US 2928536 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 15, 19 J. R. WEAVER, JR, ETAL 2,928,536
SHIPPING UNIT 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 16, 1956 March 15, 1960 Filed July 16, 1956 J. R. WEAVER, JR., ETAL SHIPPING UNIT 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Pate SHIPPING UNIT John R. Weaver, Jr., and William J. Gowans, Joliet, Ill.,
assignors to Rheem Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Calif., a corporation of California Application July 16, 1956, Serial No. 598,077 3 Claims. (Cl. 206-46) members.
In the shipping of articles such as engines, precision machinery, missiles and the like, it has become accepted practice to utilize a frame, enclosure, or container having an article suspension system incorporated therewith. The
tively fixed and the other end thereof being operatively connected to the article in such a manner thatany ofthe forces imparted to the article is translated into torsion loads on the bars.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred shortcomings of a rigid type' of article suspension system are obvious, and even where resilient mountings have been employed for the purpose of absorbing shocks or vibrations, many difliculties have heretofore been encountered. For example, high amplitude vibrations are frequently developed, and/or free universal movement of the suspended article in all directional and rotational senses is not permitted. Furthermore, besides other problems attendant the manufacture or use of the shipping unit, there is no adequate provision for absorption of the kinetic energies created by such movement.
It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide a shipping carrier adapted to support an article in such a manner as to permit six degrees of freedom of motion to the article; i.e., translational and rotational movement in three mutually perpendicular planes, while at the same time absorbing the kinetic energies created by any combination of such movements.
Another object of the invention is to provide a shipping unit affording the article to be shipped a yielding support and freedom of movement in all directions, and in which such support and the magnitude of such movement is controlled by members subject to torsion alone.
A further object of the invention is to provide a shipping unit of the character. described in which the means utilized for. cushioning the. article in supported position and for snubbing the movement thereof due to jolts, shocks, etc. will be'of a form and nature as to require minimum space for positioning and operation within the unit, will not. interfere with the ready insertion or withdrawal of the articlein or from the unit, and maybe used practically indefinitely and for articles, of varying the parts. 1
A further object of the invention is to provide a shock and vibration isolation systemof the type referred to in which the shocks or vibrations are instantaneously, smoothly, and effectively distributed throughout the entire system, and which is equally effective irrespective of climatic or temperature changes.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an-article carrier unit possessing the above characteristics in which the article is supported on a plurality of sizes or forms without requiring extensive adjustment of generally parallel bars, one end of each bar being rela-' 7 form of the invention which is illustrated in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification. It is to be understood, however, that variations in the showing made by the said drawings and description may be.
Figures 2 and 2A are horizontal longitudinal sectional views on an enlarged scale taken substantially in the plane indicated by line 22. of Figure l, and showing the forward and aft portions respectively of the unit.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a portionof the suspension system.
Figure 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view on an enlargedscale, the plane of the figure being substantially indicated by line 44 of Figure t Figure 5 is a perspective view of a portion of the suspension system.
Figure 6 is another enlarged vertical cross-sectional view taken substantially in the plane indicated by line fi6 of Figure 2.
Figure 7 is a portional view similar to Figure 6, but
illustrating the position of the parts in their loaded condition.
In broad terms, ,the illustrated embodiment of the invention includes an outer case, a cradle positioned within the case, a harness which may be attached to the article for connecting the same to the cradle, and a novel suspension system operatively connecting .the cradle to the case. As will be hereinafter more clearly understood, for certain types of articles, the cradle and/or harness may be dispensedwith, and the article attached directly'j to the suspension system. However, for purpose of explanation, these elements have been included in the unit,
and the structure selected for illustration is one particularly adapted for supporting an article of generally cylindrical configuration, although it will be clear that or, as illustrated, be in the form of' a container 12 in which the article is supported and shipped. Where con-v structed as a container, it is preferable to have the same of cylindrical configuration for reasons of strength, and
one or both of the ends thereofis provided .witha suitable closure 13,by means of which access may be had to the interior ofthe container for loading and unloading purposes. The outer surfaceof the container may. be provided with peripherally extending reinforcingelements 14,v
two of which have shackles 16 attached thereto for facilitating the lifting of the'container in a horizontal position.
Also, to lend stability to the container when in a stored position, skids 17 orsimilar supporting'brackets are attached ot the under surface of the container and normally position the latter in-slightly spaced relation to ajsupporting surface. It is not believed necessary to go into further detail in describing the container 12.since "as above mentioned the use of acontainer in place of any other type of case or frame is optional and dependent upon the particular requirements of the article and/or manner of transport. I
1,-..M, a. M...
translates vertically, axially or laterally within the container or moves rotationally in pitch, roll or yaw.
The relative positioning of the crank arms 56 to their associated links 57 is also of importance to insure effective distribution of loads to all of the bars. For example, notwithstanding the universal link connections, movement of the article in a direction generally normal to the axis of the arms will impart a greater torsion load to the bar than where the movement is generally aligned with the arm axis. Thus, if an indiscriminate positioning of the arms and links was adopted, it is possible that movement of the article would be rigidly rather than resiliently resisted such as when the forces resulting from such movement act on dead centers of all of the crank arms.
In view of the foregoing, in the present embodiment of the invention, an arrangement of the connecting members is illustrated which provides for eflicient application and translation of the forces. As will be seen from Figure 6, in which the parts are illustrated in the unloaded condition of the cradle, the upper crank arm 56 of each set is directed upwardly (relative to a horizontal diameter of the container) and inwardly towards a vertical diameter of the container. The lower crank arm of each set is accordingly directed downwardly and inwardly. Since the complementary sets are symmetrically disposed about the vertical diameter, this relationship will be maintained regardless of the movement and positioning of the cradle with respect to the container. Thus, in Figure 7 where under the load of the article, the cradle has been moved to a lower position within the container, the relationship of the arms remains, notwithstanding the complete change in position of the members. It will also be noted that when the crank and link members are in the loaded position of the cradle, both torsion bars of each set are in a torsion loaded condition with the links disposed substantially normal to their respective crank arms. In this manner, in the normal loaded position of the cradle, the torsion is distributed through all of the bars. It will be evident that the relationship of the members will be maintained regardless of the relative movement of the cradle with respect to the container, and thus the torsion load will practically invariably be distributed at least in part to both bars of each of the complementary sets thereof.
The torsion bar suspension system as above described, due to the universal type of mountings, is capable of absorbing loads created by longitudinal movement of the article, as well as movements in other directions. It has been found more effective to preload the torsion bars before the application of the article weight thereto.
Furthermore, while the torsion bar system will in general absorb the kinetic energies developed by any article movement, little dampening action is present. Therefore, it is desirable to augment such a system with additional shock absorbing means primarily arranged for the dampening of motions.
As here shown, the auxiliary dampening means preferably consists of four conventional double acting autm motive type shock absorbers 71, one of such shock absorbers being associated with each set of torsion'bars. Each of the members 71 extends generally longitudinally and vertically of the container and is subjacent to the rails 21. The lower end of each member is attached by a universal joint 72 to a bracket 73 mounted on the container, and the upper end of each member extends upwardly to connect to a bracket 74 through a universal joint 76, the bracket being secured to and depending from the horizontal flange of rail 21. It will be noted that the two forward shock absorbers extend from brackets 73 forwardly and upwardly to adjacent a transverse vertical plane defined by the forward end f 47 and 48,
while the two rear absorbers extend rearwardly and upwardly from brackets 73 to adjacent a transverse plane defined by the rear end of these bar sets. Obviously, where no cradle or harness is used, the upper ends of the shock absorbers could be connected directly to the article.
From the foregoing description, the constructional and operational details of the apparatus of the present invention should be clear, and it will be appreciated how the kinetic energies imparted by an article having six degrees of freedom will be distributed and absorbed. It should likewise be recognized that the size requirements of a container provided with the present suspension system may be minimized since the energy absorbing elements, i.e., the rods 41, extend longitudinally of the container, rather than movement absorbing andload cushioning means having considerable transverse or radial dimensions.
What is claimed is:
1. A shipping unit comprising a longitudinally extending container, a plurality of torsion bars within said container and disposed adjacent opposed wall surfaces thereof, one end of each bar being anchored to said container for resisting axial and rotational displacement therebetween, each rod having a crank arm adjacent the other end thereof, a lading supporting member within said container, a link attached at one end by a universal joint to each of said crank arms and having its other end pivotally connected to said member, and a plurality of automotive type shock absorbers having one end thereof attached by a universal joint to said container and the other end extending longitudinally and upwardly and pivotally connected to said member.
2. Apparatus of the character described comprising a longitudinally extending container, a plurality of torsion bars within said container and extending longitudinally thereof adjacent opposed wall portions of the container, one end of each bar being rigidly anchored to said container, a pair of generally parallel laterally spaced and longitudinally extending rail members positioned within said container and adapted to slidably receive an article inserted through an end of said container,
means on said members adapted to releasably secure an article thereto, the other end of each bar having a crank arm thereon, and a link for each crank arm, one end of each link being connected to a crank arm with a universal joint and the other end of each link being connected to one of said rail members with a universal joint, the crank arms and links adjacent the opposed wall portions of said container being symmetrical about a vertical axis of said container.
3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 2 in which four pairs of said torsion bars are provided, each of said pairs 7 being positioned intermediate said rail members and said container, two of said pairs extending from adjacent an end of said container and terminating medially of the length thereof and the other two pairs being axially aligned with said first two pairs, each of said pairs having its respective bars lying in a generally horizontal plane respectively above and below the general horizontal plane defined by said rail members.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,205,612 Ford Nov. 21, 1916 2,267,917 Hickman Dec. 30, 1941 2,613,807 Higbee Oct. 14, 1952 2,674,371 Blackinton Apr. 6, 1954 2,727,621 Fillion 'Dec. 20, .1955
FOREIGN PATENTS 547,961 Great Britain Sept. 18, 1942