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Publication numberUS2927634 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 8, 1960
Filing dateMay 23, 1956
Priority dateMay 23, 1956
Publication numberUS 2927634 A, US 2927634A, US-A-2927634, US2927634 A, US2927634A
InventorsGudheim Arne R
Original AssigneeGudheim Arne R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for evaporating and otherwise treating fluid materials
US 2927634 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Application May 23, 1956, Serial No. 586,849

'3 Claims. (Cl. 159-6) This invention is a continuation-in-part of copending application Serial No. 408,150, filed February 4, 1954, now abandoned, and in general the objects of the invention are the same.

Furtherobjects of the present invention reside in the provision of similar apparatus for the centrifugal, thin film processing of fluids, suspensions, slurries, etc., slurries, suspensions, etc. but not limited to a generally horizontal disposition of the rotor, but on the other hand contemplates vertical disposition of the entire machine as well as disposition at any angle between the horizontal and the vertical.

in this invention, the centrifugal component of force assists or causes the travel or progress of the thin film along the wall of the closed chamber, which wall is at an angle to the axis of the rotor shaft, whether the apparatus is horizontal, vertical, or inverted, and this is the case whether the film or fluid under treatment is traveled along the closed chamber by pressure, by vacuum, or by gravity; and the invention includes the provision of close and fine adjustment of the free edges of the rotary vanes relative to the interior wall of the closed chamber for varying the thickness of the film under process.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear hereinafter.

Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. l is a vertical sectional View through one form of the apparatus of the present invention;

Figs. 2 and 3 are sectional views on the respective lines of Fig. 1;

Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are diagrammatic views showing modifications of the apparatus both as to construction and mode of operation thereof; and

Fig. 7 is a section showing an alternate vane adjustment.

As one embodiment of the present invention as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, it is proposed to provide a plurality of standards or a machine frame generally indicated at 10 which may be positioned as required. This machine frame may support a bracket or the like 12 for a prime mover such as the motor 14- and also it supports further frame-work 16, which in turn supports the main frame or casing generally indicated at 18 housing the mechanism of the present invention.

The reference numeral 20 indicates in general an enclosing steam chamber through which heating or cooling fluids of any kind desired may be pumped as by the respective inlet and outlet 22, 24 therefor; and it is of course understood that there is no communication between this jacket and the interior of the housing to be described.

The motor 14 drives a main shaft 26 by means of a belt 28 or any other power transmission means. The shaft 26 is substantially wholly enclosed within the chamber and is generally located axially thereof. Shaft 26 extends outwardly from both ends of the chamber through a plate 36 at one end and another plate or the like 32 at the opposite end thereof. Suitable bearings (not shown in detail herein) may be provided for the shaft, and this shaft is mounted for axial displacement or adjustment by any desired or convenient means which tionary bearing 31 is fixed to the plate 30 and a rotary keyed bearing sleeve 33 is threadedly adjustable toaxially move shaft 26 and with it the vanes 46. A thumb:

screw 35 sets the adjustment once made.

The opposite end of the shaft maybe located by re pl'aceable washers 40 of different thickness, shaft 26 being definitely located with respect to washer 36 by means of a set-screw 42 or any other suitable means for this purpose. Alternatively, the adjustable bearing of Fig. 7, or the like, may be employed.

The main shaft 26 is provided with an imperforate rotor or the like 44 which mounts a series of radical vanes 46. Each of these vanes is tapered in a longitudinal direction as clearly shown in Fig. 1 and an interior wall of the chamber 18 which is indicated at 48 may also be tapered, the vanes 46 being a shape at the free tips thereof conforming to the desired degree of taper of the inner wall of the chamber, which is conical.

Main shaft 26 also mounts a centrifugal vapor sep-.

arator generally indicated at 50. This device-may be of any desired or commercial design, and its purpose is to provide for separation of. entrained particles from the vapor, as will be described more fully hereinafter.

At one end of the chamber 18, there is provided a product inlet which is indicated at 52. There is a prod-V uct outlet indicated at 54 and the vapor outlet is indicated at 56.

The material to be treated enters through the pipe 52 and immediately comes under the influence of the rapidly rotating vanes 46. This material-is of course also in The The component of centrifugal force is provided generally to the left in Fig. 1, as the centrifugal force is directed outwardly normally to the axis of shaft 26; and this force impinging upon the inclined slanting surface 48 provides a definite component of force in the direction of the product outlet 54, i.e. along the inclined processing surface 48.

The in-coming fluids are forced along the chamber from the inlet towards the outlet, and since this material is held in a very thin film, it is very rapidly heated or cooled, so that it is very rapidly condensed or'concentrated. The taper of thechamber may be made to suit conditions to be encountered so as to vary the speed of the travel of the concentrate.

tion, r.p.m. and diameter of the chamber help to deter: mine the speed of the operation; and the pressure, vacuum, and thickness of the film of concentrate are all adjustable to suit conditions,'the thickness of film being adjusted by the axial adjustment of shaft 26 and the subsequent approach to or retraction of the tips of the' V Patented Mar. 8, 1960 All of the factors stated 9 including the external pumping or in-feed rate, inclina the influence of the component of centrifugal force as above explained with reference to Fig. 1. This travel is shown by the arrows A, the product issuing at 62 and the bottom wall of the chamber being indicated at 64. The drive mechanism may be placed at the top of the casing. The centrifugal separator is indicated at 66 and the vapor issues at 68, the vanes being indicated at 70.

In-this' type of device, the residence time of processing is very small, the action being extremely rapid due to the fact that the downward component of centrifugal force is assisted by gravity.

Referring now to Fig. 5, there is shown a vertical type of machine which is inverted generally speaking relative to the Fig. 4 type. The fluid inlet is indicated at 72, the product outlet at 74, and the vapor outlet at 76. In this case, thecham'ber converges downwardly and the component of centrifugal force occasioned by the rapid rotation of the vanes 78 is directed generally upwardly, still along the inclined processing surface, so that the residence time is increased and the force of gravity is strongly resisted. A barrier 77 may be used to prevent passage of fluids upwardly, and the vapor to be separated passes in through holes 79 into hollow tube 81, passes upwardly past the barrier and out through outlet 76.

Referring now to Fig. 6, there is here shown a case wherein the blades which are indicated at 80 taper toward the right as doesthe corresponding chamber indicated at82,-from the fluid inlet 84 toward the product outlet 86. The separator is indicated at 88 and the vapor outlet at 90. In this case, also, the centrifugal component of forceis directed in a direction downwardly along the inclined processing surface, slowing the forward progress of the concentrate. In this case, the fluid will enter at 84 under pressure and this pressure will be increased by the inclination of the chamber and the centrifugal component of force, this being directed to oppose the operation of the pump, slowing the residence or throughput time.

In Fig. 4, the inlet may be at the bottom of the casing, and the outlet at the top, in which case the residence time will be extremely long relative to the residence time ofthe process going in the other direction, see arrow B, as now both gravity and the centrifugal force oppose the passage of the film.

In Fig. 5, on the other hand, if the input and output be reversed,'the residence time is slow but faster than that just described, as the centrifugal component aids the passage of the film, while gravity opposes.

It is to be particularly noted that both horizontal types and both vertical types of machine as above described may also be used at any angle between vertical and horizontal withoutdeparting from the scope of the invention, and that many different products and processes may be treated and carried out by one or the other modifications of the present invention. The simple vapor separator shown is extremely efficient and returns practically all of any entrained droplets to the interior surface of the wall of the chamber where the same run down to the product outlet. Hence substantially nothing but vapor exits at the respective vapor outlets.

Having thus described my invention and the advantages thereof, I do not wish to be limited to the details herein-disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claims, but what I claim is:

1; Apparatus of the class described comprising a closed chamber having an interior wall, a rotor in the chamber, means to rotate the rotor, generally longitudinally arranged vanes on the rotor extending in close relation with the wall, said rotor having a generally horizontal axis at an inclination relative to the wall and to the outer edges of the vanes, a fluid inlet and a product outlet for the chamber, means to force fluid into the chamber through said inlet the axis of the rotor and of the chamber generally coinciding, and the chamber interior wall gradually narrowing from the inlet to the outlet.

2. Apparatus of the class described comprising a closed chamber having an interior conical wall, a rotor in the chamber, means to rotate the rotor, generally longitudinally arranged vanes on the rotor extending in close relation with the wall, said rotor having an axis substantially horizontal and at an inclination relative to the wall and to the outer edges of the vanes, a fluid inlet and an outlet for the chamber, a pump for the inlet, the axis of the rotor and of the chamber generally coinciding, and the wall converging from the inlet to the outlet, the film on the interior wall occasioned by the centrifugal force of the vanes action on fluid entering the chamber being retarded in its advance from the inlet to the outlet, the film receiving a component of the centrifugal force in a direction to resist the foce of the pump.

3. Apparatus of the class described comprising a chamber having an interior wall in the shape of a horizontal cone, a generally horizontal rotor in the chamber, means to rotate the rotor, generally radially arranged vanes on the rotor extending into close association with the interior wall leaving a small space between the tips of the vanes and said wall, a concentrate outlet at a point at the smaller end of the chamber to discharge concentrates moving along the wall, an inlet for material to be concentrated at the larger end of the chamber, a vapor outlet for the chamber, said interior wall being on a surface of revolution and the vane tips conforming in general thereto, and means to adjust the rotor axially to adjust the vanes to vary the space between the vane tips and said interior wall.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 874,598 Jensen Dec. 24, 1907 1,186,175 Feldmeier June 6, 1916 1,284,074 DuPont Nov. 5, 1918 1,365,055 Merrell Jan. 11, 1921 1,420,648 Mabee June 27, 1922 1,435,295 Hay Nov. 14, 1922 1,451,168 Mabee Apr. 10, 1923 1,870,445 DYarmett Feb. 28, 1930 2,032,785 Zorn et al. Mar. 3, 1936 2,292,483 Rowell Aug. 11, 1942 2,545,028 Haldeman Mar. 13, 1951 2,596,086 Muller May 6, 1952 2,740,580 Schmiedel Apr. 3, 1956 2,751,338 Schwemberger June 19, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 137,934 Germany Jan. 13, 1903

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U.S. Classification159/6.2, 159/6.1
International ClassificationB01D1/22
Cooperative ClassificationB01D1/228
European ClassificationB01D1/22D4