US 2928611 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March l5, 1960 W. H. LAUDERBACK ETAL FIRE HOSE NOZZLE Filed Nov. 17, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet l March 15, 1960 w. H. LAUDERBACK ETAL 2,928,611
FIRE HOSE NOZZLE Filed NOV, 17, 1,958
3FM' Q uit;
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1M www United States Patent FIRE HOSE NOZZLE William H. Lauderhack, Longview, Tex., and William S. Thompson, Elkhart, Ind., assignors, by direct and mesne assignments, to Elkhart Brass Manufacturing Company, Elkhart, Ind., a corporation of Indiana Application November17, 1958, Serial No. 774,386
3 Claims. (Cl. 239-439) Since the conditions encountered in the fighting of fires are apt to change rapidly,y it is highly desirable that the nozzle used to apply the water be readily and quicklyv adjustable to deliver either a straight stream or a cone of fog. f
Such dual purpose nozzles have been in use for some time and have proved very effective, but many fires cannot be extinguished by water alone. For such fires,l a foam of one kind or another must be used. The foam may be produced either chemically or mechanically, but heretofore when foam had to Abe used, a' special single purpose nozzle was required.
The disadvantage of having to use special equipment or nozzles for applying foam should b e obvious, but to illustrate the point, it is not uncommon for a fireman engaged in chasing a fire with a fog nozzle to suddenly come upon a fire source which can only be handled with foam. When this happened in the past, the fireman had to retreat and come back with a foam nozzle fed either from the foam truck or a portable pressure tank.
Recognizing this disadvantage, the present invention has as its purpose to provide an adjustable fire hose nozzle, which not only is capable of projecting a solid stream of water and a cone of fog, but also can be used to lay down a blanket of foam.
Thus,`with the nozzle of this invention, any condition that might be encountered can be met immediately by the nozzle man, for when he finds the need for using foam, all he has to do is request the engine or truckman to open the vfoam Valve on the truck. This injects a foaming agent into the stream being fed to the nozzle; but, of course, the nozzle must be capable of mechanically converting the resulting solution into foam.
The nozzle of this invention is not only capable of mechanically producing foam, but is very effective in this respect. In fact, its ability to produce and lay down a blanket of foam might be considered phenomenal. In one specific test of the nozzle to determine its effectiveness to'generate foam, the foam produced was discharged into an area enclosed by a four foot high CCA earthen dike surrounding a group of oil storage tanks. The dike was rectangular, feet long and 40 feet wide. A standard foaming agent was introduced into the stream (of course, before it issued from the nozzle) at the rate of fifty gallons per minute.
In forty seconds the entire diked area was filled to overflowing. Also, it has beenrfound that the nozzle of this invention produces betterV results even when used to project a solid straight stream of water or a cone of fog. The reach of the solid stream has been increased by almost twenty percent, and the cone of fog is not hollow as it was so often in the past, but of uniform density throughout. i'
In general, the conventional adjustable fog nozzle which preceded this invention-comprises telescoped front and rear sections, having a screw threaded connec-` tion therebetween to enable the front section to be adjusted back and forth withrespect to a disc-like pattern determining head fixed to the rear section .andv located in the mouth of the front section. This head coacts with the vwall and edge of the nozzle mouth to determine the shape and pattern of the discharge.
When the front nozzle section is in its forward position of adjustment the disc-like head is we11.within and to the rear of the mouth of the nozzle so that the water issues in a solid straight stream, but as the nozzle is adjusted to move its front section rearward, the pattern determining head is brought progressivelyv farther forward in the mouth of the nozzle and finally lies well in front of the mouth. By this adjustment the pattern of the discharging water changes from a straight stream to a diverging conical spray, the angle of which increases as the, front nozzle section is adjusted rearward.
Circumferentially spaced forwardly projecting teeth on the edge or lip of the nozzle mouth break up the conical spray into a fine mist or fog and to ak degree deflect some of the water into the hollow of the .formed cone, but do not affect the straight stream.
This past structure proved to be a fairly satisfactory combination straight stream and fog nozzle, but it was not suitable with foam. To illustrate its deficiency in this respect, one of these prior nozzles was compared with the nozzle of this invention during the test hereinbefore described. Whereas the nozzle of this invention filled the entire diked area to overowing in forty seconds, the prior nozzle produced foam so poorly that at the end of a full minute of operation the depth or thickness of the blanket of foam in the diked area was only six inches. Of course, all conditions were the same for both nozzles-the nozzles were of the same size, the same standard foaming agent was introduced into both streams at the same rate, and the pressure wasv the same. In addition, the conical spray delivered by the nozzle when adjusted to its fog position, was substantially hollow, and the distance that could be reached by the solid straight stream was only about 80% of that reached with the nozzle of this invention.
While at first it was not known just why and how the fire hose nozzle of this invention was so effective' to produce or generate foam, it now seems ,clear that two conditions must be present to achieve the desired i. straight solid stream.
i negeert zone inside the hollow stream causes a positive inspiration` of airY through the wall of the foam producing solution, andthe turbulence at the -inside of the stream 3 effects the needed rapid aeration of the solution. The Y larger the volume of the air drawn into the stream and the more violent the turbulence, the better will be the production of foam. Y.
Upon.n this, assumption, it is an Object. f. this invenf tion to, provide a fire; hose nozzle of the` character described haying its pattern determining head provided with a multiplicity of *uninterrupted passages extending therethrough and so arranged that the jetsissuing there,` from` impinge one another-at the center of the stream a few inches ahead of the nozzle. v d Still another andY morel specific object of this invention -is"to Vhave the passages, through; the, pattern,.-r determining head formed by holes which are shaped to effect an-accelerating high velocity how therethrough` to thus achievemaximum pressure reduction` and.A most eiective turbulence at 'the center of the stream.
VWith the'above and other objects in viewvwhihwill appear as .the description proceeds, this invention resides in. the. novel ccnstrutign, eamhinatieu and. arrangement 0f.. narts Substantially as hereinafter deserihedand. more Yp.artisnlarlv defined. by the appended claims.,y it heine.
understoodfthat such. changes inthe. precise, enihadment; of^ the hereindisclosed invention may; bemacle as, come within the scope of the claims.
The, accompanying drawmgs. illustrate twt; complete examples of the physical,"embodiments of. the invention constructed according tothe .best modes, so far devised for the practical application of the principles thereof, and in which; t f
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through a lire hose nozzle embodying this invention in its: preferred form; 'i
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view through theY front end of the nozzle to illustrate particu-Y larly the manner in which the jets issuing from. theholes in the pattern-determining head function whenA the nozzle is being used `to generate foam;
Figure 3 is a detail cross sectional view. through. Fig-V ure 2 on the plane of the line 3-3;
. Figure 4 is a view partly in side elevation and partly.
in longitudinal section illustrating that embodiment of` the invention disclosed in the aforesaid Lauderback appli-y cation, of which this is a continuation-in-part;y and Figure 5 isa front end view of the nozzle: shown. in,
Referring to thewdrawings, and particularly to sheet one thereof, it will beseen that .the nozzle ofdthisinvenf tion` comprisesa rear or inletsectipn 7 which,` is con;V nectible toa hose 8, and a front. outletl section 9whioh isg telescopen over `the fore part of` the rear section.
Together these Vsections providelaiiow passage 5, ofsubf. d
stantially uniform open areaI from the inletf-tothe. out:VV
rearward. so that the head 12 moves forward in the mouth 13, the pattern of the discharging water changes from a straight stream to'Y a diverging cone, the angle l of which `increases as 'the front section approaches its rearmost position shown in -Figure 1. At this point, the head 12 is entirely out of the mouth 13 so that the water striking the upstream side of the head and deflected thereby radially outward is not redirected forward, and as a result the angle of the discharging concis at its maximum which is about 145 Y I-t is to be noted that the edge or lip of the nozzle mouth isdefined by a widely outwardly-flaring conical surface 14, the angle. of whichy determines the maximum divergence ofthe conical (discharge. A row of circumferentially `spaced teeth ,15 project forwardly from the wall 1;4 to break up the. discharging conical stream into a iine mist or fog. Toa degree these teeth also deiiect some ofthe water inwardly, butV when thenozzle is p rear; end.r ofte stern 18Y proiecting. rearwardly from the head; Sinnetheliub 1.7' and: the arms 1-9.. of the vspidera like .supp01;i:.. occupy.vv part; of; thegcross sectional. area of v the; ow passage, and. since itv is.` desirablef to, have the open cross sectional arearof, the flow passage` vary: as little as: possible along the length.` thereof, the .diameter a'satg'.
Flow through the nozzle may be controlled by a Vshutoff valveV indicated generally by the numeral 20. This Yof the iiow passagezadjacent to thegsupport 16 is increased valve comprises a ball ele'rnent 21 mounted in the rear nozzle sectionfor.v rotationmabout an axis transversev to that; of the nozzleand' provided 'with ahole 22 diametrit cally-therethrough. The hole 22 is preferably of the 4same sizeas.- the nominal diameter ofthe flow passage; and a; handle 23 connected` with the ball element provides means for,` rotating the halltromv its full open position shown inV Figure 1, toa shutrof position atright angles thereto.
,It should.r beunderstood, however that` whileV ity may be desirable to provide the nozzle with a shut-off valve, the.. invention isy by no;l means limited to` nozzles so equipaed.V
To the. extent thus; farspecifically described, the structureis; substantially thessame.` as it has been in corn-` 'binatiou straight owand foanozzles; heretofore avail;-`
able. :Such nozzlesV as.` has; been brought out. hereinheforerwerenot Suitable fori use withoarn. Howeven a; rela.tively'simple.,` Strueturalnchange admirably. adapts these nozzles for use in laying down foam. Byr the SimpleA expedient; of: providing a multiplicity. of. passages,
- 25; through thepatternfdetermininghead 12, and having let of the nozzle. `Accrew threaded connectionV 10 joins the two `sections and, provides means operable by relative rotation of the sections to adjust the front section axially back and forth'withrespect to therear. section..l
By such adjustmennwhich is facilitated by` a rubberV collar or grip 9 on the front section, the position of a pattern-determining head 12 inthe mouth 13 of theA 65.
1,2 is well within and to therear `of, the `nozzle mouth 'Y SQ that the peripheral surfaceof the. head and thecylin dricalA wall of the bore deiining the mouth V113 coact, to
produce an Vannular discharge opening having axially,`
straight concentric. sides. Thisadjustment produces the As the nozzle is V`djusted to draw its front section these passages shapedand arranged in a particular way,
the nozzle not only is adjustablel to` project; afstraight i streanlof `water and;V a` cone of fog, `but in addition is i tremendously elective for;4 thev mechanical production. 0f-
foam. .A v; Inthepreferredembodimentof the invention shown in Figures 1,4 2, andy 3l inclusive, the passages Z5 are providedby drilled holes arranged in two ,concentric circles with the.. axes of? all ofthe holes converging upon ai single point onthe nozzleaxis a short distance in, fronti of the nozzle.- Accordinglyg the streams or jets of water which issuefrom these holes; irnpinge` one another and break up, into arne mister fogjwhich' completely lls theinterion of; the spacefdeiinedby they wall ofywater issuing fromthe annularyopeningbetweenthe periphery of the head 1;,2` land the edge of the mouth 13. Thus, when the nozzle is, adjusted; to `any of its fog" positionsV the Vcone, of Vfog discharged by the nozzle has substantially assent uniform density throughout..as. distinguished from the more or less hollow cones delivered by the prior nozzles in which the pattern-determining head'was imperforate. 'Ille presence of the holes 25 through the head 12 even improves the performance of the nozzle when adjusted to deliver a solid straight stream. At least a twenty percent increase in the reach of the straight stream has been observed. A
Most important, however, the presence of the holes 25 enables the'nozzle to be used with foam.A
The streams or jets issuing from the holes 25 tend to evacuate the interiorof the hollow stream issuing from the mouth of the nozzle, and thus, as indicated in Figure 2, create a low pressure zone inside the hollow stream. By virtue of this low pressure zone, air is drawn through the wall of water forming the hollow stream to commingle with and aerate the stream and the jets issuing from the holes as they impinge and break up.
When the nozzle is being used to lay down foam, it is of course understood that a suitable foaming agent is introduced into the stream owing to the nozzle. This forms a solution which upon agitation in the presence of air, whips up into a foam. By virtue of the large volume of air drawn into the discharging stream in the manner described and the impingement of the jets upon one another in the highly aerated center of the cone, the solution of water and foaming agent is rapidly converted into foam.
Maximum eiectiveness for foam generation is obtained when the holes 25 are larger at their upstream or inlet ends than they are at their downstream or discharge ends. With the holes so shaped two important advantages are realized, (l) full volume ow through the holes is assured, and (2) the velocity of the ow through the holes is accelerated so that the discharging jets travel at higher velocity. This increases the amount of air drawn into the center of the stream and renders the turbulence caused by the impinging jets more violent.
By test it was found that the most effective adjustment of the nozzle for the generation of foam is somewhere between the straight stream and 30 fog positions. This is approximately the position shown in Figure 2.
Although the holes 25 could be tapered for their entire length, satisfactory results are obtained if their upstream ends are countersunk as at 26. To facilitate drilling and countersinking the holes, the upstream face of the head has a centrall conical portion 27 in line with and substantially normal to the axes of these holes, and a conical bottomed groove 28 near its periphery in line with the outer circle of holes.
It is significantly important that the passage 25 pro Yvided by the holes extend uninterruptedly from the up stream side or face of the pattern-determining head to the downstream side thereof, and that the upstream side or face of the head be exposed directly to and crosswise of the iow passage. Y
Also, so as not to detract from or interfere with the formation of a wide angle cone of fog, the areay of the annular space or outlet between the periphery of the pattern-determining head and the wall of the bore forming the nozzle outlet 13 should be larger than the combined area of the passages 25. The ratio between theseareas is not critical and will vary with the different nozzle sizes, but in no case should it be much less than one to two. This minimum ratio would obtain in the smaller size nozzles; for larger nozzles the ratio may be as high as one to ten.
As noted, Figures l, 2 and 3 illustrate the invention adapted to a lire hose nozzle of relatively small size. Figures 4 and 5, on the other hand, show the invention applied to a larger size nozzle. In this nozzle there s no shut-off valve such as that employed in the preferred embodiment, and the cylindrical mouth 30v of the front section is considerably larger in diameter in proportion to its axial length, the flow passage being abruptly enlarged,
as at 31, in its approach to the mouth 30'. v As in the other embodiment" ofiv the invention, th mouth 30 also opens to a widely outwardly flaring conical surface 32 which has a row of circumferentially spaced forwardly projecting teeth 33 thereon for the same pur pose as hereinbefore described. The pattern-determining head 34 in this form of the invention, is also mounted by means of a stem 35 extending rearwardly therefrom and secured in the hub 36 of a spider-like support 37 fixed in the rear nozzle section. To accommodate the arms and hub of the support 37 without decreasing the open cross sectional area of the tlow passage, the latter is enlarged at its medial portion where the support is located.
As in the smaller nozzle, relative rotation between the inner and outer nozzle sections adjusts the pattern of the stream issuing from the nozzle. In this embodiment of the invention, however, the holes 38 which define the passages through the pattern-determining head, are of uniform size from end to end, and although they are arranged in concentric circles as before and have their axes converging inwardly, they do not all converge upon a single point, but upon several points spaced along the axis of the nozzle. issuing from the holes impinge upon one another, and for this it is only necessary that the holes be so arranged that each will pair with another to deliver jets that im pinge forwardly of the nozzle, on the nozzle axis or elsewere within the hollow stream.
While tests have shown that the accelerated flow through the holes in the pattern-determining head obtained when these holes are nozzle-shaped, ri.e. reduced in size from inlet to outlet, and having their axes converging upon a single point yields the best results, particularly in the formation of foam, the construction shown in Figures 4 an'd 5 possess great advantages over prior nozzles.
From the foregoing description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, it will no doubt be.
apparent to those skilled in the art, that this invention makes it possible for the lirst time to use a combination straight stream and fog nozzle in the generation and laying down of foam, and that, in addition, it improves the performance of such dual purpose nozzles when used to project a straight solid stream of water or a cone of fog.
What is claimed as our invention is:
I. In a re hose nozzle, the combination of: means defining a tubular nozzle body having an inlet at its rear,
an outlet at its front, and a flow passage extending from the inlet to the outlet, the front end of the body being widely llared so that the mouth of the outlet is substantially larger in diameter than the portion of the ilow passage directly therebehind; a stem carried by the nozzle body and extending coaxially forwardly therein toward its outlet; and an enlarged substantially at disc-like head on the front of saidstem and in the mouth of the nozzle, said head having a closed central portion ahead of the stern and having a substantially at krear surface which is substantially normal to the nozzle axis and which is exposed directly to the pressure of liquid in that portion of the flow passage immediately behind the head, the diameter of the head being larger than the portion of the ow passage directly therebehind and coacting with the mouth of the outlet to deline an annular discharge for the nozzle through which liquid delivered under pressure at the nozzle inlet may discharge in the form of a hollow.
stream, said head having a number of small holes extend ing uninterruptedly forwardly therethrough from its substantially ilat, rear surface so that liquid will be forced The important thing is that the jets maar "v l plurality' of spaced circles 'which are' concentric Vte the nozzle axis'with the Vholes' on the outer' circle' located near the periphery of the head and having their axes `eonverg- Y ingforwardly, and said holesbeing arranged in' pairs to produce jets of liquid thatl violently' impinge one another at points which lie within the forward'projection of the perphery'of the head, so that the' jets" will breakl up into a mist which is dispersed in air drawn into Said zon'e and willmove forwardly along with the hollow stream issuing from the annular discharge around thejhead Without interfering with said hollow stream. Y
2. The re hose nozzle of claim 1, vwhereinthe holes oftherheadto'-faclitate thel entryl efrli-gud fhereinto and to assurthatztheets issuing' from the holes will utravi-,Il at' f