|Publication number||US2931062 A|
|Publication date||Apr 5, 1960|
|Filing date||Oct 3, 1957|
|Priority date||Oct 3, 1957|
|Publication number||US 2931062 A, US 2931062A, US-A-2931062, US2931062 A, US2931062A|
|Inventors||Leaman Harold E|
|Original Assignee||Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (16), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. E. LEAMAN April 5, 1960 ROTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR FIBER FORMING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 3, 1957 ATTORNEYS.
ROTOR CUNSTRUCTION FDR FIBER FORMER; APPARATUS Harold E. Learnan, Newark, Ohio, assignor to Qwens- Corning Fiberglas Corporation, a corporation of Deia- Ware Application October 3, 1957, Serial No. 637,928 '4 Claims. (Cl. 18-26) This invention relates to apparatus especially usable for forming heat-softened mineral material into fibers or linear bodies and, more especially, :to a rotor construction or rotatable means for forming fibers through the utilization of centrifugal forces.
Fibers have been formed from mineral materials, such as glass, wherein one or more streams of glass are de livered into a hollow spinner or rotor having a peripheral wall formed with a large number of small orifices through which the glass is extruded or projected by centrifugal forces of rotation to form linear bodies or primary filaments. The bodies or primaries may be engaged by a high velocity gaseous blast to further attenuate the bodies to fine fibers.
In apparatus heretofore employed for this purpose, the hollow spinner or rotor has been constructed of ferrous base metal alloys, such as stainless steel, having openings drilled in the peripheral wall through which the glass is projected.
The glass in the spinner may be at 2000 F. or more and by reason of the attrition of the hot glass moving rapidly through the openings or orifices in the spinner wall, the walls defining the orifices soon become worn and enlarged resulting in formation of fibers of increased size which are not commercially usable. After a comparatively short period of operation, the spinner must be replaced. It has been proposed to fashion the spinner of rare metals or metal alloys endowed with heat resisting properties and of a character which are not rapidly abraded or worn by the intensely hot mineral material, but such alloys do not have adequate strength characteristics to withstand the centrifugal forces attendant high speed rotation, as well as being costly and therefore commercially uneconomical.
'The present invention embraces the provision of an apparatus for forming fibers embodying a spinner or rotor construction wherein the regions of the spinner subjected to abrasion or attrition action of the glass or other molten mineral material are fashioned of metal or metal alloys capable of withstanding the abrasion.
An object of the invention is the provision of a hollow spinner or rotor formed of a ferrous base metal having high strength characteristics to resist distortion and fracture under the influence of centrifugal forces of high speed rotation and wherein openings in the rotor wall are defined by metals or metal alloys capable of resisting the high temperatures and the attrition vaction of molten material without appreciable wear overrlong periods of time.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a hollow spinner having a perforated peripheral wall wherein the openings are provided with bushings or liners of platinum or platinum alloys shaped to be retained in the openings under the influence of centrifugal forces.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a spinner bodyhaving a perforated wall wherein eyelets or bushings are inserted in the perforationsin the wall inconjunction' wit-h'amaterial intermediate the eyelets or bushings and the metal of the spinner body which re- Patented Apr. 5, 1960 sists contamination of the metal of the eyelets or bushings by the metal of the spinner body whereby the metal or alloy of the eyelets or bushings retains its characteristics of high resistance to temperature and abrasion.
Another object of the invention resides in a spinner construction having a perforated wall with eyelets disposed in the perforations and defining the openings through which mineral material is projected under the influence of centrifugal forces of rotation, the eyelets being configurated whereby centrifugal forces of rotation and pressure of the molten material within the spinner embeds the eyelets in the openings in the spinner body, the configuration of the eyelets preventing their displacement in the spinner body.
Further objects and advantages are within the scope of this invention such as relate to'the arrangement, operation and function of the related elements of the structure, to various details of construction and to combinations of parts, elements per se, and to economies of manufacture and numerous other features as will be apparent from a consideration of the specification and drawing of a form of the invention, which may be preferred, in which:
Figure 1 is an elevational view of a fiber-forming apparatus embodying a form of spinner construction of the invention;
Figure 2 is an enlarged view of a portion of a spinner Wall illustrating one form of bushing or lining defining outlets for the extrusion of heat-softened mineral material;
Figure 3 is an isometric view of one of the bushings shown in Figure 2;
Fi ure 4 is a View similar to Figure 2 illustrating a portion of a spinner embodying a modified form of-bushing or lining;
Figure 5 is an isometric view of one of the bushings or liners illustrated in Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 2 illustrating another form of lining or bushing defining an opening in a spinner wall;
Figure 7 is an isometric view of the liner or bushing illustrated in Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a fragmentary view of a portionof a spinner illustrating another form of the invention, and
Figure 9 is a horizontal sectional View of a portion of of spinner showing another form of the invention.
The invention is illustrated as embodied in high speed rotors or spinners especially adaptable for processing glass to form linear bodies or fibers of the glass, but itis to be understood that the arrangements of the invention may be utilized in apparatus for forming other heat-softened materials, such as slag or fusible rock, into linear bodies or fiber Referring to the drawings in detail and initially to Figure 1, there is illustrated a forehearth 10 equipped with a feeder 12. As illustrated inFigure 1, the feeder 12. is provided with projections 14, each formed with an orifice through which is delivered a stream 16 of heatsoftened glassor other molten material contained in the forehearth. While two streams in are illustrated in Figure 1, it is to be understood that the feeder may be formed with a single orifice or more than two orifices .to deliver one or several streams of material to the fiberfiber-forming apparatus may be moved away from its position beneath the forehearth for purposes of repair or replacement.
Positioned within the frame 20 and journalled upon suitable antifriction bearings (not shown) is a hollow shaft, spindle or member 28, through which the streams of material 16 flow into a means 30 disposed within a rotor or spinner 32 for distributing the glass or other material throughout the interior peripheral wall of the spinner. The shaft 28 may be provided with a cooling jacket extending downwardly into the shaft for maintaining the same and associated components at safe operating temperatures.
The cooling jacket is formed with a portion 34 extending above the enclosure 21 provided with inlet and outlet pipes 36 and 37 to conduct a cooling medium, such as water, through the cooling jacket associated with the hollow shaft 28. The frame 20 is provided with a lateral extension 40 which supports an electrically energizable motor 42, the shaft of which is equipped with a suitable pulley 44 which, through the medium of drive belts 46, drives a pulley 43 secured to the hollow shaft 28 for rotating the shaft 28 and spinner 32 at the desired speed.
The member 30 secured to and contained within the spinner 32 has a peripheral wall 50 provided with openings or orifices 52 through which the material of the streams delivered into the member 30 is extruded by centrifugal forces of rotation into engagement with a peripheral wall 54 of the spinner or rotor 32.
The wall 54 of the spinner 32 is equipped with orifice means through which the heat-softened glass or other material in the spinner is extruded by centrifugal forces to form primary filaments or linear bodies 56 which may be delivered into a gaseous blast projected from the blast producing means 22 for attenuating the primary filaments or bodies 56 into fibers or filaments of varying lengths indicated at 58. The fibers may be directed through a suitable hood or enclosure 60 and collected upon a movable conveyor (not shown) or other suitable surface. The linear bodies 56 may be drawn into continuous filaments by suitable mechanical attenuating means.
In the embodiment illustrated, the blast producing means for attenuating the linear bodies to fibers includes a burner of annular shape contained within a metal casing 64. The casing 64 is lined interiorly with refractory 66 defining an annularly shaped combustion chamber 68. A manifold or supply tube 70 is adapted to convey and deliver a fuel and air mixture from a supply into the annularly shaped combustion chamber 68.
The fuel and air mixture is substantially completely burned within the annularly-shaped chamber and the burned gases are caused to undergo great expansion. The intensely hot gases are extruded or projected from the chamber 68 through a restricted orifice 72. of annular shape providing a high velocity gaseous blast engaging the primaries 56 and attenuating them into fine fibers. While in the arrangement illustrated, the attenuating blast is formed by burning a mixture of fuel and air under confined conditions, it is to be understood that other types of blast, such as steam or air under pressure may be utilized for attenuating the material to fibers.
Heretofore, the spinner construction has been fashioned or formed of ferrous base material, such as stainless steel, providing a peripheral wall formed with a large number of relatively small openings or orifices through which the glass on the interior of the wall 75 is extruded or projected by the centrifugal forces of rotation. In commercial adaptations, the spinner or rotor may be of a diameter of several inches and the peripheral wall provided with upwards of 4000 or more openings or orifices through which the material is projected.
The glass or other softened material within the spinner is at a temperature of 2000 F. or more and as the spinner is heated by the glass to a comparable temperature, the
glass moving through the orifices has an abrasive action which, in comparatively short periods of time, wears away the metal of the spinner defining the openings. The openings thereby become enlarged and result in primaries which are of diameters exceeding a size which may be satisfactorily attenuated to fine fibers or filaments by the blast or other attenuating means. When this condition occurs, the spinner must be replaced.
This invention embraces means in the form of liners, eyelets or bushings embedded in the peripheral wall of the spinner 32 and which provide the openings or orifices through which the glass is extruded from the interior of the spinner. The liners, bushings or eyelets are fashioned of rare or precious metals which are highly resistant to high temperatures and the abrasive action of the molten glass whereby the proper size of orifices in the liners may be maintained constant over long periods of operation.
One form of liner, bushing or eyelet is shown in greatly enlarged representation in Figures 2 and 3, and Figure 2 shows the bushings inserted in openings formed in the peripheral wall 75 of the spinner 32. In this form, the bushing, liner or eyelet 78 is of frusto-conical configuration, the exit of the converging wall regions of the bushing defining an orifice or outlet 80 through which the glass or other material in the spinner is projected under the influence of centrifugal forces of rotation. Theregions 81 of the cone-shaped bushing preferably terminate coincident with the exterior surface of the spinner wall 75.
The region of largest diameter of the bushing is formed with a peripheral flange or shoulder 82 which engages the interior surface 83 of the spinner wall 75. The flange 82 forms a means for positively positioning the bushing 78 in the opening in the spinner and resists outward displacement of the bushing under the influence of centrifugal forces and prevents contraction of the region defining the orifice 80 so that the orifice size is maintained constant.
The forms of the liner, bushing or eyelet disclosed are fashioned of precious metals or metal alloys having the characteristics of resisting intense heat present during the operation of the spinner and resisting abrasion by the molten mineral material. The temperature of the glass may be in excess of 2200 F. Metals that have been found suitable for the purpose are platinum, palladium or alloys thereof, such as platinum rhodium. The liners, bushings or eyelets 78 may be initially held in place by means of a coating of sodium silicate or other suitable adhesive applied to the engaging surfaces of the liner with the spinner wall. The centrifugal forces set up by the rotation of the spinner and the intense heat of the molten glass within the spinner hold the liners in place.
Figures 4 and 5 illustrate another form of lining member, bushing or eyelet construction. The peripheral wall 75' of the spinner 32' is provided with openings 85 to accommodate the eyelets 86. The interior wall region 83' of the spinner is formed with recesses 86 which accommodate outwardly extending flanges 87 formed on each of the eyelets 86 as particularly shown in Figure 4.
Each of the eyelets 86 is formed with a circular orifice 88 through which the molten glass within the spinner is discharged. The entrance regions of the orifices 88 are preferably curved as shown at 89 to facilitate flow of the molten glass through the orifices. The exit region of the walls defining the orifices 88 may be curved or flared outwardly as shown at 90 whereby the orifice is fashioned in a Venturi-like configuration.
In the form of construction shown in Figures 4 and 5,
'the ledge or flange 87 positions the eyelet or liner in the opening in the spinner wall and prevents outward displacement or relative movement thereof. The exterior surfaces of the eyelets may be coated with sodium silicate as a means of initially retaining the liners in the openings in the spinner wall.
Figures 6 and 7 illustrate another form of liner,
bushing or eyelet 92. In this form openings are drilled in the spinner wall of uniform diameters throughout their lengths. Each eyelet 92 is formed with arcylindrical portion 94 which is snugly received in the opening in the spinner wall, the eyelet being formed with an outwardly extending flange 96 which abuts the inner surface 83" of the spinner wall 75".
The flanges 96 serve to position the liners and prevent outward displacement thereof under the influence of centrifugal forces. Each liner is formed with an orifice 97 of desired size through which the molten glass is delivered to form the primary filaments 56. As previously mentioned, the base material of the spinner or rotor is preferably of ferrous metal or alloys, such as stainless steel.
It has been found that at extremely high temperatures, such as the temperature of glass in a molten state, there may be a tendency for precious metals, such as platinum or palladium alloys of which the liners are formed, to become contaminated by the ferrous constituent of the base metal. If such contamination occurs to any appreciable extent, it impairs or destroys the advantageous characteristics of the precious metals to resist abrasion or attack by the molten glass or other molten mineral material and such contamination accelerates wear of the walls defining the orifices.
To avoid possibility of contamination of the metal of the eyelets, liners or bushings by the base metal of the spinner, a layer or coating of a protective material may be interposed between the regions of engagement of the liner or bushing and the metal of the spinner. As shown in Figure 6 a sleeve or gasket 98 formed of material, such as nickel, may be used for the purpose of preventing direct contact between the eyelet and the spinner. While the precious metal of which the liner or bushing is formed may become contaminated by the nickel, this metal does not appreciably impair the characteristics of the platinum or palladium alloys to resist wear or attack of the molten glass.
Other materials may be employed for preventing harmful contamination of the precious metals or alloys. For example, a thin layer or coating of zirconia, zircon, alumina or Sauereisen cement may be employed for the purpose.
These materials may be advantageously applied in paste form and under the influence of intense heat of the molten glass they become fused or adhered to the metal of the spinner and thus form a protective shield or coating between the material of the liner or eyelet and the spinner body to prevent or minimize contamination.
Figure 8 is a fragmentary section of a portion of a spinner illustrating a construction wherein the spinner or rotor is formed of base metal having a peripheral wall region, ring or circular band 102 fashioned of precious metal, such as platinum or palladium alloys. As shown in Figure 8, the spinner 104 is fashioned with an upper body portion 105 and a lower body portion 106, these portions being formed of stainless steel or other high strength base metal. The ring or circular band 102 is joined to the spinner components at regions 108 and are reinforced by means of bolts 109. The spinner components 105 and 106 are formed with recesses adjacent the regions 108 to accommodate lateral projections 110 formed on the band 102 which fit into the recesses. In this form of construction a suitable gasket of nickel or a thin layer of ceramic material may be disposed between the junctures of the band 102 with the spinner components 105 and 106 to prevent or minimize contaminaiton of the material of the band 102. The layer or coating of material may be fused to establish a structural or mechanical connection whereby the band 102 is securely joined with the base metal components of the spinner.
The band 102 is formed with a large number of small orifices 112 through which the molten glass or other material within the spinner is extruded to form primary filaments. A spinner constructed in this manner is capable of exceptionally long life with a minimum of wear of the surfaces of precious metal defining the glass passages or orifices.
Figure 9 illustrates a portion of a spinner which is formed with a peripheral wall portion 117 of stainless steel or other high strength metal. The wall 117 is formed with recesses 118 to receive disks 120 formed of precious metals or metal alloys, the disks being provided with a plurality of openings 122 through which molten material or glass is projected from the interior of the spinner. The wall regions defining the openings 118 are preferably formed with recesses to accommodate outwardly extending shoulders or flanges 124 formed on the disks or members 120 to prevent outward dis placement of the disks under the influence or centrifugal forces of rotation. The disks may be square, circular or of other configuration.
The disks 120 may be isolated from the metal of the spinner body 117 by gaskets formed of nickel or by means of thin layers of metal ceramic or cementitious materials which resist contamination of the metal of the disks 120 by the metal of which the spinner body is constructed. In the arrangement shown in Figure 9, the disks or members 120 may be readily replaced should they become worn after long periods of use.
In the arrangements disclosed in the drawings, the eyelets, bushings or liners have been illustrated as exaggerated in size. As a practical illustration of the construction, the spinner may be of a diameter of about eight inches and the peripheral wall 75 of a width of about one and one-quarter inches. The peripheral wall is provided with several rows of openings, the number of openings totaling four thousand or more, a bushing, liner, eyelet or grommet of one of the types shown in Figures 2 through 7 inserted in each of the openings in the spinner wall. The orifice or glass passage in each of the liners or eyelets is approximately one thirty-second ofan inch or less in diameter depending upon the size of linear body or primary filament desired. It is to be understood that spinners of different diameters provided with precious metals defining openings or passages of varying sizes may be employed for forming primary filaments or linear bodies of heat-softened materials.
It is apparent that, within the scope of the invention, modifications and diiferent arrangements may be made other than is herein disclosed, and the present disclosure is illustrative merely, the invention comprehending all variations thereof.
1. Apparatus for use in forming heat-softened mineral material into linear bodies by centrifugal forces including, in combination, a rotatable hollow member formed of ferrous base metal, said member having a peripheral wall provided with a large number of comparatively small openings, liners formed of platinum alloy disposed in said openings in the peripheral wall, said liners being provided with openings through which the mineral material is projected, said liners being formed with flange means for positively positioning the same in the openings in the peripheral wall to prevent displacement thereof under the influence of centrifugal forces, and layers of heat resistant material arranged between said liners and the adjacent regions of the peripheral wall to avoid contamination of the platinum alloy by the ferrous base metal.
2. A rotatable hollow rotor having a peripheral wall formed with a plurality of comparatively small openings, and an eyelet formed of platinum alloy disposed in each of said openings, each of said eyelets having an enlarged region to resist outward displacement thereof relative to the peripheral wall under the influence of centrifugal forces of rotation, and a layer of high temperature resistant material disposed between the eyelet and the metal 3. A rotatable hollow rotor formed of ferrous base metal, said rotor having a peripheral wallregion formed in part of platinum alloy, openings formed in the platinum alloy, and means disposed between the platinum alloy and the adjacent regions of the rotor to avoid contamination of the platinum alloy by the ferrous constituent of the base metal.
4. A rotatable hollow rotor formed of stainless steel having a peripheral wall formed with a plurality of comparatively small openings, an eyelet formed of platinum alloy disposed in each of said openings, each of said eyelets being shaped to resist outward displacement thereof relative to the peripheral wall under the influence of centrifugal fame: of rotation, and a layer of nickel disposed between the eyelet and the metal of the rotor to reduce infusion of the metal of the rotor into the platinum alloy.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,190,296 Richardson Feb. 13, 1940 2,323,000 Auwater et al. June 29, 1943 7 2,431,205 Slayter Nov. 18, 1947 2,624,912 Heymes et al. Jan. 13, 1953 2,728,699 Labino Dec. 27, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 202,877 Australia July 5, 1956 930,934 France Sept. 8, 1947 564,017 Great Britain Sept. 8, 1944
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|US9206070||Oct 2, 2012||Dec 8, 2015||Saint-Gobain Adfors||Device delivering glass fibres with a reduced precious metal content|
|US20070261446 *||May 9, 2006||Nov 15, 2007||Baker John W||Rotary fiberization process for making glass fibers, an insulation mat, and pipe insulation|
|WO1994005834A1 *||Sep 7, 1993||Mar 17, 1994||Isover Saint Gobain||Device for forming phenoplast fibres|
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|U.S. Classification||65/374.12, 65/492, 65/522|
|Cooperative Classification||C03B37/045, C03B37/047|
|European Classification||C03B37/04D, C03B37/04E|