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Publication numberUS2937767 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 24, 1960
Filing dateDec 15, 1958
Priority dateDec 15, 1958
Publication numberUS 2937767 A, US 2937767A, US-A-2937767, US2937767 A, US2937767A
InventorsButler Robert H, Robert Sundene
Original AssigneeUnistrut Products Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shelving structure
US 2937767 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1960 R. H. BUTLER ET AL 2,937,767

SHELVING STRUCTURE Filed Dec. 15, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORSZ ROBERT SUNDENE ROBERT H. BUTLER United States Patent SHELVING STRUCTURE Filed Dec. 15, 1958, Ser. No. 780,375

12 Claims. (Cl. 211-148) This invention relates to sectional shelving structure,

or pallet racks, especially of the knock-dowm point-ofuse assembly type.

Modern industry requires shelving structures of vary- 7 ing lengths, heights and widths with varying spacing of the shelves. The general preference is for a supporting framework of preformed, interlocking metal parts deliverable knock-down to the point-of-use where it can be assembled to make the best set-up for the available space. Various forms of interfitting and interlocking parts have been devised. Generally these forms have presented some disadvantages either in economy of manufacture, convenience of and/or ease of assembly and disassembly.

The main objects of this invention are to provide an improved form of shelving structure of the knock-down, point-of-use assembly type; to provide an improved shelving structure of this kind having an improved form of interlocking posts, spacing side rails, and crossbraces; and to provide an improved interlocking structure of this kind of such simple form and relationship as to make the manufacture economical, transport and/or storage convenient, assembly and disassembly quick and easy, and insure a rigidity of the assembly comparable to that obtainable with permanently-installed structures.

A specific embodiment of this invention is shown in the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a section of shelving structure constructed in accordance with this invention;

Fig; 2 is a perspective view of one of the notched-ear, bracket-plates secured to the end of a stringer or spacing side rail member;

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, perspective view of one end of one of the front-to-rear cross braces;

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary, sectional view taken on the plane of the line 44 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the parts shown in Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary, sectional view taken on the plane of the line 66' of Fig. 1;

Fig. 7 is a right-hand elevation of Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 is an exploded, fragmentary, perspective view taken from the left of Fig. 2 showing a modified form of connection for the bracket platm and the stringers or spacing side rails; and

Fig. 9 is a plan view of a fiat piece of metal showing in full lines the initial cuts and in dotted lines the subsequent bends which result in bracket plates of the indicated shape. 1

The essential concept of this invention involves winged, channel-shaped posts, with slotted base part and wings, and brackets having pairs of notched parallel olfset ears seatable in the post-base and wing slots, the brackets mounting extensions for telescopic connection to the parts shown in horizontally extending stringers or side rails, and frontto-rear pairs of the posts being transversely series of cross braces and intersecting tie rods.

A shelving structure embodying the foregoing concept comprises posts 11 formed with series of slots 12 and 13 respectively receptive of notched cars 14 and 15 on bracket plates 16 (see Fig. 2) which mount extensions 17 telescopically supporting hollow side rails or stringers 18 which extend horizontally along the front and rear sides of the shelving, the posts being arranged in frontto-rear pairs and transversely braced by cross braces 19 and intersecting tie rods 20.

The posts 11 here are shown of channel shape with wings 21 extending oppositely outward in a common plane from the edges of the parallel side parts 22 of the post 11. It should be understood, however, that the posts 11 could be of hollow rectangular form with the wings 21 arranged in the plane of a part transverse to the side parts or even intermediate opposite transverse parts. 1

The series of slots 12 are uniformly spaced along the longitudinal median of the base part 23 of the post 11, whereas the series of slots 13 extend longitudinally along the wings 21 closely adjacent the respective side parts 22 of the post 11. The slots 12 preferably are of trapezoidal shape, whereas the series of slots 13 are of rectangular shape. The slots 12 and 13 are disposed in the same planes transversely of'the post 11 and portions of the base part 23 and the wings 21, which respectively define the bases of the slots 12 and 13, constitute shoulders over which are seated the notched ears 15 and 14 of the bracket plates 16, as will be described presently.

The slots 12 are made trapezoidal, with the non-parallel sides converging downwardly, so that the cars 15 on two bracket plates 16, disposed one on each side of the post 11, may be projected into the same slot 12 with the two brackets 16 positioned adjacently transverse of the post 18 with oppositely connnected side rails 18 axially alined.

The bracket plates 16, very obviously, are stampings each formed from a flat, rectangular-shaped piece of proper-gage metal (see Fig. 9). Such a piece of material is processed to provide alined cuts 24 extending inwardly from the opposite transverse shorter edges, as. indicated in full lines in Fig. 9, and subsequently bent along the dotted lines 26 of Fig. 9 to the final shape shown in the other figures. So formed, the pair of ears 14, with notches 27, extend outwardly from one lateral edge and in the plane of the plate 16. The pair of ears 15, with similar notches 28, at the ends of arms 29 which are disposed at right angle to the plane of the bracket platealong the opposite lateral edge of the'plate 16, are positioned in offset parallel, but rearwardly-spaced, relationship to the ears 14. The portions of the metal between the cuts 24 in the plate 16 are bent opposite to the arms 29 to form the extensions 17 as shown in the'other figures. The extensions 17 are formed to telescope withthe side rails 18 to firmly support the rails in predetermined vertically-spaced relationship, as will be explained presently.

-The extensions17, in all but Fig. 8, are shown as being these bent-back parts of the piece (Fig. 9) from which the bracket plates 16 are formed. Because of the L-shaped form of the rails 18, these bent-back parts have to be of difierent heights in order to snugly telescope along the opposite sides of the ends of the rails 18 towhich the extensions 17'are appropriately fastened either by removablefasteners as, for example, self-threading screws, extending through registering holes (not shown)" Patented May 24, 196% braced by a in the flange extensions 17 and the rails 18 or by bonding the extensions 17 to the rails 18 as by welding.

Obviously, other forms of extension could be substituted for the flange extensions 17 here shown. One other such form of extension is shown in Fig. 8. In such an adaptation. this extension 17 is a short section, L- shaped likethe rails 18, dimensioned to permit it to telescopically enter the open end' of a side rail 18 with the end of the rail abutting the bracket plate 16. In this adaptation the extension 17 would be permanently bonded to the bracket plate 16. Its telescoping relationship with the end of a side rail 18 could be retained by use of removable fasteners, such as self-threading screws (not shown) extending through registering apertures 303i or the telcscoped parts of the extension 17" and the rail 18 could be permanently bonded together.

The advantages of using removable fasteners for either adaptation of extension 17 or 17 are two-fold. It permits the use of varied lengths of stringers or side rails 18'. which can be cut to size on the job site to accommodate shelving to space of predetermined dimensions; and also allows ready disassembling of a structure when it is no longer desired in a particular place or is desired to be assembled at another place. Another advantage of removably telescoping the extensions 17 or 17' into the side rails 18 is that the rails need not be pre-fabricated to specific lengths and hence there is no problem of stocking various sizes to accommodate the wide range of space situations that may occur.

The side rails 18 here are shown to be of hollow L- shaped cross-section thereby providing right-angle disposed horizontal and vertical ledges 31' and 32. Prefer ably, as the drawings illustrate, the rails 18 are formed of two channel'shaped pieces 33 and 34. The one piece 33 isformed to embody the right-angular ledges 31 and 32. The other piece 34 is plain channel-shaped and is set in and bonded to the one piece 33 along its opening. Generally the piece 34 is not quite as long as the piece 33 and the two pieces are so bonded together as to leave openings 35 at each end of the rail (see Figs. 1, 4 and to aiford access to the interior to permit the bonding of the flange extensions 17 to the end of the rail, when that is desired.

The rails 18 being made of L-shape, to provide the ledges 31 and 32, permits placing planks (see dot-dash outlinesin Figs. 1 and 2) to transversely span an opposed pair of parallel rails 18 with the plank ends resting on the ledges 31 and abutting the ledges 32, respectively. Thus the upper faces of the planks can be flush with the top edges of the rails 18; This facilitatesplacing articles on and removing them'from the shelves and prevents accidental. dislodgment of the planks from the rails.

The cross braces 19, like the other parts of this structure, are channel-shaped. The ends are slit along the corners to permit turning up a short sectionof the base part 36 to form a post-abutting flange 37 and longitudinally extending notched end cars 38. Inwardly from the flanges 37 pads 39 are embossed from the web of the channel with the upper faces 4%) of the pads oppositely inclined to the face of the said webpart. Holes 41 in the pads 39 receive the ends of the tie rods 20. Adjacent the center of each cross brace 19 is anclongated slot 44 (Fig. 1) through which intersecting tie rods 20 extend in a cross brace 19 which is intermediate the alternately opposite cross braces through which the. ends of the pair of tie rods extend.

The tie rods 20 are here shown with one end bentover to form head 42 and the other end is threaded to receive a nut 43 (Fig. 1) whereby a pair of rods 20 may be suitably tightened to insure firm cross bracing of a front-to-rear pair of vertically positioned brace-connected posts, 18. When these rods 20 are so placed and tightened the heads 42 and nuts 43 set flat against the inclined faces 40015 the respective pads 39, thus enhancing the rigidity of the assembled structure.

ans-me? The set-up of shelving structure, constructed in accordance with this invention, may follow either of two sequences. One sequence would involve pairs of posts 11 being connected by two or more side rails or stringers 18 with their supporting bracket plates 16 seated on the posts 11, following which two sets of such connected posts 11 would be placed in parallel relation and connected front-to-rear by a set of three cross braces 19 and a pair of tie rods 20. Another sequence would involve positioning a pair of posts 11 in front-to-rear parallel relationship and connecting them by a set of three cross braces 19 and a pair of tie rods 20, as shown in Fig. 1, following which two or more of such cross-braced pairs of posts would be set up vertically in proper horizontally-spaced relationship and connected by the desired number of side rails 18 with their supporting bracket plates seated on the respective posts. Obviously, the spacing between the pairs of cross-braced posts 11 would depend upon the length of the respective side rails 18.

In either assembly sequence, the bracket plates 16 are assembled on the respective posts 11 by simultaneously projecting pairs of ears 14 and 15 for the respective bracket plates 16 through the respective slots 13 and 12 and setting the notches 27 and 23 over the wings 21 and base part '23.

Where stringer side rails 18 are to be disposed on both sides of a post 11 abutting pairs of bracket plates 16 have the pairs of. notched ears 15 projected through the same trapezoidal slots 12 and the notches 27 set over the same portions of the base part 23. In such an assembly the abutting ears 14, on the two bracket plates 16, are wedged into the base of the slots 12.

Once the desired number of pairs of cross-braced posts 11 and pairs of side rails 18 with their supporting bracket plates 16-either integrated with the side rails 18 or attached by removable fastenersare appropriately assembled, planks (see dotted outlines of Figs. 1 and 2) are placed to span the opposed parallel side rails 18 with the plank ends seated on the ledges 31 and abutting the ledges 32 with the top faces of the planks flush with the top edges ofthe side rails 18.

Shelving structure of this kind is most convenient to ship and/ or store completely disassembled, and is quickly and easily set up to accommodate almost any length and width of available space within the dimensions of these several parts provided by the manufacturer. The assembly is quite as rigid as permanently-installed shelving structure and has the advantage of being easily dismantled either for storage or for re-assembly at another point. A particular advantage of this invention however is the fact that because of the form of the post and the post embracing construction of the brackets for attaching the side rails an extremely strong and rigid structure is provided which, for a given gauge of metal from which the components are made, is much stronger and capable of supporting heavier loads than shelving constructions heretofore proposed.

Although but one specific embodiment of this invention is herein. shown and described it will be understood that details of the construction shown may be altered or omitted without departing from the spirit of the invert tion as defined by the following claims.

We claim;

, 1. Shelving, structure comprising, a hollow post having a series of uniformly-spaced slots extending longitudinally of one side part thereof, a series of similarly spaced outwardly-extending shoulders along another post side part disposed transversely to the one side part, a bracket plate mounting a pair of ears extending in the same general direction in transversely offset parallel planes, one of the ears being disposed in advance of the other in their respective planes a distance equal to the distance between the one side part and the series of shoul' ders, the ears. having notches extending inwardly from the corresponding edges adjacently, inward from the TC":

spective outer ends, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post with the more advanced ear notchseated over one of the series of shoulders and the other car projecting into a one side part slot with the ear notch seated over the slot-defining edge of the one side part, and means on the bracket for supporting the end of a post-spacing side rail.v

2. Shelving structure comprising, a hollow post a face part of which has a series of uniformly-spaced slots extending longitudinally thereof, a wing extending outwardly from one of the parallel side parts of the post and dis posed parallel to the said face part and having a series of uniformly-spaced slots'extendinglongitudinally of the said wing, a bracket plate mounting a pair of ears extending in the same general direction in transversely ofifset planes, one of the ears being disposed in advancevof the other'in their respective. planes a distance equal to the distance between the post face part and the said wing, the ears having notches extending inwardly from corresponding edges adjacently inward from the respective outer ends, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post with the more advanced ear extending through a wing slot with the ear notch seated over the slot-defining edge of the wing and other ear extending through a face-slot with the notch seated over the slotdefining edge of the face part, and means on the bracket plate for supporting the end of a post-spacing side rail.

3. Shelving structure comprising, a channel-shaped post the base part of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially thereof, a similar uniformly-spaced series of oppositely-extending shoulders along the edges of the parallel parts of the chamelshaped post, a bracket plate having a first pair of parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge and in the plane of the plate, a pair of arms extending transversely outward from the opposite edge of the plate and mounting a second pair of ears disposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but ofiset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane,v both pairs of cars having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective outer ends, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post by having the notches in the first pair of ears seated over shoulders alongone edge of one of the parallel parts of the post with the second pair of ears extending into the base-part slots with respective notches seated over the base part, and means on the bracket plate for supporting the end of a post spacing side rail.

4. Shelving structure comprising, the base'part of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially thereof, a similar uniformly-spaced series of oppositely-extending shoulders along the, edges of the parallel parts of the channelshaped'post, the slots and shoulders being disposed in the same planes transversely of the posts, a bracket plate having a pair ofparallel ear extending outwardly from one edgeand in the plane of the plate, a pair of arms extending transversely outward from the opposite edge of theplate and mounting a second pair of earsdisposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but a channel-shaped post oifset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane of a spacing equal in distance to that between the respective planes of the base-part slots and the shoulders, both pairs of ears having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective outer ends, the spacing of the notches in the second pair of ears from the notches in the first pair of cars being thesame as the distance between the post base-part and the shoulders, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post by having the notches in the firstpair of cars seated over shoulders along one edge of one. of the parallel parts of the post with-the second pair of ears. extending into thebase-part' slots with respective notches seated over the base part, and means on the bracket plate for, supporting the end of a post-spacing side rail.

5. Shelving structure comprising, a channel-shaped post the base part of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially thereof, wings extending transversely outward in opposite directions from the outer edges of the parallel parts of the channelshaped post, the wings each having a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed directly adjacent the respective parallel parts of the channel-shaped post, a bracket plate having a pair of spaced parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge and in the plane of the plate, a pair of arms extending transversely outwardly from the opposite edge of the plate and mounting a sec ond pair of cars spaced apart the same distance and disposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but offset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane, both pairs of ears having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective outer ends, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post by having the notches of the first pair of ears extending through the slots in one of the wings with the notches seated over the slot-defining wing part and the other pair of ears extending through the base-part slots with the notchestseated on the slot-defining base part, and means on the bracket plate for supporting the end of a postspacing side rail.

6. Shelving structure comprising, a channel-shaped post the base part of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially thereof, wings extending transversely outward in opposite directions from the outer edges of the parallel parts of the channel-shaped post, the wings each having a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed directly adjacent the respective parallel parts of the channel-shaped post, the slots in the base part and in the wings being disposed in the same planes transversely of the post, a bracket plate having a pair of spaced parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge and in the plane of the plate, a pair of arms e tending transversely outwardly from the opposite edge of the plate and mounting a second pair of cars spaced apart the same distance and disposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but offset rearwardly thereof in aparallel plane of a spacing equal in distance to that between the respective planes of the base-part slots and the wing slots, both pairs of ears having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective outer ends, the spacing of the notches in the second pair of ears from the notches in the first part of ears in the plane of the bracket plate being the same as the distance between the'post base-part and the wings, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post by having the notches of the first pair of cars extending through the slots in one of the wings with the notches seated over the slot-defining wing part and the other pair of cars extending through the base-part slots with the notches seated on the slot-defining base part, and means on the bracket plate for supporting the end of a post spacing side rail.

7. Shelvingtstructure comprising, a hollow post having a series of uniformly-spaced trapezoidal-shaped slots extending longitudinally medially of one side part of the post with the non-parallel edges of the slots converging downwardly, a series of shoulders extending oppositely outward from other postside parts in a plane parallel with the one side part, a pair of bracket plates each mounting a pair of ears extending in the same general direction in transversely-offset parallel plates a distance equal to that between the medial plane of 'the series of slots and the shoulders on either of the other side parts, one of each pair of ears being disposed in advance of the other pair in their respective planes a distance equal to that between the one side part and the common plane of the shoulders, the pair of bracket plates being removably positionable on a post in opposed alined relationship with each advanced ear notch seated onone of the.

respective series of shoulders and the other ears onthe bracket plates projecting through the same; trapezoidalshaped slot with the opposed ear faces abutting and with the respective ear notches seated over the lower edge of the slot-defining one side part, and means on each of the bracket plates for alinedly supporting the respective ends of a pair of post-spacing side rails.

8. Shelving structure comprising, a hollow post having a series of uniformly-spaced trapezoidal-shaped slots extending longitudinally medially of one side part of the post with the non-parallel edges of the slots converging downwardly, a series of shoulders extending oppositely outward from other post side parts in a plane parallel to the one side part, a pair of bracket plates each having a pair of spaced parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge and in the plane of the plate, a pair of, arms on each plate extending transversely outward from. the opposite edge and mounting a second pair of ears extending in the same generfl direction as the first pair of ears but offset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane, both pairs of ears for each bracket plate having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective ends, the pair of bracket plates being removably positionable on a post in opposed alined relationship with the advance ear notches seated over pairs of the respective series of shoulders and the other ears projecting through the same pair of trapezoidal slots with the opposed ear faces abutting and with the respective -ear notches seated over the lower edge of the slot-defining one side part, and means on each of the bracket plates for alinedly supporting the respective ends of a pair of post-spacing rails.

9. Shelving structure comprising, a channel-shapedpost the base part of which has a series of uniformly-spaced trapezoidal-shaped slots extending longitudinally medially thereof, wings extending transversely outward in opposite directions from the outer edges of the parallel parts of the channel-shaped post, the wings each having a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced elongated slots disposed directly adjacent the respective parallel parts of the channel-shaped post, a pair of bracket plates each having a pair of spaced parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge in the plane of the plate, a pair of arms on each plate extending transversely outward from the opposite edge and mounting a second pair of ears disposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but offset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane, both pairs of ears for each bracket plate having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective ends, the pair of brackets being removably positionable on a post in opposed alined relationship with the advanced ears extending through pairs of slots in the respective wings with the notches seated over the slot-defining wing parts and the other pair of ears on both bracket plates projecting through the same pair of trapezoidal slots with the opposed ear faces abutting and with the respective ear notches seated over the lower edge of the slot-defining base part, and means on each bracket plate for alinedly supporting the respective ends of a pair of post-spacing rails.

10. Shelving structure comprising, a pair of channelshaped posts each of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially of the respective base parts and a similar uniformly-spaced series of oppositely-extending shoulders along the edges of the parallel parts of the respective posts, a pair of brackets each mounting a pair of cars extending in the same general direction in transversely-offset parallel planes a distance equal to that between-the medial plane of the series of base slots and the plane of either of the series of shoulders, the ears having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective outer ends, the bracket plates being removably positionable on the respective posts with the more advanced ears seated over the shoulders and the other ears extending through the respective base-part slots and the notches seated over the slot-defining edges of: the base part, a set of three identically-formed channel-shaped cross braces each having outwardly-extending notched cars at the opposite ends and an elongated slot substantially at the center thereof and circular holes adjacent the ends, the cross braces being removably positionable in vertical relationship between the pair of posts with the notched ears seated on shoulders of the respective posts to dispose the posts in horizontally-spaced upright positions, headed tie rods having their respective ends projectable through the opposite end holes in alternate cross braces and intersecting in the slot in the intermediate cross brace, and means on the bracket plates for supporting the ends of post-spacing side rails.

11. Shelving structure comprising, a pair of channelshaped posts each of which has a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed medially of the respective base part, wings extending transversely outward in opposite directions from the parallel parts of the respective posts and each wing having a longitudinal series of uniformly-spaced slots disposed directly adjacent the respective parallel post parts, a pair of bracket plates each having a first pair of spaced parallel ears extending outwardly from one edge and in the plane of the respective plate, a pair of arms on each plate extending transversely outward from the opposite edge of the respective plate and mounting a second pair of ears disposed in the same general direction as the first pair of ears but offset rearwardly thereof in a parallel plane, the ears on both bracket plates having notches extending inwardly from the same edges adjacent their respective ends, the bracket plates being removably positionable on the respective posts with the first pair of ears extending through wing slots and the notches seated over the respective wings and the second pair of ears extending through the respective base-part slots and seated over the respective bases to dispose the pair of posts in opposed horizontally-spaced upright positions, a set of three identical cross-braces each having a portion of each end upset as a flange transversely to the plane of the base part and providing a pair of notched ears extending outwardly from each end, each cross-brace having an elongated slot substantially medially thereof, pads embossed on each cross-brace adjacent the ends thereof with the pad faces disposed at opposite angles to the plane of the base part, the pads having holes extending therethrough at inclined axes, the cross-braces being removably positionable in vertical relationship between the pair of posts with the notched end ears seated in the respective wing slots with the flanges abutting the adjacent base parts of the respective posts to dispose the'posts in horizontallyspaced upright positions, headed tie rods having their respective ends projectable through the holes in the opposite pads in alternate cross-braces and intersecting in the slot in the intermediate cross-brace, and means on each bracket plate for supporting the ends of post-spacing side rails.

12. Shelving structure comprising, a hollow post having a series of uniformly-spaced slots extending longitudinally of one side part thereof, a series of similarly-spaced outwardly-extending shoulders along another post side part disposed transversely to the one side part, a bracket plate mounting a pair of ears extending in the same general direction in transversely offset parallel planes, one of the ears being disposed in advance of the other in their respective planes a distance equal to the distance between the one side part and the series of shoulders, the ears having notches extending inwardly from the corresponding edges adjacently inward from the respective outer ends, the bracket plate being removably positionable on the post with the more advanced ear notch seated over one of the series of shoulders and the other ear projecting into a one side part slot with the ear notch seated over the slot-defining edge of the one side part, and means rigidly connecting the bracket and the end of a post-spacing side rail.

References Cited in the file of this patent Soule Aug. 9, 1938 Hokanson Jan. 10, 1939 Wood Feb. 27, 1940 Skar 4. Dec. 4, 1946 Franks Dec. 3, 1957 Slater Feb. 3, 1959

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Classifications
U.S. Classification211/191, 211/187
International ClassificationA47B57/40, A47B57/00, A47B47/02, A47B47/00
Cooperative ClassificationA47B47/028, A47B57/402, A47B47/021
European ClassificationA47B47/02R10, A47B57/40A, A47B47/02R