US 2934251 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 26, 1960 T. F. KRAMER 2,934,251
PACKAGING DEVICE Filed Aug. 2, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Inventor Attorney April 26, 1960 T. F. KRAMER PACKAGING DEVICE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug- 2. 1954 W -..m/W
.u Attorney April 26, 1960 T. F. KRAMER PACKAGING DEVICE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 2, 1954 Zead fe Z/F'amef Attorney PACKAGING nnvrcn Theodore F. Kramer, Flushing, Mich., assgnor to Ggneral Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Application August 2, 1954, Serial No. 447,295
13 Claims. (Ci. 229-14) This invention relates to packaging containers or devices, and more particularly to a packaging container assembly for safer and more convenient shipment and storage of a variety of products.
Most products of manufacture, whether large or small, must be crated or packaged in some manner to enable the shipment or storage thereof without damage to the product. A universally accepted shipping or storing container is the corrugated cardboard or other type of paper box having a' horizontal top and bottom and vertical sides. Such containers are often provided with liners and spacers of the same material as that from which the box is made in order to suitably separate the products in a single box and in order to prevent the puncture of the sides of the box by sharp corners on the product packaged. It is often necessary to place such containers on top of one another to conserve space during storing or shipping of the same. For this reason, it is common to provide vertical supports or reinforcements for such containers to prevent the crushing thereof, as in the case of those containers at the bottom of the stack. Such reinforcements are also necessary for the sake of safety to prevent the stacks from falling on employees. These reinforcements may comprise wooden strips stapled or otherwise secured at a corner of the container. Another device often used is a liner having a double thickness portion thereof stapled together to provide a reinforcing rib at each corner of the box or container.
In the packaging industry, it is further common to provide pallets on which one or more containers may be placed so that the entire stack may be lifted by means of the pallet. The usual practice is to provide different sizes of pallets depending upon the size of the packaging container which in turn depends upon the nature of the product being packed.
It has been found that the packaging devices presently used are unsatisfactory in a number of ways. In the rst place, storing and shipping problems are made all the more diicult due to the fact that there is no standardization in size of pallets and containers and the like. Thus, the warehouseman or the carrier is constantly confronted with the problem of juggling or shifting packages to conserve space and to distribute loads properly. Also, where the materials for the shipping container and the vertical supports therefor are different, as in the case of a paper carton with wooden vertical supports, the manufacture of these containers is unduly complicated and expensive. Where a paper carton salvage program is carried out, the cost of stripping the stapled wooden supports out of the cartons is high. Furthermore, the provision o-f liners and spacers throughout and entirely around the inside of each container is often a waste of material and labor. In addition, improvement needs to be made in the unit breakdown of packaged materials as to quantity of products in each unit so that unnecessarily large quantities in excess of that which may be used in a reasonable length of time need not be unpack- Sttes Patent aged and exposed to possible damage and deterioration of all kinds.
It is now proposed to provide a packaging device which solves the above problems, as well as providing other advantages. The device consists of a unit package preferably but not necessarily having standard outside dimensions, including a standard pallet size. Flexibility as to the kinds and numbers of products packaged is provided by assembling tiers of convenient subpackages or individual containers of various standard dimensions, the dimensions of the individual containers for any given tier depending upon the various factors of product size, weight, shape and quantity to be used per unit of time. The tiers are provided with a common cover and they may then be stacked on one lanother for storage or shipment. Spacing within each tier may be accomplished without the necessity of specially provided spacers as heretofore used, since existing walls of the individual containers may be employed for this purpose. It is also proposed to provide a shipping container assembly in which vertical reinforcement against crushing and side wall reinforcement against piercing is provided by a liner which may bev constructed Ifrom the same material as that from which the container is made. However, it is possible to elect a saving in the necessary amount of these liners by judiciously designing and locating the same in thecont-ainer assembly. In other words, the liners are constructed so that they may be placed only where existing parts of the individual containers are not av-ailable to serve the same purpose as the liners serve.
Thus, the above results are accomplished by providing a unit pallet package assembly having standard sub-assemblies therein composed of interchangeable and reusable parts, with the parts thereof being secured together as a single standard package.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a perspective view of a unit pallet package -embodying the invention and including two tiers of two containers and two liners per tier.
Figure 2 is an exploded perspective view of a single tier shown by Figure l and embodying the invention.
Figure 3 is a perspective view, with the liner shown removed by broken lines, of one of the individual containers in the tier shown by Figure 2.
Figure 4 is an edge view illustrating in detail the corner vertical support construtcion of the liner shown by Figures 2 and 3.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a unit pallet package embodying the invention and containing two tiers of four containers and four liners per tier.
Figure 6 is an exploded perspective view similar to Figure 2 but illustrating the details of construction of a modified tier embodying the invention and employed in the unit pallet package shown by Figure 5.
Figure 7 is a perspective view similar to Figure 3 but illustrating a different liner structure for use with the tier shown by Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a perspective view illustrating the unit pallet package shown by Figure 5 stacked on top of a unit pallet package including the tiers shown by Figures 2 and 6 and further illustrates the use of the invention.
Figure 9 is an exploded perspective view similar to Figure 6 but illustrating a modification in liner structure yfor a tier having four individual containers and four liners and embodying the invention.
Figure l0 is a perspective view similar to Figures 3 and 7 but illustrating the liner structure shown by-Figure 9.
Referring to the drawings in greater detail, a unit pallet package 10 embodying the invention may comprise a pallet 12 of conventional design and standard horizontal dimensions having set thereon one or more tiers 14 as shown by Figure l. The structure of a tier may "be Vvaried' sions of the pair of individual containers are substantially equal to the horizontal dimensions of the pallet 12. Each individual container 16 has pro-vided therein a liner Ztl made by suitably forming a strip of material, preferably the same material as that from which the containers are made and as wide as the containers 16 are high, to provide free end portions 22 and a middle portion 24 separated by the double-thickness vertical support members 26. The construction of the liners 2? to provide the vertical support members 26 is shown in detail by Figure 4, and the double-thicknesses of the inwardly extending vertical support portions 26 may be stapled together or otherwise suitably fastened to increase the rigidity thereof.
It will be noted in the tier structure shown by Figure 2 that the tier 14 is vertically reinforced and that all the sides and ends thereof have double wall thicknesses. It will also be noticed that the above is accomplished with the use of minimum liner material and by utilizing existing corners and walls of the individual containers 16 in a novel manner. The sides 18 of the two containers i6 being adjacent one another provide a double-thickness verticalk support and spacer through the center of the tier 14, while the adjacent corners 28 of the individual containers 16 provide good vertical support for the tier at the centers of a pair of opposite sides thereof. The ends 22 and the middle portions 24 of the liners 20 provide double wall thickness for the outer peripheral walls of the tier, while the reinforcing member-s 26 of the liners 20 provide vertical reinforcement at theoutside corners 30 of the tier 14. rl`he telescoping cover 32 for each tier 14 serves to form the tier into a single package unit which is well reinforced vertically and along the sides thereof 'without the necessity of employing liners completely around the inside of each individual container 16.
Figures 5, 6, and 7 illustrate an alternative tier structure comprising four standard indiivdual containers 34 each having horizontal dimensions such that when they are assembled as vshown by Figure 6 the horizontal. dimensions of the tier 36 substantially correspond to the horizontal dimensions of the pallet 38, which ispreferably of the same dimensions as the pallet l2 shown by Figure 1. The liners 4i) are constructed in a manner'sirnilar to the liners `shown by Figures 2, 3, and4, but due to the different structure of the tier 36 only one vertical reinforcement member 4Z is necessary in the liner. One liner 40 may then be placed in each of the containers 34 so that a reinforcing member 42 is located iu each outside corner 44 of the tier 36, or group of individual containers 34. Thus, like the tier 14 shown by Figure 2, the tier 36 shown by Figure 6 is reinforced at each outside corner 44 and at the outer peripheral sides thereof,` again with` a minimum use of liner material, Unlike the tier 14 shownv by Figure 2, the tier 36 shown by Figure 6 mayV be further vertically reinforced at the middle of each outer peripheral side by the adjacent corners 46. Also, if the particular packaging job requires additional vertical support, additional wall thickness may be provided through the middle of the tier 36 in one direction by making the liner with two ends 48 and a middle portion 50, though with only vertical reinforcement 42. Again each tier 36 has a common telescoping cover 52- to provide a unit package. lt is apparent that the tier structure shown by Figure 6, though it provides a unitpallet package of standard horizontal outside dimensions, may be employed for the packaging of Vmaterials of different size, Weight, shape, strength, or units consumed per unit of time from those packaged in the tier structure shown by Figure 2. It is also apparent that other combinations of individual container number and size and liner structure may be employed within the scope of the invention.
Figures 9 and l() illustrate still a third alternative tier structure. It will be noted thatV the difference between this tier structure and that shown by Figures 6 and 7 is in the liner structure in that the end 4i? of the liner 40 4shown by Figures 6 and 7 not adjacent the vertical support member 42 is omitted from the liner structure shown by Figures 9 and 10. All other parts of the tier structure as shown by Figures 9 and l0 are the same as that shown by Figures 6 and 7, and the parts thereof have the same reference characters. This provides a tier structure somewhat of a compromise between the tier structures shown by Figures 2 and 6 in that four individual containers 34 `are employed but the wall thicknesses do not exceed two layers. Again it is apparent that `a minimum of liner material is necessary due to the judicious grouping of individual containers and placement of liners.
In all of the tier structures illustrated it is contemplated that at the point of packaging the particular individual containers desired will be assembled, the materials to be packaged will be placed therein, and the cover will be placed over the container assembly and suitably secured thereto as by gluing or stapling around the periphery thereof. One or more tiers may then be placed on each pallet as shown by Figures 1 and 5, with the individual tiers being suitably secured to one another if desired, and the unit pallet packages may be stacked on top of one another as shown by Figure 8. A convenient feature of the invention is that individual container size may be selected according to the units consumed per unit of time of the product packaged. Thus, when the telescoping cover is removed from a tier, at the assembly line for example, the contents of one or more individual containers may be used up during a work shift and the remaining unused materials in the still rfull individual contaiuers will be better protected from various forms of destruction or deterioration than they would be if all the materials were packaged in a larger container having horizontal dimensions of the entire tier. Furthermore, since itl is contemplated that the pallet and tier dimensions be uniform While the dimensions of the individual containers may be varied, the' problem of storing and transporting materials is simplified since the warehouseman and common carrier can anticipate handlingstandard sized packages and thus utilize available space more eiciently. As shown by FigureV 8, tiers of mixed structure may be provided and stacked on top of one another so that a unit pallet package containing a variety of materials may be provided when all of the materials contained therein are to be used at a particular point along a production line where the unit pallet package is deposited.
Fromv the above specification and drawings it is apparent that there has been provided a novel unit package assembly having none of the above objections and havingV a great many advantages over the packaging assemblies presently employed. It is also apparent that the structures here shown are illustrative only and that many other modifications Imay be made without exceeding the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A packaging assembly comprising a pallet of a standard size, a group of individual containers each having a bottom and vertical sides, said individual containers having horizontal dimensions such that when placed on said pallet the outside dimensions of saidl group conform substantially to the horizontal dimensions of said pallet, double-Walled spacers within said group of individual containers provided by the adjacent sides of said containers, vertical supports for said assembly at the outside and internally thereof provided by the adjacent sides and corners of said individual containers, and separate liners disposed within said individual containers at the sides thereof forming the outer periphery and corners of said group to provide vertical support and side strength for said group of containers at the outside thereof, said liners extending along no less than two and no more than three sides and at no less than one and no more than two outside corners of said individual containers, and a common telescoping top for said group of individual containers to make said group of containers and said pallet into an internally reinforced unit pallet package.
2. A packaging assembly comprising a pallet of fixed dimension, a group of individual containers having a bottom and vertical sides on said pallet, the external horizontal dimensions of said group being substantially equal to the external horizontal dimensions of said pallet, liners in said individual containers adapted to provide double-wall thicknesses only along the exterior vertical walls of said group of containers and vertical reinforcing ribs only in the four outside corners of said group of containers, and a common telescoping cover over said group of individual containers, said cover being suitably secured to said group of containers at the exterior periphery thereof to provide Va unit pallet package including said pallet and said group of individual containers.
3. An assembly such as that described by claim 2 and further characterized by said assembly including one or more of said groups of individual containers.
4. A packaging assembly comprising two individual boxes each having a bottom and vertical sides and ends, said boxes being placed with one side of each adjacent to a corresponding side of the other, and a liner disposed within each box, each of said -liners being formed from a strip of the same material as that from which said boxes are made and as wide as said boxes are high, said liners each being formed to provide a free end portion at either end thereof to reinforce the inside of the ends of the box in which said liner is placed, and an intermediate portion adapted to reinforce the outer side of said box opposite the side thereof adjacent the other box, said end portions and said intermediate portion being joined by a return bend portion of said strip disposed in the outer corners of said box opposite the corners adjacent said other box to provide vertical reinforcing ribs for said box, and a common telescopic cover fitting over and secured to both of said two individual boxes.
5. A packaging assembly comprising four individual boxes of rectangular cross-section, said boxes being arranged to provide a group of adjacent boxes with one corner of each box being in a position corresponding to a corner of said group and not being adjacent to any other portion of another box and with two sides of each individual box being not adjacent to any other side of any other box except endwise or in continuation thereof, a liner for each individual box, each of said liners being disposed along not less than two and not more than three sides of each individual box and each of said liners being formed to provide one return bend portion of said liner disposed in said one outer corner of each of said boxes to provide a vertical reinforcing Vrib therefor, and a common cover for said group of boxes.
6. In a shipping container, the combination of a cardboard box having a bottom, sides and a top and a liner for said box disposed adjacent only two of the vertical sides thereof, said liner comprising a strip of cardboard as wide as said vertical sides of said box are high, said strip being suitably folded to provide a second thickness of cardboard along only two of said vertical sides of said box and at the inside thereof, said liner having at least one of the portions thereof corresponding to a vertical corner of said box folded three or more times to provide inwardly extending tabs of a plurality of layers of said cardboard, said layers forming said tabs being suitably stapled together to provide a rigid reinforcing rib vertically of said box.
7. In a shipping container, the combination of a cardboard box having a bottom, sides and a top and a liner for said box disposed adjacent only three of the vertical sides thereof, said liner comprising a strip of cardboard as wide as said vertical sides of said box are high, said strip being suitably folded to provide a second thickness of cardboard along only three of said vertical sides of said box and at the inside thereof, said liner having at least one of the portions thereof corresponding to a vertical corner of said box folded three or more times to provide inwardly extending tabs of a plurality of layers of said cardboard, said layers forming said tabs being suit-ably stapled together to provide a rigid reinforcing rib vertically of said box. Y
8. A packaging unit, comprising separate containers having side walls and arranged so that certain of said side walls are disposed in adjacent relation to provide double wall thicknesses internally of said package unit, and separate liner members having fewer sides than said separate containers, said sides being separated by double wall folded portions secured together to provide vertical support members, said liners being disposed in said separate containers to provide double side wall thicknesses throughout said packaging unit and vertical support members at the outer corners of said unit.
9. A packing unit, comprising separate containers having side walls and arranged so that certain of said side walls are disposed in adjacent relation to provide double wall thicknesses internally of said package unit, and separate liner members having fewer sides than said separate containers, said liners being disposed in said separate containers to provide double side wall thicknesses throughout said packaging unit.
10. A packaging unit comprising a plurality of separate containers grouped together and having side walls of said containers adjacently disposed to provide double Wall thicknesses internally of said packaging unit, liner members disposed within those containers having walls exposed externally of said packaging unit, said liner members having sides disposed adjacent each container side wall exposed externally of said packaging unit to provide double unit external wall thicknesses, and at least one of said container side walls internally of said unit being free of a liner side.
11. The packaging unit of claim 10 having said liner sides disposed adjacent only the container side walls exposed externally of said packaging unit.
12. The packaging unit of claim l0 having double wall folded portions formed from and between adjacent of said liner sides and disposed within only the container corners exposed externally of said packaging unit.
13. The packaging unit of claim 12 having said double wall folded portions disposed only between liner sides adjacent the externally exposed side walls of said packaging unit.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,196,320 Weber Aug. 29, 1916 1,591,087 Holliday July 6, 1926 1,875,455 Hayes et al. Sept. 6, 1932 2,675,123 Baird Apr. 13, 1954