US 2936603 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1960 c. G. LEWINE 2,936,603
ELASTICIZED SHIRREID OR CORRUGATED FABRIC Filed Jan. 25, 1954 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 dI iI II R II H II II II II INVENTOR.
OHARLES 6. LEMNE BY 7 i AT DEWEY May 17, 1960 c. G. LEWINE ELASTICIZED SHIRRED OR CORRUGATED FABRIC Filed Jan. 25, 1954 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 A A M E r l 4 0114mm 6. LEW/NE pm F May 17, 1960 c. s. LEWINE 2,936,603
ELASTICIZED SHIRRED OR CORRUGATED FABRIC Filed Jan. 25. 1954 6 sheets-sheet s momma) QKMO) Fig.9. w m M10) 0) O MQJG D) Q 6) Q 9) IN VEN TOR.
CHARLES 6'. LEMNF United States Patent ELASTICIZED SHIRRED OR CORRUGATED FABRIC Charles G. Lewine, Philadelphia, Pa. Application January 25, 1954, Serial No. 405,995 1 Claim. (Cl. 66-193) The present invention relates to shirred, fluted in C01- rugated elastic fabrics and relates more particularly to knitted fabrics which are shirred or fluted (or both) by means of elastic strands and are stretchable.
The object of the presentinvention is toproduce a fabric of the general character stated which can be used for various decorative effects as well as utilitarian purposes in wearing apparel and other uses as for instance in making decorative waist bands, decorative belts, and other products in which a shirred elastic fabric may be used.
In the accompanying drawings in which like'reference characters indicate like parts:
Figure 1 represents a fragmentary perspective view on an enlarged scale, and shown somewhat schematically, of one embodiment of the present invention.
Figure 2 represents a plan view of the same showing its back surface.
Figure 3 represents a fragmentary cross-sectional view "on line 3--3 of Figures 2 and 4 on a larger scale than Figure 2 and one slightly smaller scale than Figure 4, and shown contracted as in Figure 2 rather than flat as in Figure 4 (and somewhat schematic) with the .unknitted or floated portion of the elastic thread contracted and with the fabric shirred or corrugated or fluted.
Figure 4 represents a plan view, on a much enlarged scale, of the knit structure of one embodiment of the present invention, shown fully stretched out, flat, and showing the knit structure somewhat diagrammatically. Figure 5 is a plan view similar to Figure 4, and on a similarly enlarged scale, showing the detailedconstruction of another embodiment of the present invention (shown stretched out so that all-the shirring is pulled out flat).
Figure 6 is a plan view similar to Figures 4 .and 5, and on a similarly enlarged scale, showing the detailed construction of another embodiment of the present invention (shown stretched out so that all the shirringiis pulled out fiat) Figure 7 represents a schematic perspective view of theoutersurface of a-fabric of the embodiment shown in Figure 6.
Figure 8 represents a plan view of the outer surface of the fabric shown in Figures 6 and 7 on a scale near an actual size; shown contracted.
- Figure 9 represents a plan view of the rear surface of the fabric shown in Figure 8.
Figure 10 represents a plan view of the outer surface of the fabric shown in Figures 8 and9; shownstretched out.
i it Figure 11 represents a plan view of the rear surface .of the fabric shown in Figures 8 and 9; shown stretched out.
The fabric of the present invention consists of warpknitted inelastic-yarns or threads and warp-knitted elastic yarns, with the elastic yarn knitted .a-certain numberof stitches, or courses, as, for instance, 2, 3, 4 or 5 stitches or courses (more or less), and then remaining unknitted and floated on one side of the fabric while the inelastic yarn is knitted another number of stitches or courses, and either a weft thread extended back and forth and laid into the knitted loops of each course so as to interconnect the otherwise unconnected chains of warp-knitted stitches or loops or with the loops of adjacent wales of inelastic thread interknitted in alternate courses; or with aforesaid warp-knitted inelastic yarns knitted through a piece of pre-wo-ven fabric fed warp-wise between the row of needles and the yarn-carriers carrying the elastic and inelastic yarns, so that the needles pierce through such warp fed woven fabric just prior to having the yarns fed into the hooks of the needles, and so thatupon the withdrawal of the needles the new loop is pulled through the pro-Woven fabric.
In using a warp-fed web pre-woven fabric in lieu of either the inlaid weft threads (as in the first embodiment mentioned) or in lieu of the interknitting of adjacent warp chains of loops (as in the second embodiment mentioned), a needle having a pointed nose (as for instance, a Ruete'r type needle) is used, which is capable of piercing the warp-fed pre-woven fabric. Otherwise any ordinary latch needle or spring-beard needle may be used in either of the first two embodiments mentioned.
Figures 1 and 2 are generally representative of each of the first two embodiments, in that they represent generally the appearance of the fabric; insofar as such appearance can be shown graphically (the actual surface-texture varying according to the type of inelastic yarn used, namely, its thickness, softness or hardness and whether it is rayon, cotton, wool, etc. or any mixtures, and is aifeoted also by the tightness or looseness of the stitch and gauge of the machine, etc.).
The details are shown more particularly in Figures 3 and 4 as to thefirst embodiment mentioned, and in Figure 5 as to the second embodiment mentioned, and in Figure 6 as to the third embodiment mentioned.
However, in each embodiment the fabric, when in its corrugated, fluted or pleated condition, includes on what may be called its outer surface (shown in Figures 1, .7 and 8) ridges 22 and valleys 23, which become zones 24 and 25 in the stretched-out condition of the fabric.
On what for purposes of identification may be regarded as the outer surface, the valleys 23 are unobstructed by any intervening spans of yarns stretched between the ridges. However, on the reverse side or back surface of the fabric spans or portions 27 of unknitted elastic yarn extend between corrugationsor flutes.
In the taut or stretched-out condition of these fabrics, these unknitted spans or portions 27 of elastic yarn are stretched and corrugation or fiuting or shirring is substantially pulled out, more or less flat, with the elastic spans 27 thenlying against the flattened portions or zones 24 of the fabric. 4 a
In the embodiment shown particularly in Figures 2, 3 and 4, inelastic warp yarns 28 and elastic warp yarns 29 and a weft yarn 30 are provided. The weft yarn 30 may be and preferably is inelastic, although itmay also he (in. certain embodiments) an elastic yarn, to make the fabric also stretchable at a right angle to the direction of the warp-knitted chains of loops or stitches.
It is to be understood that in referring to a yarn as being inelastic the intention is to refer to yarns that are relatively inelastic as contrasted with the other yarn which is designated as elastic. Thus, for instance, for the elastic yarns rubber strands, preferably covered with a spiral wrapping of some textile yarn (such ascotton, silk or nylon or the like) is used, which is highly stretchable and will exert a definite pull when stretched and will tend to restore itself to its contracted posture when any ordinary textile thread (with more or less twist) may be used, either hard-twisted or soft-twisted, as, for instance, cotton, rayon, nylon, wool, etc., and even ornamental or decorative yarns formed of mixtures of textile thread material and thin metallic strips or cellophane strips, etc. may be used. While all such textile yarns are stretchable to some degree and perhaps recover from this elongation when the pull thereof is removed, this is distinguishable from the elastic yarn referred to herein, in that the elastic is relatively highly elastic in relation to the yarn designated as inelastic.
vAlso, for the elastic yarn or thread materials other than-rubber or thread-wrapped rubber strands may be used, namely, any strand, yarn or filament (either homogeneous, monolithic or composite) which is capable of substantial elongation under the influence of tension imposed thereon and which will substantially and relatively quickly recover from its elongation and restore itself-to its original dimension when the tcnsion or pull thereon is removed.
An elastic warp thread or yarn may be extended through the fabric at or through each warp-wise wale of the fabric or only through every second or third Wale, according to the amount of elastic strength or elastic-pull desired in the warp-wise direction of the fabric. Similarly, the size of the rubber or other elastic strand'29 may be selected according to the warpwise elastic pull or strength desired in the fabric.
In the first two embodiments shown, the elastic strands 29 are provided only in alternate wales or in only every alternate warp position or warp-zone, although, as stated, this may be varied in either direction.
In the third embodiment in which the interconnection between warp-chains is through the medium of preformed web of woven (or otherwise formed) fabric or sheeting, an elastic strand may be provided in each of the warpknitted chains, and the warp-knitted chains spaced further apart according to the strength of the elasticity desired in the warp-wise direction of the resultant fabric or according to the frequency of Warp chains desired for decorative purposes.
In the embodiment shown particularly in Figures and 4, each of the inelastic warp yarns 28 is knitted on a separate needle on a warp-type knitting machine, as
.for instance, a Raschel machine, to form the separate chains of warp-knitted loops or stitches of such elastic :yarn, as shown in Figure 4. The feeding and application of these separate warp threads (from separate spools, bobbins or beam or other source or sources) to the individual needles in the needle-bank, may be according to the method ,well known in warp knitting. 1
In the wales or atthe needle-positions in which an elastic strand or yarn 29 is desired, a separate carrier is provided through which the elastic yarn 29 is fed to the respective needles. The yarn-carriers carrying the separate elastic yarns or strands 29 are operated in unison, so that the application of the elastic yarns to the needles is the same throughout the entire width of the fabric as to all needles to which elastic yarn is fed.
The carriers which feed the inelastic yarns 28 likewise operate in unison with each other. However, the carriers feeding the inelastic yarns and the carriers feeding the elastic yarns are operated by separate actuating means. The row of yarn-carriers feeding the inelastic yarns are operated to feed the yarn'to the needles with each stroke of the needles or with each cycle of needleoperation, While the yarn-carriers which feed the elastic yarns are activated through their yarn-feeding motion or cycle during a few successive cycles of the needles and then held inactive or inoperative during another few needle-cycles, and so alternately rendered active and inactive, as the formation of the fabric progresses.
In this manner the inelastic yarns 28 and the elastic strands 29 will be knitted together, into the warp-wise chains of loops (on all needles to which an elastic yarn is fed) in the courses or thetneedle-cycles in which the carriers with the elastic yarn are activated, as, for instance, the four courses designated by the numeral 25, while in the next four courses, designated generally by the numeral 24, in which the carriers with the elastic yarn are deactivated or remain inoperative, the elastic yarns 29 are merely fed on the surface of the fabric in an unknitted or otherwise unattached'condition to form the spans 27 which contract the fabric so as to shir it and to form it into the generally corrugated or fluted cross-section forming ridges and valleys on each side.
The elastic strands or yarns 29 are fed under tension 1 so that they are fed in a partially stretched or in a substantially fully stretched condition, so that as the fabrictake-up of the knitting-machine draws or takes up the fabric released by the needles (a course at a time), the elastic yarns 29 will be paid out (during the floatedelastic-courses 24) 'in a stretched condition (to form the floated elastic spans 27); whereby the floated elastic spans 27 will contract the fabric when the warp-wise tension or pull thereon is released so as to cause the fabric to assume the corrugated or fluted shape or shirred condition indicated in the drawings, and so that when the finished fabric is again stretched warp-wise, these elastic spans 27 will stretch and permit the fabric to be drawn into a more or less flat condition.
Thewefts 30 are preferably formed of a single continuous yarn or thread shuttled or fed back and forth cross-wise or weft-wise, and are merely inlaid (but otherwise unknitted) in the manner conventional in certain warp-knitted fabrics and in the manner indicated in Figures 3 and 4.
In this manner, the otherwise unconnected warp knitted chains shown in Figure 4 are interconnected into a fabric web.
By using the weft threads 39 of relatively soft, and bulky or thick character, the corrugations may be further accentuated and sharpened, because in the ridges 22 where therubber is entirely omitted, the soft, bulky weft threads will not be as firmly compressed by the inelastic warpknitted loops (in which they are laid), while in the valleys 23, where the rubber strands 29 are knitted into the fabric (along with the inelastic yarns .28) the presence of the rubber in the knitted loops causes those loops to be much tighter (insofar as the rubber is concerned) .so as to compress the relatively soft or bulky wefts 30, thereby causing the portions 23 to be tighter or harder, or more dense and compact, than the intervening portions 22. In the embodiment illustrated particularly in Figure 5,
in which no wefts are needed but may also be inserted,
the inelastic yarns 33 and 34, in alternate needle-positions on the yarn-carrier-bar of the machine, are not only knitted into warp-wise chains of loops, but, by shifting the yarn-carrier-bars back and forth (laterally), one needle-position, yarns 33 and 34 and the warp-wise chains of knitted loops formed thereof, are also-inter- -knitted as between adjacent wales, as shown particularly in Figure 5. While this makes an inlaid or otherwise incorporated weft unnecessary, an inelastic inlaid weft may beincluded if no cross-wise stretchability is desired, and
.an elastic weft may be included if cross-wise stretchability, with elastic comeback, is desired.
, In this embodiment, as in the embodiment previously discussed, the elastic yarns or strands 29 are knitted in stretched more or less flat by Pulling it warp-wise.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 5 the elastic yarns or strands 29 are interknitted with or plaited on the bodyyarns 33 or 34 every fifth, sixth, seventh or eighth course (in alternate wales), although, this repeat may be varied. Thus, instead of plaiting them or knitting them together with the body-yarns 33 and 34 in single courses in zones 25 spaced from each other by a suitable number of intervening courses in zones 24, the elastic yarns 29 may be knitted together (or plaited) with the bodyyarns 33 or 34 in two or three successive courses (with four, five, six, seven or eight intervening courses in which the rubber strands are floated in an unknitted condition).
In the embodiment of the invention shown in Figures 6 to 11, inclusive, the bodyf of the resultant fabric-web or finished product is a sheet of pre-formed woven or otherwise constructed textile fabric 35. Thus, for instance, a piece of closely woven nylon, silk, rayon or other suitable fabric 35 may be used (or any plastic sheeting may be used).
In this form of construction the inelastic threads 36 are fed to the needles during every needle-cycle, while the elastic threads 29 are fed to each of the needles (or to some but not all of the active needles) during four or so courses and then floated on the surface of the sheeting 35 through another suitable number or courses as, for instance, another four courses or so, and repeating the alternate knitting and floating of the elastic yarn in any desired pattern of repeat.
By using fabric-piercing needles such as the Rueter needles, and feeding the pre-formed web 35 between the needles and the yarn-feeding-carriers, the needles will pierce the web 35 and draw the loops through the web in the manner indicated in Figure 6.
In this embodiment the knitted wales or knitted chains can be as widely separated as may be desired either from a decorative viewpoint or from a viewpoint of elasticgathering strength desired. Thus, instead of forming the Wales on each needle of the machine, they may be formed on only every alternate or every third or fourth needle or even at greater spacing (with the unused needles removed from the needle-bar or otherwise rendered inactive).
In this embodiment a slight gathering or shirring of the fabric is also effected in the zones 25 where the elastic is knitted in, so that in a stretched-out condition of the finished product there will still be a slight gathering or shirring in the zones 25, although the zones 24 may be stretched out into a more or less fiat condition; the shirring in the zone 25 being however of a much smaller size (than the main corrugation, fluting or pleating) because there are no free-floating rubber spans 27 and it is merely the knitted rubber loops which tighten up on the fabric or web 35 in the zones 25 to gather it into small creases.
The shape of the corrugations, flutes or pleats may be varied by the repeat and the size and compressibility of the warp threads 28, 33 and 34, of the weft threads 30 or web 35. Thus, the corrugations may be made more or less round or more or less square or Wide or narrow or deep or shallow, etc.
The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof, and it is therefore desired that the present embodiments be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, reference being had to the appended claim rather than to the foregoing description to indicate the scope of the invention.
Having thus described the invention, the following is hereby claimed:
A fabric including non-interknitted wales of warpknitted loops of inelastic yarns, covered elastic strands in some of said wales of warp-knitted loops of inelastic yarns, said elastic strands being warp-knitted into loops in some courses and being floated in an unknitted condition past courses intermediate the courses in which said elastic strands are knitted into loops, and an inelastic yarn extending back and forth across the entire width of the fabric through successive courses of the aforementioned wales of warp-knitted loops and laid therein in an unknitted condition and constituting wefts connecting said wales of warp-knitted loops to unite them into a. fabric; all elastic strands being knitted in the same courses and being floated in an unknitted condition past the same courses so as to cause the unknitted and floated portions of said elastic strands to gather the resultant fabric into parallel corrugations when the fabric is not stretched warpwise. I
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