|Publication number||US2926674 A|
|Publication date||Mar 1, 1960|
|Filing date||Oct 18, 1954|
|Priority date||Oct 18, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2926674 A, US 2926674A, US-A-2926674, US2926674 A, US2926674A|
|Inventors||Dewey Evans, Emil Umbricht|
|Original Assignee||Ajem Lab Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (26), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
'Filed oct. 18, 1954 March 1, 1960 E. UMBR|CHT ETAL 2,926,674
POWER WASHING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet l DRYING STAGE 32 EMIL UMBRICHT BY DEWEY EVANS March 1, 1960 E. uMBRlcHT ETAL 2,926,674
POWER WASHING xAPPARMUS Filed oct. 18, 1954 3 'sheets-sheet 2 :Fig- 1.50.
INVENTORS. EMIL UMBRICHT By DEWEY EVANS w QMS ,momq rb x\\ '1\\ ATTORNEYS March 1, 1960 E. uzMBRlcHT ErAL 2,926,674
POWER WASHING APPARATUS Filed oct. 18, 1954 5 sheets-sheet :s
i INVENToR. EMIL UMBRICHT By DEWEY EVANS ATTORNEYS Unite States Patent f' POWER WASHING APPARATUS Emil Umbricht, Jackson, and Dewey Evans, Belleville, Mich., assignors to Ajem Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.
Application October 18, 1954, Serial No. 462,726
Claims. (Cl. 134-72) The present invention relates to power washing apparatus adapted for industrial applications for cleaning various manufactured articles. This invention is described 4as embodied in a machine for high-pressure washing, rinsing and drying of metal parts, for example, such as crankshafts and camshafts of internal combustion engines.
vIn the particular apparatus described herein, the articles to be washed are supported on a continuous conveyor belt and intermittently advanced along a path passing in succession through a power washing stage, a power rinsing stage and a power drying stage. Each of these stages includes one or more stations wherein high-pressure jets of fluid are directed at various predetermined areas on the outside or inside of the article. The intermittent motion of the conveyor stops the articles in succession in accurate alignment with every station, thus providing efficient high quality cleaning. n
In many mass-producing type industrial applications involving the fabrication of complicated machined parts and assemblies, it is necessary at one yor more points in the production schedule to remove the various soils which adhere to the surfaces of the articles and accumulate as aresult of the previous manufacturing and fabrication steps.
The apparatus described herein is particularly well suited for the cleaning of crankshafts, camshafts and the like, and of many other types of parts having bearing surfaces or other complex surfaces or cavities which must be thoroughly cleaned. It is important that bearing surfaces and all other portions of the parts be thoroughly cleaned of all soils to prevent damage when the parts are assembled and run. The thorough cleaning of close tolerance parts enables their dimensions to be tested with precision. In many cases, the presence of soils on these precision parts cause erroneous readings of their dimensions, resulting in the rejection of parts which do not acutally lie outside of the permissible tolerance range, or vice versa.
Among the many advantages of the present invention are those resulting from the fact that the high-pressure washing and rinsing jets are directed at predetermined angles. The article to be washed is held for a brief period at every station, with particular areas of the article arranged to intercept certain ones of these jets at each station at the angle which produces maximum cleaning action by the impinging streams. Thus, quick, complete `cleaning of selected areas of the article is obtained at` each station and the article can be advanced rapidly from station to station.
f As a result, a large number of articles can be cleaned in a short period. Moreover, because of the efciency of the cleaning operation as described, the apparatus is compact and lends itself to eflicient mass production operations.
The various aspects, features, and advantages of the present invention will be more fully understood from the following description considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
2,926,674 atentecl Mar. 1, 1960 ice '2 2 in Figure l looking to the right and showing, 'on
enlarged scale, the arrangement of the high-pressure spray nozzles in one of the washing stations of the machine in Figure l with a crankshaft in indexed position in this washing station; U
Figure 3 is a top view, taken along the line 3 3 "of Figure l, showing a short section of the conveyor 'used in the machine and showing portions of the chain drive sprocket wheels at the right end of the machine;
Figure 3A is a sectional view taken in the region 3a of Figure 3 looking into the plane of the drawing, showing the way that the cross member 22 is removably secured to the chain;
Figure 4 is a side View, partially in section, taken along the line 4 4 of Figure 3 looking to the right and showing one of the jigs for holding one end of a crankshaft;
Figure 5 is a side view, partially in section, taken along the line 5 5 of Figure 3 looking to the right and showing the jig for holding the other end of the crankshaft;
Figure 6 is a side view of the indexing mechanism used to advance the conveyor chain, this view being taken along the line 6 6 looking to the left in Figure 3; and
Figure 7 is an enlarged side View of one of the adjustable high-pressure spray nozzles used in the washing and rinsing stations of the machine in Figure l.
In the machine'ltl shown in Figure 1, the crankshafts 1'2 to be cleaned are transferred in sequence from a production line at the left of the machine (not shown) onto pairs of holding jigs 14 which are arranged near opposite sides of a continuous conveyor 16 so as to support the crankshafts horizontally and extending across the conveyor from side to side, as seen in Figure 2. This conveyor 16 comprises a pair of spaced parallel chains 18, as seen in Figure 3, with a plurality of removable frames 20 extending between the chains at every fourth link, each frame including a cross bar 22 with one of the holding jigs 14 on the top side near each end, as described in detail below.
The 'conveyor' 16 passes up around a pair of-large idler sprockets 24 at the left of the machte whfch engage the chains 18 and guide the conveyor into the machine where it is pulled to the right by means of a pair of drive sprockets 26. The conveyor 16 passes in succession through a power Washing stage 28, a power rinsing stage 30, and a power drying stage 32 and then exits from the machine near the drive sprockets 26, the clened crankshafts then being removed from the jigs 14 and passed in sequence to the next production step. The empty conveyor 16 returns under the machine past a number of' smaller idler sprockets 33 with the chains 18 running along supporting guide tracks 34 formed by angle irons extending longitudinally of the machine underneath it.
In each stage are a number of separate stations 35 wherein particular areas of the crankshafts are subjected to high speed streams of fluid. The conveyor 16 is advanced intermittently through the machine with each pair of jigs 14 pausing briefly iu each station in succession. A partition 36 with a small door 37 for the conveyor and crankshaft separates the stages 23 and 30, anda similar partition 33 with a door 39 separates the stages 30 and 32.
At the bottom and extending oif to one side (see also Figure 2) of the washing stage 28 is a tank 38 holding washing liquid, indicated at 40. This solution is sucked into the' bottom of a'two-stage centrifugal pump 41 and respectively, of washing solution at various predetermined -areas of each crankshaft, as they pause in each station.
The pump 41 is supported by a bracket 52 from the top 53 of the side extension of the tank. The pump has va vertical shaft 54 extending up in a housing 56 through a bearing 58 to sheaves 60 driven by V-belts from a suitable electric motor 62. A suitable high pressure two stage centrifugal pump for use in the machine is described in detail and claimed in the copending application, Serial No. 462,661, filed October 18, 1954, and now issued as Patent No. 2,873,685.
As indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the adjustab'e nozzles 48 are aimed at various specific areas of the crankshaft. A pair of these nozzles 64 and 66 are aimed at opposite ends of the crankshaft to squirt streams of washing solution into the passages in the interior of the crankshaft,
to thoroughly clean it. Thus, advantageously, every facet of the crankshaft receives in turn a thorough high pressure washing with the washing solution in each case impinging on the various crankshaft surfaces at the opti- .mum cleaning angles, enabling the cleansing to be done 4in a brief time.
The partition 36 keeps the washing solution from entering the rinse stage, and, if desired, a flexible curtain may be hung in the door 37 to provide further isolation. As shown in Figure 1, the rinse stage may be substan- -tially identical with the washing stage and parts in the -rinse stage performing corresponding functions are indicated with corresponding reference numerals followed by the sull'ix 12.
After leaving the rinse stage 30 the jigs 14 pass through the drying stage 32 wherein the crankshafts 12 are dried by air drawn in through a steam-heated radiator 64 and driven by a pump 66 into a manifold 68 connected to various hot air nozzles 69. A pair of these hot air nozzles 70 are directed at the opposite ends of the crankshaft in the last station 35 to dry out their internal passages. The connection to the steam pipes in the radiator 64 is made by pipes 72.
As shown in Figure 3a, the spaced chains 18 of the conveyor include links 73 and cross pins 74 surrounded by rollers 76. The inner ends of the cross pins 74 are headed, and their outer ends are he`d by cotter pins 78. The drive sprocket 26 has teeth 27 (Figure 3) adapted to engage every other space in the chains 24.
The frames are removably secured between every fourth link of the chains 18. As shown in Figure 3a, each end of the cross members 22 has a bracket 82 extending at right angles to the member 22 and resting against one of the links 73, and being somewhat wider than the link. A pair of indentations 84 are formed in 1 the outer face of each bracket 82 spaced a distance apart corresponding to the spacing of the heads of two adjacent cross pins 74. Intermediate these indentations 84 is a hole 86 arranged to t a bolt 88 which extends across through holes in the centers of the two adjacent links 73 and clamps the bracket against the inner link 73. A sleeve 89 surrounds the bolt 88 between the links 73. Thus, advantageously, the frames 20 are enabled to be slid into place between the two chains and clamped in place by only two bolts, being oriented by engagement of the heads of the cross pins 74 with the indentations 84 in the brackets.
Shown in Figures 3 and 6 is the indexing mechanism to index the conveyor 16 through the machine 10. This indexing mechanism includes a ratchet wheel 92 rigidly secured to a rotatable shaft 94 which turns the drive sprockets 26. The ratchet wheel 92 has four equally spaced teeth 96, each with a radial face 98 facing clockwise as seen in Figure 6.
In order to turn the ratchet wheel 92, a drive arm 100 is swingably mounted on the shaft 92. The arm 100 comprises a pair of parallel spaced plates, as seen in Figure 3, which straddle the ratchet wheel 92. Engaging the teeth 96 is a pawl 102 having one end pivotally secured between the plates of the drive arm, with its free end biased by a spring 1134 thrusting against an abutment 106. The drive arm 1110 is swung back and forth, as indicated by the arrow 108 in Figure 6, by means of a piston rod 110 pivoted at its free end and a pneumatic cylinder 112 supported by means of trunnions 114 on the frame of the machine 10.
To advance the conveyor 16, air under high pressure is introduced from a control unit 116 through a flexible hose 118 into the lower portion of the cylinder 112 driving a piston (not shown) within the cylinder up, swinging the arm 1110 counterclockwise around the shaft 94, engaging the pawl 1192 with a face 98 and turning the ratc..et wheel 92 and shaft 94.
In order to enable precise positioning of the jigs 14 at the various Stations 35, a stop detent 120 is pivotally mounted on a shaft 122 carried by an adjustable bracket 124. The stop detent is arranged to engage radial faces 126 of a stop ratchet wheel 128 to stop the conveyor belt 16 in the desired positions. The wheel 128 is similar to the wheel 92 and is rigidly secured to the shaft 94, but with its radial faces turned counterc'ockwise about the shaft 94 to face the free end of the detent 120. The detent bracket 124 is secured by bolts 130 to the machine frarne, and is adjusted in position by means of adjustable horizontal bolts 132 (please see Figure 6) so as precisely to align the jigs 14 in the stations 35 at the end of each stroke of the arm 1811.
Secured to the machine frame near the terminal position of the outer end of the arm 100 is a control switch 134 which is struck by an adjustable stop 136. The switch 134 is connected by a wire 139 to the air control unit 116 and causes the air supply to be shut off from the hose 118 and turned on in a hose 138 connected to the upper end of the cylinder 112 to return the arm 100 to its initial position in readiness for the next indexing operation.
In order to lift the detent 1211 from engagement with a face 126 of the stop ratchet wheel 128 prior to the beginning of each indexing operation, a shoulder is provided at one side of the detent 120. This shoulder is engaged by a cam arm surface 142 near the inner end of one of the plates of the arm 100. As the free end of the arm 100 swings back in a clockwise direction, the cam 142 rises up under the shoulder 140 and lifts the detent 120 out of engagement with the stop ratchet wheel.
During the next stroke when the arm 100 again moves clockwise, the cam 142 swings down and allows the detent 120 to drop down into engagement with the stop ratchet wheel.
As shown in Figure 2, as the chains 18 pass through the machine 10 they are supported by tracks 143 formed by angle irons extending longitudinally through the machine 10. The ends of these tracks 143 extend out near the large sprockets 24 and 26 at each end.
In case there is an inadvertent delay in unloading the crankshafts 12 at the discharge end of the machine, a lever 144, with its free end inclined and in position to be depressed by the end of a crankshaft, is connected to a switch 146. The switch 146 is connected electrically by a cable 147 to the air control unit 116 and shuts off the air supply from the hose 118, stopping any further indexing until the crankshaft on the lever 144 is unloaded.
Any fumes in the chambers 28 and 30 are removed through ducts 148 'by an `.exhaust fan 149 above the inachine.
`In Figure 7 is shown, on considerably enlarged scale, across-sectional view of one of the adjustable spray nozzles 48 clamped in position on a pipe 46, shown in cross section. A large hole 150 is drilled in the pipe 46 and arranged to face in the general direction toward which the spray or stream of high speed fluid is intended to go.
The adjustable nozzle includes a generally C-shaped clamp having one end 152 with a surface broad enough to cover the hole 150. A smaller orifice 154 extends through the end 152 of the clamp and is ovel the larger hole 150 in the pipe 46. The opposite end 155 of the C-shaped clamp has an adjustable clamping bolt 156. The stream of duid issuing from the small orifice 154 `passes a bullet-shaped director 158 supported by arms 160 from the end 152 and advantageously is broken into a high-speed spray.
The adjustable nozzles 50 are generally similar to the adjustable nozzles 48 except that in place of the orifice 154 and the director 158, a small pipe (as shown in Figure 2) is secured to the arm 152. The inside diameter of this pipe is smaller than the diameter of the hole 150 in the pipe 46 to enable the angular adjustment of the nozzles 50 over a considerable angular range.
As shown in Figures 4 and 5 the crankshaft support- `ing jigs 14 on the cross members,22 are generally U- shaped in outline, having arms 161 and 162. The arms 16,1 and 162 have inner surfaces 163 and 164, respectively, which define a J-shape, the surface 163 is straight and the surface 164 is arcuate so as to support the crankshafts 12 without engaging any of their machined bearing surfaces, thus, advantageously leaving them all completely exposed for efficient thorough cleaning.
The straight surface portion 163 engages a crank arm 166 of the crankshaft olf to one side of its associated connecting rod bearing surface. Into the arcuate surface 164 nests one of the counterweights 16S of the crankshaft. As shown, the pair of jigs on each cro'ss member '22 are in reversed position with respect to each other,
for they are preferably spaced apart far enough on the cross members 22, as seen in Figure 2, so Aas to engage fthe jig arms 161 and 162 and embrace opposite sides of one of the end counterweights on each crankshaft.
It will be understood that liquid level controls may be used in the tanks and that steam or electric units may be used for heating the wash and rinse liquids. Also, sludge removal apparatus and access openings (not shown) into the tanks are provided to enab-le their cleaning.
The positioned washing, rinsing, and drying which is obtained by the apparatus described is highly advantageous for any interference between the various liquid streams is avoided so that each stream at each station acts at maximum efficiency in cleaning and drying the assigned area of the article being cleaned.
FromV the foregoing description it will be understood that the power washing apparatus of the present invention is well adapted to provide the many advantages discussed above, and can 'be adapted to a wide variety of industrial washing and cleansing operations and that various changes or modifications may be made therein, each as may be best suited to a particular application, and that the scope of the present invention, as defined by the following claims, is intended to include such modifications or adaptations limited only ybyV the prior art.
What is claimed is: 1
1. Power washing apparatus comprising a machine frame, means on the frame defining a washing zone, a plurality of washing stations in said washing zone, a
Vcontinuous linked conveyor supported on said frame to move `through said zone, a plurality of jigs at uniformly spaced points on said conveyor, the spacing between said jigs being equal to the `spacing between` said stations, a sprocket `wheel engaging said linked conveyor, a rotatable shaft secured to said sprocket wheel, `a ratchet wheel connected to said shaft, an arm rotatably mounted on said shaft, a pawl pivotally mounted on said arm and biased to engage said ratchet wheel, a cylinder, a `piston reciprocatingly mounted in said cylinder, mechanical coupling means between said piston and said arm for moving said conveyor and a second ratchet wheel connected to said shaft and facing in the vopposite direction from said ,first ratchet wheel, a stop detent biased to engage said second ratchet wheel to stop said. conveyor with said jigs aligned with successive ones of said stations,
' and a cam on .said arm arranged to disengage said stop detent fromsaid second ratchet wheel as said arm returns to its initial position. Y
2. Power washing apparatus comprising a machine frame, `a plurality of` uniformly spaced washing stations .spaced conveyor frames extending between -said chains,
each of said frames `comprising a cross member extending between and perpendicular to said chains, a pair of parallel brackets extending perpendieularly to opposite ends of said cross member with' the outer face of each bracket being adjacent to a link of one of said chains, each of said brackets having a hole therethrough perpendicular to its outer face, and a removable fastening extending through said hole and engaging the adjacent link, each of said brackets having a recess in its outer face fitting over the projecting end of one of said cross pins and holding the bracket in alignment with the adjacent link.
3. Power washing apparatus as claimed in claim 2 and wherein the outer face of each bracket has a pair of indentations on opposite sides of its hole and spaced apart a distance corresponding to the spacing of the f cross pins and engaging the ends of the respective cross pins of the adjacent link, with said removable fastening engaging said adjacent link between its respective cross pins.
4. Power washing apparatus for Washing crankshafts comprising machine frame, a plurality of uniformly spaced stations on said frame, each station including a pluralityof nozzles connected to sources of fluid Vunder pressure, a pair of spaced parallel continuous link belts supported to move past said stations, a plurality of uniformly spaced cross members extending between said belts, the spacing between said members equalling the spacing between said stations, a pair of J-shape'd jigs near opposite ends of each cross member, the jigs in each pair being spaced a distance approximately equal to the spacing between two crank arms of a crankshaft, each jig having a projecting leg for contacting a crank arm on a crank shaft and a curved leg for supporting the outer surface of the associated counterweight, the corresponding legs of the jigs in a pair extending in opposite directions, a pair of locating stops at opposite sides of at least one jig in each pair, a sprocket wheel engaging at least one of said belts, ratchet mechanism operatively connected with said sprocket wheel intermittently to move said jigs from station to station, and a stop detent operatively connected with said ratchet and arranged to stop said belts with said jigs at said stations.
5. Power washing apparatus as claimed in claim 4 and including a washing stage, a rinsing stage, and a drying stage, each stage including a plurality of stations, the nozzles in the washing and rinsing stages being connected to sources of high pressure liquid and the nozzles in the drying stage being connected to a source of hot air under pressure.
6. Power washing apparatus comprising a machine frame, means on the frame defining a washing zone, a plurality of washing stations in said washing zone, a continuous linked conveyor supported on said frame to move through said zone, a plurality of conveyor units at uniformly spaced points on said conveyor, the spacing between sa'id units being equal to the spacing between said stations, a sprocket wheel engaging' said linked conveyor, a ratchet wheel operatively connected to said sprocket -wheel, an arm rotatably mounted to swing about an axis concentric with said ratchet wheel, a pawl pivotally mounted on said arm and biased to engage said ratchet wheel, a' cylinder, a piston reciprocatingly mounted in said cylinder, mechanical coupling means between said piston and said arm for moving said conveyor, a second ratchet wheel operatively connected to said sprocket wheel and eectively facing in the opposite direction from said tirst ratchet wheel, a stop detent swingably mounted on a pivot and biased to engage said second ratchet wheel to stop said conveyor with said units aligned with successive ones of said stations, a supporting bracket for said detent pivot, adjusting means for adjusting the position of said bracket with respect to said second ratchet wheel for adjusting the `stopped position of said conveyor, and a cam on said arm arranged to disengage said stop detent from said second ratchet wheel as said arm returns to its initial position.
7. Power washing apparatus for washing crankshafts 'of internal combustion engines comprising a machine frame, a plurality of spraying stations on said frame for spraying the crankshafts, conveyor means supported on said frame and passing through said spraying stations, a plurality of pairs of spaced jigs on said conveyor, each pair of jigs being positioned parallel to each other and vspaced apart a distance equal to the distance between two of the crank arms near the respective opposite ends of a crankshaft, each jig defining a generally J-shaped cavity which is concave upwardly and having a projecting portion for engaging a crank arm on a crank shaft and a curved portion for engaging the outer surface of the associated counterweight, and retaining means projecting from one of the jigs of each pair near opposite sides of the curved portion of the jig for engaging the side faces of the counterweight of a crankshaft thereon for preventing the crankshaft from moving longitudinally with respect to a pair of said jigs, whereby all of the bearing surfaces of each crankshaft supported in a pair of said jigs remain fully exposed for washing.
8. Power washing apparatus comprising a machine frame, a plurality of uniformly spaced washing stations on said frame, a pair of parallel continuous uniformly spaced chains supported to move past said stations, each chain including links extending longitudinally of the chain with cross pins connected thereto, at least some of said vlinks having openings therein between their respective cross pins, a plurality of removable uniformly spaced frames extending between said chains, each of said frames including parts-holding means for carrying parts to be Washed through the washing apparatus and comprising a cross member extending between said chains, a pair of parallel brackets connected to the opposite ends of each cross member, each pair of brackets being directly opposite to one another with the outer faces of each pair of brackets being against a link of each of said chains, each of said brackets having a hole therethrough perpendicular to its outer face, and a removable fastening extending through said hole and the opening in the adjacent link, each of said brackets embracing a portion ofthe chain for holding the bracket in alignment with the adjacent link.
9. Power washing apparatus comprising a" machine frame, a plurality of spaced washing stations on said frame, a pair of parallel continuous uniformly spaced chains supported to move past said stations, each chain including links extending longitudinally of the chain with cross pins connected thereto, at least some of said links having openings therein between their respective cross pins with bumps extending out from the surfaces of the links near opposite ends of the links, a plurality of re movable uniformly spaced frames extending between said chains, each of said frames comprising a cross member extending between said chains, a pair of parallel brackets connected to the opposite ends of each cross member,
each pair of said brackets being directly opposite one another with the outer faces of each pair of brackets being adjacent to a link of each of said chains having a hole therein, each of said brackets having a hole therethrough perpendicular to its outer face, the outer face of each bracket having a pair of indentations on opposite sides of its hole and spaced apart a distance corresponding to the spacing of the bumps near the ends of the adjacent link and engaging them for holding the bracket in alignment with the adjacent link, and a removable fastening extending through said hole and the opening in the adjacent link.
10. Power washing apparatus as claimed in claim 9 and wherein said bumps comprise the ends of the respective cross pins.
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