dyed for this. purpose.
1 The resin precondensates are heat-setting synthetic resinsand' include the following: condensates offormaldehyde with urea, tliiourea, ethylene urea and homologuesof same,acetyl'ene diurea andderivatives' thereof, dicyandiamide, melamine, and condensates of formaldehyde and phenol-and-phenol derivatives, as well as suitable mixtures'of these resin precondensates. Furthermore ketone-aldehyde and dimethylolurone precondensates are suitable. All thesesynthetic resin precondensates are appliedon" the fabric-in the form of an aqueous solution in the presence of the usual acid or alka? line catalysts. Also suitable'soluble dye-stuffs, white or colored pigments, or compositions forming same, as well as metal powder can be added to the solution together with the dye-stuffs is-desired.
With respect to the production of local mechanical effects, that is pattern effects such as goffered' or the like, We produce such goffered or similar effect all over the fabric and then set the-locally applied resin and then treat the fabric with a dilute. swelling agent solution such asdilute caustic soda solution for the pu pose'of conrpletely eliminating the golfer-ed or like effect: from the fabric background.
In case undulation ofathei local mechanical effect is desired, the fabric can be thereafter treated with an alkali lyeof mercerizing strength. On the other hand, if transparenti'zing or parchmentizing of the fabric backgroundis desired,"- this may be accomplished by treatment with-sulphuric' acid of suitable strength.
Thefollowing are examples of the process in accordance with our invention as We now prefer to practice it. These=examples are purely illustrative and the invention is not to be considered as restricted thereto except as indicated in the appended claims.
Example 1" Gr. Cassurit. MKF (polymethylol melamine precondensate 'of Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur, Germany) Water ...v 200 Ahcovel G (fatty carbarnide of Arnold Hoffman Co., Providence, R.I., U.S.A., see U.S.A. Patents 2,304,113, 2,304,369) 10 Gum tragacanth-l gumzlO water Catalyzer C (triethanolamine glycolate of Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur, Germany) 9 Water; 491
predried at 40 C., embossed at 200 C., cured at C. for 5, minutes, washed out cold and warm and-dried on a tenter frame.
Example 2 A cotton muslin fabric with 90 ends and 82.5 picks per inch and the English yarn numbers 80 and 120 in the warp and the filling or weft is de-sized and kier boiled according to the usual methods. Thereupon it is impregnated with caustic soda solution of 30 86., kept in this condition for five minutes, de-lyed hot and cold, beached, rinsed, centrifuged and dried under low tension. Hereupon, in conformity with the designated pattern, the fabric is printed with the following composition:
Following this the fabric is pre-dried at 50 C., embossed on a gofiering calender at 200 C., cured for 4 minutes at 140 C., washed and dried. Thereafter, in order to remove the embossing completely from the unprinted part of the fabric, it is treated for some time in a bath containing caustic soda solution of 20 B. and gr. Invadin MB per liter, de-lyed hot and cold, rinsed and dried on a tenter frame.
Example 3 A cotton percale fabric, the count of which is 105/98 ends and picks per inch, English yarn numbers 50/60, is kier boiled and bleached in the usual manner and then impregnated with caustic potash solution of 25 B6. and kept in this condition as in the foregoing examples, then de-lyed and dried under light tension. Hereupon, in conformity with the designated pattern, the fabric is printed with the following composition:
Gr. Bekamine P 468 (ketone aldehyde precondensate of Reichhold Chemical Inc., Detroit, U.S.A.)- 175 Water 100 Alkagum 6021000 (carob bean meal thickener)- 500 Indanthrene blue GCD (Schultz index No. 1234) 100 Soda calc. 14 Water 111 Following this the fabric is pre-dried at 45 C., embossed at 240 C., cured for 3 minutes at 150 C., washed and dried. Thereafter, in order to remove the embossing completely from the background, it is impregnated with caustic potash solution of 20 B. on a padder, kept in that condition for some time, de-lyed hot and cold, rinsed and dried on a tenter frame.
Example 4 A light-weight cotton fabric known under the name of Geisha" (ends and picks per inch 105/90, English yarn numbers 80/95) is de-sized and kier-boiled according to the usual methods. Thereafter, it is impregnated with caustic potash solution of 30 B., kept in this condition for several minutes, de-lyed hot and cold, bleached, rinsed, centrifuged and dried loose. Here- Mercerizing auxiliary agent containln henolic compounds of Ciba A.G., Basel, Switzerland. g p
upon, in conformity with the designated pattern, the fabric is printed with the following composition:
Following this the fabric is pre-dried at 40 C.,- embossed at 200 C. on a Rifile or shallow embossing calender and aftertreated as described in Example 1.
Example 5 A cotton muslin fabric with ends and 71 picks per inch and the English yarn numbers 80/120 in the warp and the filling or weft is singed, impregnated in a dry, raw state with caustic soda solution of 25 B. to which 10 gr. Invadin ME (see Example 2) was added per liter and kept in the impregnated state for 8 minutes. Thereupon the fabric is de-lyed hot and cold, kier-boiled and bleached according to the usual methods, rinsed, centrifuged and dried under light tension. Hereupon, in conformity with the designated pattern, the fabric is printed with the following composition:
Following this the fabric is pre-dried at 40 C., led twice through a friction calender at 180 C., cured for 4 minutes at 140 C., washed warm and cold and finished in the usual manner. 7
Example 6 A cotton muslin fabric with ends and 90 picks per inch and the English yarn numbers 80/100 in the warp and the filling or weft, kier-boiled and bleached in the usual manner, is impregnated with a caustic soda solution of 22 B., kept in this condition for several minutes, de-lyed and dried under light tension. Hereupon the composition described in Example 2 is printed on the fabric in'conformity to the designated pattern. Then the fabric is pre-dried at 40 C., embossed on a goffering calender at 220 C., cured for 4 minutes at C., washed and dried. The dry fabric is impregnated with caustic soda solution of 38 C., then kept in a tensionless state for three minutes, de-lyed hot, thereafter rinsed with cold water and dried under slight tension. One obtains embossed and, depending on the pattern, more or less undulated print sections on a shrunken background.
Example 7 A fabric, treated according to Example 5, after the resin has been cured and the fabric has been washed and framed, is impregnated with caustic soda solution of 38 36., kept in a tensionless condition for 3 minutes, delyed hot, thereafter rinsed with cold water, dried in a loop dryer and steamed with little tension on a tenter frame. One obtains lustrous, more or less undulated print sections, depending on the pattern, on a shrunken background,
What we claim is:
i. A process for producing mechanical calendering effects upon a light-weight cotton fabric, which comprises shrinking with an aqueous alkali solution of cotton shrinking strength a cotton fabric which is subject to damage under rough mechanical processing when having a thermosetting resin precondensate thereon, said fabric having a count of 45 to 150 threads per inch and English yarn numbers of 50 to 200 in the warp and filling, applying a thermosetting resin precondensate to the shrunk fabric, mechanically treating the fabric with a hot calender to impart a desired mechanical effect to the fabric without substantial injury thereto, and then heating the so-treated fabric to cure the resin precondensate and set the effect in the fabric.
2. A process as set forth in claim 1 whereinthe aqueous alkali solution of cotton shrinking strength is selected from the group consisting of about 22 to 30 B. caustic soda and about 24 to 30 B. caustic potash.
3. A shrunk light-weight cotton textile fabric of a count of 45 to 150 threads per inch and English yarn numbers of 50 to 200 in the warp and filling having a permanently fixed mechanical calendering efl'ect thereon produced by the process of claim 1.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,925,914 Zanker Sept. 5, 1933 2,119,150 Bowen'et a1. May 31, 1938 2,121,005 Benet June 21, 1938 2,123,153 Rivat July 5, 1938 2,161,223 Bener June 6, 1939 2,353,225 Dreyfus July 11, 1944 2,370,946 Finlayson et a1. Mar. 6, 1945 2,517,529 Stanley Aug. 1,' 1950 2,590,402 Hall et a1. Mar. 25, 1952 2,699,374 Bener Jan. 11, 1955 2,733,998 Russell Feb. 7, 1956 2,743,190 Vonaesch Apr. 24, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 592,649 Great Britain Sept. 24, 1947 607,582 Great Britain Sept. 1, 1948 695,703 1953 Great Britain Aug. 19,