US 2929236 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 22, 1960 ,4, w, STEWARD mL 2,929,236
BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 29, 1955 INVENTOR.
BY Haumann VV. Srswmno Llemmmb V. STL-WAR: 2/ n/f/z ATTORNEYS March 22, 1960 H. w. sTEwARD ETAL 2,929,236
BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 29, 1955 IN1/EN TOR,
BY HmzoLo W. vewmzo QQN'ALD V. Svewmzb EYS A TTOEN United States Patent t BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTION Harold W. Steward and Ronald V. Steward, Marion, Ohio, assignors to Steward Construction Company, Marion, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application March 29, 1955, Serial No. 497,699
3 Claims. (Cl. 72-42) This invention relates to wall structures and more particularly to a block type wall construction provided with novel reinforcing means.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a wall structure formed from blocks which include novel fastening means whereby each block in each successive course is secured to the block below and constantly subjected to a vertical compression force.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a wall structure formed from blocks which include novel fastening means for securing eachblock to a horizontally adjacent block and for constantly subjecting each block to a horizontal compression force.
It is another object ofthe present invention to provide a wall structure of the type described wherein each block is provided with novel means for securing the block to adjacent blocks, with such means being adapted to subject each block in each course to a compression f force. Both the force applying action and the fastening action are readily and simultaneously effected at the time each block is being laid.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a wall structure of the type described which includes a superior joint construction between adjacent blocks due to the above described novel fastening means combined with a non-hardening mastic, which combination effec tively prevents the occurrence of voids at the joints when the wall structure is subjected to variations in loads and temperature.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a wall structure of the type described wherein the joint construction between adjacent blocks is arranged to create awash which prevents any moisture from entering the joints of the wall structure.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a wall structure of the type described wherein the blocks are pre-stressed and provided with reinforcing means during casting thereof, with the action of such cast-in reinforcing means being combined with the action of novel fastening means for securing the blocks together and for subjecting the blocks, and the joints therebetween, to a constant compression force when the blocks are assembled in the wall structure.
It is another object to the present invention to provide a wall structure formed from blocks provided with novel means for constantly maintaining the blocks and joints under compression forces. Accordingly, when the wall structure is subjected to a load, the load will at no time subject the blocks and joints to tension forces, but merely reduces the magnitude of the constantly applied compression forces to lower value.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings wherein a preferred form of embodiment of the invention is clearly shown.
In the drawing:
Figure l is a partially broken perspective view of a ice wall structure formed according to the present invention;
Figure 2 is a sectional Yview showing blocks of the wall structure of Figure 1 which blocks are provided with novel fastening means constructed according to the present invention. The section is taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a top elevational view of a block constructed according to the present invention;
' Figure 4 is a side elevational view of the block of Figure 4; v
Figure 5 is an end elevational view, partially in sections, of the block of Figure' 3, with the section being taken along the line 5--5 of Figure 4; and l Figure 6 is a partial perspective view, partially in sections, of the block of Figure 3, with the section being taken substantially along the lines 6 6 of Figure 3.
Referring to the drawings, Figure 1 shows a typical wall structure, such as the wall structure for a silo indicated generally at 20. Silo 20 includes a foundation slab 22 which supports a circular wall structure 23. Wall structure 23 comprises a plurality of pre-cast curved block members such as the ones illustratedat 26 and 27.
Reference is next made to Figure 2 which consists of a sectional view taken through two vertically adjacent blocks 26 and 27, with such view illustrating a novel fastening means Vwhereby the two..blocks are securedY together and constantly subjected to a vertically directed compression force. Each of the blocks is provided with an integrally cast vertically extending sleeve as indicated at 30 and 31.
As seen in Figure 2, the blocks 26 is provided with a rod 33 which extends vertically through the sleeve 30. The lowerend of rod 33 is provided with threads 35, and the upper end is provided with threads 36. The rod 33 is secured to a next lower rod 38, by means of a coupling 40 which is internally threaded to receive the lower threaded portion 35 of rod 33, vand the upper threaded portion 41 of rod 38.
The threaded upper end 36 of rod 33 carries a nut 43 which is drawn down against a cap 45 extended across the upper end of the sleeve 30.Y
The upper block member 26 is provided with a rod 47 having a, lower threaded portion 48 which is'secured to the upper threa-ded portion 36 of therod 33 by means of an internally threaded coupling 50. The upper an internally threaded coupling 53, and a nut 54 which is drawn down against the cap 55 and across the upper end of the sleeve 31.
At this point it should be noted that the rods 33 and 47, illustrated in Figure 2, are co-axially aligned and connected with identical successivelyv connected rods which extend through the blocks below, in an identical manner to that illustrated in Figure 2, to form a reinforcing column such as is indicated at -57 in Figure 1. Column 57 extends through the entire vertical height of the wall structure and includes a bottom rod member 58 which is secured to y'the foundation slab 22 by being integrally cast therein. It will therefore be understood that the rod 33,' of block 26, is rigidly retained at its lower end 35 by the next lower rod138, with the rod members below the rod member 38 being extended and successively connected, one with the other, to form an ultimate connection with the foundation slab 22.
In Ibuilding the wall structure, after the course of blocks, which includes the block 25 of Figure 2, has been completed, the upper threaded portion 41 of rod 38 will extend above the upper surface 60 of the block 25. Block 26 is next laid upon block 25 with a nonhardening mastic 62 being provided between the lower surface 63 of block 26 and the upper surface 60 of block 3 25. The rod33. is disposed in the sleeve 30 and secured to the next lower rod 38 by the coupling 40.
If it is desired to tightly lock together the joined ends of rods 33 and 38 the rod ends can Vbe joined andthe coupling'tightened beforethe block26 is placed on top ofbloclg 25. Y f i After block 26`is laid on'top Vof 'block 25, the cap 4S is placed on rod 33 and the nut 43 is drawn downwardly with an appropriate amountof force whereby the sleeve 30and block 26'. are subjected to the desired magnitude of constantly maintained compression force.
Forpurposes of subjecting adjacent blocks in a given course to a lateral compression force, a circumferential@ lyextending reinforcing member 72 is disposed in a groove 73 as is best seen in Figures 2l and 6. Member 72 and groove 73 are located at the upper surface 65 of bloei;` 26. Member 72. is placed in the groove and then tightened by means Yof :a turnbuckle, or other suitable tightening means, whereby member `72 is constantly maintained under tension which results in a constant lateral compression force being applied to all of the blocks in the course and to all the joints between the blocks. Identical .horizontally extending reinforcing members 76. and 77 are shown located at the surfaces 60 and 69 respectively.
To supply additional horizontal reinforcement to the structure, horizontally extending pre-stressed wires 80 are cast into the blocks at the time they are formed. YThe wires 80 are pre-stressed for the purpose of constantly subjecting the blocks to horizon-talV compression forces, with such wires being located on the exterior side, of theA sleeve 30 in the manner illustrated in Figure 2.
Reference is nex-t made to Figures 3,k 4, and 5 which, illustrate the typical block 27. It will be noted that` block 27 not only includes the sleeve 31 previously described, but also a second identical sleeve 83, with the4 latter sleeve being provided with an internal rod member and coupling means identical to that illustrated in Figure 2. As seen in VFigure 4, the sleeves 31 and S3 are each located half way'between a centerline 85 andA edges 86 and 87 of block 27. When block 27 is laid on the nextlower course, the vertical joints are staggered whereby the left edge 86 of block 27 is centrally disposed between theleft and right ends of -the next lower block 26. With this arrangement, each ofthe blocks can be of identical design, and, moreovenwhen the blocks are placed one above the other, i'n thestaggered relationship, illustrated in Figure l, each sleeve and fastening means will be axially aligned. with a sleeve in the block above and a sleeveA in the. block below.
'Referring again to Figures 3 and 4, the left vend of block 27 is provided with an extended portion 90 whichv With reference to. Figure 5, it will be noted that each block is formed with outwardly and downwardly extending surfaces 100 and 101 each of which conforms with a parallel confronting surface on the next adjacent block. The downwardly extending surfaces 100 and 101 provide a down-wash ateach horizontal junction, which down-wash, when combined with the non-hardening mastic 66, excludes all moisture from the joints and eectively protects lthe internal reinforcing members from corrosion. i
In summary, the present arrangement provides a novel wall structure formed of blocks provided with novel means for constantly subjecting the blocks, and Ithe joints therebetween, to both horizontal Iand vertical compression forces. Such compression forces are applied to the blocks and joints of each course as the course is laid in the structure. As a result the composite wall structure is atv all times subjected throughout vto pre-stressed rcompression forces with the result that an extremely durable and sturdy building structure is provided whereby -ten-v sion forces on the blocks and joints are avoided.
While the form of embodiment of the present invention as herein disclosed constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow:
1. A building block assembly comprising a block, sleeve meansv extending vertically through said block, a rod extending through said sleeve means and beyond the top surface of said block, means adjacent the lower sur: face of saidblock receiving and anchoring said rod at its lower endA thereof, the upper free end of said rod being threaded, means transmitting force at 'the top of said extends beyond surfaces 91 to form a lap joint with theV next adjacent block to the left. The right endv87 is provided with an extended portion 93 which extends beyond surface 95 to form a lap joint with the next adjacent blocl: to the right. In addition, groove 73 includes a widened groove portion 98 for receiving a turnbuckle or welded lap joint used for securing together, under tension, lateral reinforcing member 72. It will, of course, be understood that it is only necessary that one of the blocks in any course be provided with a widened groove portion 98 since the reinforcing member 72 is preferably formedY from a single rod which need only he provided with one junction.
sleeve means adjacent the top of the surface of said block, a nut threadably secured on said upper end of said rod and in engagement with the -top surface of said force. transmitting means, said nut, upon tightening, placing said rod in tension and said tube under compression, and` coupling means threadably secured to the upper free end of said rod.
2. A building block assembly in accordance with claim 1 wherein the means transmitting force is a cap engaging the top free end of said sleeve means and having a central aperture therein through which the threaded end of said rodk passes.
3. A building block assembly in accordance with claim` 1` in which thevvsleeve means is integrally formed with said block.
References Cited in the n`le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 764,313 Stevens 1... July 5, 19,04 1,093,127 Haeger Apr. 14, 1914. 1,285,458 Strunk Nov. 19, 1918Y 1,734,771 Mitchell Nov. 5, 1929 2,011,018 Smith Aug. 13, 1935- 2,234,559 Jacobs Mar. 11,1941 2,241,169 Yokes May 5, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS 21,795 Denmark Dec. 28, 1916 195,570 Great Britain Apr. 5, 1923.
106,399 Great Britain May 24, 1917L 582,249 Great Britain Nov. 1'1, 19116v