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Publication numberUS2927900 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 8, 1960
Filing dateJul 10, 1951
Priority dateJul 10, 1951
Publication numberUS 2927900 A, US 2927900A, US-A-2927900, US2927900 A, US2927900A
InventorsAlexis Shiraeff Dmitry
Original AssigneeGen Aniline & Film Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Solid detergent composition and process for preparation thereof
US 2927900 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States PatentO SOLID DETERGENT COMPOSITION AND PROCESS FOR PREPARATION THEREOF j Dmitry Alexis Shiraefli," New York, N.Y., assignor to General Aniline & Film Corporation, a'corporation of Pelaware g No Drawing. Application July 10, 1951 I Serial No. 236,089. J j

. Claims. (Cl. 252-152) This invention relates to the preparation of solid coherent detergent masses or' cakes containing, as the active detergent component thereof, a normally liquid surfaceactive polyglycol ether. l

The manufacture of cakes from synthetic detergents,

suitable for use in the same manner as a cake of ordinary soap, presents difficulties even when the synthetic detergent employed is asolid. Thus, solid organic sulfonates and sulfates having detergent properties, such as the higher alkyl aryl alkali metal sulfonates, and higher fatty alcohol alkali metal sulfuric ester salts, when compressed to a cake, disintegrate rapidly in' water because Patented Mar. 8, 1960 erably 4 to 20 lower allrylene glycol residues. Such detergents are prepared, for example, by condensation of a lower alkylene oxide, especially ethylene oxide, in the molecular proportions corresponding to the number of glycol residues to be introduced in the polyglycol radical,

with the higher alcohol or alkyl phenol selected to form the terminal ether radical.

This invention is dlrected to thepreparation of solid coherent compositions containing a liquid polyglycol l0.

ether detergent of the class described in the preceding paragraph. While some of the aforesaid condensation products are viscous pastes or solid waxvlike materials, many having the most desirable detergent properties in, aqueoussolution, especially those containing 4 to 20 oxyethylene radicals in the polyglycol chain, are liquids of oily or syrupy consistency at ordinary temperatures. Typical detergents of this kind are the condensation products of isooctyl or nonyl phenol with 8 to 10 mols of ethylene oxide, the product being an isooctylor nonylphenyl polyglycol ether.

It is accordingly an obj stable solid coherent compositions containing a relatively large proportion (e.g. up to about 50%) of the aforesaid liquid polyglycol ether detergent in the formof a solid cake, which can also be reduced to a granular powder,

. suitablefor household and cosmeticiuse.

of their relatively high solubility and the solubility and crystalline structure of the inorganic salts (e.g. sodium sulfate) which generally accompany them in commercial preparations. When rubbed between the hands inwater, excessive amounts of detergent are removed, causing wasting of the active ingredient and excessive defatting action on theskin. s I

However, solid detergents can be mixed with binders and other solids to form solid cakes in which solubility aforesaidtype with water-soluble" salts such as alkali l metal sulfates, chlorides, phosphates or silicates, or with absorbent colloid powderssuchas kieselguh'r, Florida earth, or silica gel, to form washing powders. The comthe polyglycolether detergent tends to bleed from the In the development of this"inventio'n,'it' was found that on adding a normallyxliquid polyglycol ether detergent to a fused-hydrate of a Water-soluble salt of a light metal (i.e., a metal having-an atoin'icnumber notgreaterthan 20), which hydrate withstandsfusion without decomposie tion, especially the hydrates of'magnesium, aluminum and'calcium nitrates magnesium and calcium chlorides,

' and sodium acetate, a homogeneous liquidyphase is formed which, on'cooli'ng, does notseparateinto. its components, but remains to all appearances homogeneous, and (depending on the proportion-of hydrated salt presentjtherein) forms a gelatinous to solid homogeneous tions of thistype contain 40 to 80%. by weight of liquid 7 solid componentof the powder, moistening containers,

I and interferingwith satisfactory storage, packagingand marketing of the compositions. In practice, satisfactory .compositions'of thistype are generally obtained only by limiting'the amount ofliquidpiilyglyc'ol ether detergentto a low proportion'generally .well below 10% of the composition; If cakes are prepared by compressing such compositions they have poorcoherence, arefsnbject to bleeding of the detergent, andrapidly disintegrate on contact with water.- r

Outstanding detergent; properties characterizeflmonq ethers of poly'glycjols in which the terminal ether-forming group is'ahydrocarbon radical of a higher molecular weight monohydric alcohol,-e.g. of' a higher aliphatic; or alicyclic alcohol of 8 to 20 carbon atoms, as obtained,

for example, by hydrogenation of the carboxyl groups,

as'such orin theform oi anester, injathe. fatty acids of natural fats or in rosin acids and their hydrogenation and dehydrogenation products; or of g a' monohydric alkyl the'polyglycol ether detergents.

mass at room'temperature (20? to 30 C.) which does not separate into its components on standing. .Composipolyglycol ether detergent. The observed formation. of a homogeneous liquid phase from a fused hydrated .salt

and a liquid. polyglycol ether, whi ch fails to. separate on' cooling,v is especially surprising in view of the fact that .the corresponding anhydrous salts are insoluble in Solid masses prepared n the foregoing mannermay have adequate coherence; hardness" andstability against binations thusobtained are mere physical mixtures, and

separation to serve as detergent cakes. However, the salts employed in their preparation are generally deli- "quescent, and theydetergent compositions sharej the deliquescent properties of the salts from which they are made, and if they are exposed for longer periods of time to a moist atmosphere, they become wet on the surface from absorbed moisture. In addition the rela tively high percentage of polyglycol-ether detergent contained therein is generally unnecessary and wasteful for ordinary use. 1 i jUreahas been. suggested as a cake-forming diluentfor solid anionic detergents. When mixed in fused state with the liquid polyglycol ethers of higher monohydric alcohols or alkylated phenols described above and having especially desirable detergent properties, urea fails .to form a homogeneous mixture, and the liquid detergent separates from the urea on cooling. I V

I have discovered, in accordance with this invention,- that'the homogeneous. liquids obtained by combining polyglycol ether detergents with the aforesaid fused hydrated phenolcontaining 5 to 20 carbon atoms in nuclear alkyl groups, the polyglycol chain containing, 4 to 401and'prefsalts, when mixed with fused urea, combine therewith in a wide range of proportions to yield a homogeneous liquid phase. If the proportion of urea is about 0.610

ect of this invention to produce 1.5'times the weight of the polyglycol ether-hydrated salt composition, the resulting liquid solidifies on cooling to a solid coherent mass which is homogeneous to all appearances I-f larger proportions of urea are added, a

homogeneous liquid phase is formed, and on cooling, a solid is likewise obtained, but it is no longer homogeneous, being shot through with characteristic needlelike 7 crystals of urea.

vThe solid masses obtained by cofusion of 0.6 to 1.5

. parts of urea per part of the aforesaid homogeneous mixtures of hydrated salts with polyglycol ether detergents are no longer deliquescent, and can be. used as detergent theory, it is possible that the effect of urea in eliminating l deliquescence andproducing a mild alkaline reaction re-' sults from reaction of the urea (and such minor amounts of derivatives thereof formed by the effect of heat during fusion) with the metal'salt in the presence of atmospheric carbon dioxide, on the surface of the cake, to form a urea salt and anon-deliquescent metal. carbonate filmwhich; protects the cake from absorption of water.

-This effect is more pronounced in the case of metal nitrates'which, because of the insolubility of urea nitrate, tendtoreact more readily with urea to liberate the metal oxide for reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide on the surface of the, mass.

The solid masses obtained in accordance with this invention can be marketed in the form of cakes for cosmetic andhousehold use.- Moreover, they can be crushed, if desired, to granular products suitable for use in washing powders, Diluents and builders can be readily added to the products in granular form, While it is-possible to incorporate inert immiscible solids in the fused mixture before cooling, it is desirable to avoid admixture with materials having colloidal propertes, since such materials sometimes interfere with the formation of'solid homogeneous masses on cooling. I

Detergent cakes in accordance with this invention con sistingof a fuse and solidified mixture of urea, a normally liquid polyglycolether detergent, and a hydrated salt,-

are relatively soluble-in water and substantial'amounts are lost if allowed to remain in contact with water, as in an. undrained soap dish. I have further discovered that by inclusionin the fused mixture of 'theother ingredients of- 0.25 to 2.0% by weight of a hydrophilic gum such as sodiumcarhoxy methyl cellulose or waxy ethylene oxide polymers or polyvinyl alcohol which swell to form a colloidal solution in water, the resulting fused mixture is homogeneous,- remains homogeneous when cooled, and has a much slower'rate of solution in'wate'r. Thus,

. cxcessivewaste of. the cletergent cakes of this invention by reason of their solubility in water canbe largely when fusion'is complete, 10' parts of-isooctylphenyl polyethylene glycol rnonoether, containing 8 to 10 ethylene oxide radicals per molecule in the polyglycol ether chain, are added. The mixture is agitated at fusion temperature until a homogeneous'rnixture is obtained. The latter is allowed to cool atroo'rn" temperature, whereby a white, apparently homogeneous, hard coherent solid is formed. The resulting mass can be exposed to air without deliquescence. On rubbing it between the hands in water, it' dissolves slowly anduniformly without disintegration, affording excellent washing action.

On reducing the quantity of urea to about 12 parts, or reducing the amount of hydrated. calcium nitrate to 2.5 parts in this example, solidrcakes' are also obtained. On increasing the amount of. urea. to'about 40 parts, a cake is obtained which is still coherent and solid, but is shot through with needlelike crystalsiof urea.

, Example- 2 Homogeneous fusion mixtures result-upon fusing the following mixtures of hydrated salts withthe is'oo'c'tylphenylpolyethylene. glycol ether of the preceding-example.

L Amount Amount; ,of Poly- .Fusiou' Condition on. Hydrate pts. glycol Temp, Cooling to Ether, (3. 20 6.

pts.

(a) osmomimo. 10; 4o so l5 16' ,EQ 1or5 75'- (d) CHsCO0Na.3H O 10 40; (e) MgClz.6HzO 10 10 so Viscous gel.

Solid.

a Viscous gel. Solid. I

Each of these mixtures yield homogeneous liquids which solidify to coherent solid cakes whenurea'amounting to 0.6 to 1.5 times the combined amounts ofthe foregoingingredientsisfusedtherewith; Fusion temglycol s"'(Carbowax4000or Carbowax 6000) in the examplesgdu-ring: fusion, asan. inert diluent. jFor exam avoided by inclusion of hydrophilic gum of the aforesaid type in the aforesaid proportions with the other ingredients.

The detergent cakes of this invention have outstanding detergent properties and are effective not only in soft water, butalso in sea water or hard water.-

The preparation of compositions" in accordance with compositions of the foregoing, example subjected to fusion, homogeneous masses'or cakes are obtained on coolingwhich'dissolve at a much lower rate in water,

and which, when submerged in, excess water fora longer 'period,;-so that the; urea, hydrated salt and. polyglycol ether detergentiare dissolved, leave a colloidal skeleton of the gum in the; shape of. the original cake.

Starch; can alsobe mixed with the compositions ofthe ple, l5v parts of starch can be included in composition 2(1)) above, during. or prior to -fusion with urea.

1 Instead of. the isooctylphenohpolyglycol ether of the V Camden-3111 and Ca(NO' ,,.4H0, either? hydrate; oramixture' of the two, can heused according" to this invention.

The hydrated salts employed inaccordance-with this invention are saltsof'light metals (i.e., metals having an atomic number up to ZO), which are-i1'1ertltowardthe,

other components employed therewith at fusion temperatures, and which melt without'substantial decomposition of the salt, itself or of the' hydrate, i.e., without separation of a different solid phase on fusion, and without boiling at atmospheric pressure; As'indicated in the examples, hydrates of aluminum, calcium and magnesium nitrates, or calcium and magnesium chlorides, and sodium acetate are especially suitable for use in the compositions of this invention.

The polyglycollether detergents employed in accordance with this invention are the liquid condensation products of ethylene oxide (or other lower alkylene oxides such as propylene oxide) with alkyl phenols such as triisopropyl phenol, diamylphenol, isooctylphenol, nonyl phenol, dodecylphenol, and octadecylphenol; with higher fatty alcohols such as lauryl, oleyl or stearyl alcohol or mixtures of alcohols resulting from hydrogenation of the fatty acids of coconut oils; with rosin alcohols such as abietyl, dehydroabietyl and dior tetrahydroabietyl alcohols, such condensation products generally containing 4 to 20 mole, and in some cases up to 40,mols, of alkylene.

oxide per mol of the alcohol or phenol with which condensation is effected.

Fusion of binary compositions of the hydrated salt with the polyglycol ether detergent can be carried out at the fusion temperature of the hydrate, or if desired, at a somewhat higher temperature. about 150 C. can be used, but in general, temperatures from the fusion temperature of the hydrate to about 25 C. above said fusion temperature are suitable. In preparing the urea compositions of this invention, temperatures in the vicinity of the melting point of urea are ad- U vantageously employed, e.g. temperatures from 130 to As indicated above, binary compositions of the liquid polyglycol-alcohol or -phenol ethers with the hydrated salts contain 40 to 80% by weight of the polyglycol ether, the amount of urea being at, least 0.6 parts, preferably 0.6 to 1.5 parts, per part by Weight of the mixture of the other two ingredients. Thus, the weight ratio of hydrated salt to polyglycol ether ranges from 3:2 to 1:4. The preferred range of this weight ratio is 3:2 to 2:3.

The solidifiable mixtures obtained by fusion in accordance with this invention can be cast in molds to form cakes suitable for cosmetic and household use. The mixtures can also be solidified in masses and crushed to form granular. washing powders. Granulated or'flaked products can be obtained by spraying the fused liquid mass in a cold atmosphere, or flowing the liquid onto cooled flaking drums.

Variations and modifications, which will be obvious to those skilled in the art, can be made in the compositions and procedures hereinbefore described without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

I claim:

1. A detergent composition comprising a solidified homogeneous fusion mass of a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a member of the group consisting of monohydric aliphatic and alicyclic alcohols of 8 to 20 carbon atoms and nuclear alkyl substituted monohydric phenols containing to 20 carbon atoms in their nuclear alkyl groups, in which the polyglycol radical is a chain of 4 to 40 oxyalkylene radicals of 2 to 3 carbon atoms with a hydrate of a water-soluble light metal salt of the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum and calcium nitrates, magnesium and calcium chlorides, and sodium acetate, which is stable at fusion temperature, and urea, the weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated light metal salt ranging from 4:1 to 2:3, and the amount of urea being at least 0.6 part per part by weight of the mixture, of said hydrate and said polyglycol ether.

2. A detergent composition comprising a solidified homogeneous fusion mass of a normally liquid polyglycol Temperatures up to solubleglight metal salt of the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum and calcium nitrates, magnesium and calcium chlorides, and sodium acetate, which is stable at fusion temperature, and urea, the weight ratio ofsaid liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated light metal salt ranging from 3:2 to 2:3, and the amount of urea being 0.6 to 1.5 parts per part by weight of the mixture of said hydrate and said polyglycol ether.

3. A detergent composition comprising a solidified homogeneous fusion mass of a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a monohydric alkyl phenol in which the alkyl groupflcontains 8m 9 carbon atoms and the polyglycol ether radical is a chain of 8 to 10 oxyethylene groups with a fusible hydrate of calcium nitrate which is stable at fusion temperature, and with urea, the weight ratio of said polyglycol ether to said hydrate of calcium nitrate ranging from 3:2 to 2:3, and the amount of urea being'0.6 to 1.5 parts .per part by weight of the mixture of said hydrate and said polyglycol ether.

4. A detergent composition "comprising a solidified homogeneous ,fusion mass of a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a monohydric alkyl phenol in which the alkyl group contains 8 to 9 carbon atoms and in which'the polyglycol radical is a chain of 8 to 10 oxyethylene groups with thetetrahydrate of calcium nitrate and urea, the weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated calcium nitrate being 1:1 and the amount ofurea being 1.5 times the weight of the mixture of said hydrated calcium nitrate and said polyglycol ether.

5. A detergent composition comprising a solidified homogeneous fusion mass of a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a monohydric alkyl phenol in which the alkyl group contains 8 to 9 carbon atoms and in which the polyglycol radical is a chain of 8 to 10 oxyethylene groups with the tetrahydrate of calcium nitrate and urea, the weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated calcium nitrate being 1:1 and the amount of urea being 1.5 times the weight of the mixture of said hydrated calcium nitrate and said polyglycol ether, said fusion mass further containing a hydrophilic gum selected from the group consisting of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and hard waxlike polyethylene glycols, amounting to 0.25 to 2.0% of the combined weight of said polyglycol ether, hydrated salt and urea. v

6. A process for preparing a solid detergentcomposition which comprises fusing together a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a member of the group consisting of monohydric aliphatic and alicyclic alcohols of 8- atoms, with a hydrate of a water-soluble light metal salt of the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum and calcium nitrates, magnesium and calcium chlorides, and sodium acetate, which is stable at fusion temperature, and urea, the weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated light metal salt ranging from 4:1 to 2:3, and the amount of urea being at least 0.6 part per part by weight of the mixture of said hydrate and said polyglycol ether, to form a homogeneous liquid phase, and cooling said liquid phase to room temperature.

7.- A process for preparing a solid detergent composition which comprises fusing together a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a member of the group con sisting of monohydric aliphatic and alicyclic alcohols of 8 to 20 carbon atoms and nuclear alkyl substituted mono- 7 hydric phenols containing to 20 carbon atoms in their nuclear alkyl groups and in which the polyglycol radical is a chain of 4 to 20 oxyethylene radicals, with a hydrate of a water-soluble light metal salt of the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum' and calcium nitrates, magnesium and calcium chlorides, and sodium acetate, which is stable at fusion temperature, and urea, the weight ratio.

urea being 0.6 to 1.5 parts per part by weight of the 0 mixture of said' hydrate and said polyglycol ether, to form a homogenous liquid phase, and cooling said liquid phase to room temperature. i

8. A process for preparing a solid detergent composition which comprises fusing together a normally liquid po ys ic he of a monchydric a kyl p en l in which the a y s oup c ta ns. 8 to 9 car n a oms nd the polyglycol ether radical is a chainof .3 to oxyfithylene groups, w th a hydra of calcium n trat which is stable at fusion temperature, and with urea, the weight ratio of said polyglycol ether to said hydrate of calcium nitrate ranging from 3:2 to 2:3, and'the amount of urea being 0.6 to 1.5 parts per part by weight of the mixture of said hydrate and polyglycol ether, to form a homogeneous liquid phase, and cooling said liquid phase to room temperature.

9. A process for preparing a solid detergent composition which comprises fusing together a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a monohydric alkyl phenol in which the alkyl group contains 8 to 9 carbon'atoms and in which the polyglycol radical is a chain of 8 to 10 my ethylene groups with tetrahydrate of calcium nitrate and urea, the weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated calcium nitrate being 1:1 and the amount of urea being 1.5 times the weight of the mixture of said hydrated calcium nitrate and polyglycol ether, to form a homogeneous liquid phase, and cooling said liquid phase to room temperature,

10. A process for preparing a solid detergent composi tion which comprises fusing together a normally liquid polyglycol monoether of a 'monohydric alkyl phenol in which the alkyl group contains 8 to 9 carbon atoms and in which the polyglycol radical is a chain of 8 to 10 oxyethylene groups with tetrahydrate of calcium nitrate, urea, and a hydrophilic gum of the group consisting of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, and hard waxlike polyethylene glycols, the Weight ratio of said liquid polyglycol ether to said hydrated calcium nitrate being 1:1, the amount of urea being 1.5 times the weight of the mixture of said hydrated calcium nitrate and polyglycol ether, and the amount of said gum being 0.25 to 2.0% of the combined weight of said polyglycol ether, hydrated salt and urea, to form a homogeneous liquid phase, and cooling said liquid phase to room temperature. 7

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS France Oct. 4, 1950

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3154498 *Dec 6, 1960Oct 27, 1964Calgon CorpWater treating composition
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Classifications
U.S. Classification510/445, 510/141, 510/447
International ClassificationC11D11/00, C11D1/72, C11D3/26, C11D3/32, C11D17/00
Cooperative ClassificationC11D1/72, C11D17/0052, C11D3/046, C11D17/06, C11D3/323, C11D11/00, C11D3/32
European ClassificationC11D3/04S, C11D11/00, C11D17/00H2, C11D3/32, C11D3/32B, C11D1/72, C11D17/06