|Publication number||US2938256 A|
|Publication date||May 31, 1960|
|Filing date||Mar 6, 1957|
|Priority date||Mar 6, 1957|
|Publication number||US 2938256 A, US 2938256A, US-A-2938256, US2938256 A, US2938256A|
|Inventors||Bauer Ernest K, Shumaker Wendell D|
|Original Assignee||American Viscose Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (14), Classifications (4), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 31, 1960 E. K. BAUER ET METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING BULKED YARN Filed March 6, 1957 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING BULKED YARN Ernest K. Bauer, Meadville, and Wendell D. Shumakcr, Saegertown, Pa., assignors to American Viscose Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 6, 1957, Ser. No. 644,308
9 Claims. c1. 28-1) The invention relates to the manufacture of bulky yarns and more particularly to a method and apparatus for producing a yarn of increased bulk by swirling or whipping the individual continuous and substantially straight filaments of a multi-filament yarn into convolutions or ring like loops-or coils of various sizes and at random intervals along the length of the yarn.
in the manufacture of artificial fibers, which are most usually produced as unbroken filaments, various procedures have been proposed in an attempt to produce a continuous yarn having the lightweight and fiufiy character of a yarn spun from stable fibers. Until recently, the physical character of these continuous multi-fil-ament yarns has been modified or distorted into a bulked condition by chemical treatments, either during or after the formation of the yarn itself, or by mechanical manip= ulations, as for example where the yarn is crimped or twisted or where the filaments thereof are broken by cutting .or abrading the same. In general, these previous efforts resulted in a yarn which only temporarily retained its distorted or bulked character and, for the most part, involved a considerable sacrifice in the inherent strength characteristic of continuous multi-filament yarns. Accordingly, it is a primary object of this inventionto provide an improved and generally more satisfactory method and apparatus for bulking continuous multi-filament yarns.
Another object is the provision of an improved method wherein the individual filaments of a continuous multifilament yarn are separated from each other and swirled into 'convolutions or ring-like loops while being simultaneously advanced in a generally straight-line direction.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved method wherein the individual filaments of a continuous multi-filament yarn are separated from each other and swirled into a mass of snarled or entangled ring like loops extending at random intervals along the length of the yarn by an expanding fluid stream, while simultaneously being advanced in an axial direction through a restricted area by the fluid stream itself.
A further object is the provision of an improved apparatus having a bulking chamber within which the individual filaments of a continuous multi-filament yarn are separated from each other and concomitantly swirled or whipped into a bulked or looped formation by an expanding iiuidstream.-
A still further object is to provide a more satisfactory yarn bulking apparatus within which -a continuous multifilament yarn is caused to alter its axial direction of travel while simultaneously'being impinged with a turbulent stream of 'fluid to elfect a haphazard or random looping of the filaments along the yarn length.
Yet, another object is the provision of a yarn bulking apparatus having a bulking chamber of non-uniform crosssection designed to disrupt a streamlined fluid flow into a turbulent flow which efiect's a vibratory separation of the individual filaments of a continuous multi-filament 2,938,256 Patented May 31, 19.68
yarn and a swirling of the same into ring-like loops at random intervals along the length of the filaments as the yarn of filaments travels continuously through the bulking chamber.
.These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and accompanying drawing in which:
Figure l is a schematic view illustrating the bulking apparatus of the present invention in its manner of use; Figure 2 is a plan view of one form of yarn bulking device of the present invention;
Figure 3 is an expanded view illustrating, in perspective, the parts of the yarn bulking apparatus shown in Figure 2;
V Figure 4 is a vertical longitudinal section taken substantially along the lines 4-4 of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is an expanded view of a modified form of yarn bulking apparatus; and
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of a still further modified yarn bulking device of the present invention.
. -In general, the bulking of a continuous multi-filament yarn in accordance with the present invention is accomplished by passing the yarn through confined delivery and bulking chambers or passages, into the latter of which is also introduced a jet of compressible vfluid.
course and enters into the bulking chamber.
The yarn delivery and bulking chambers provide a continuous yarn path through the device, but are disposed in latenally offset relationship, thus necessitating that the yarn alter its direction of axial travel as it leaves the delivery chamber and enters into the bulking chamber. The compressible fluid, as for ex-ampleair, is introduced into the bulking chamber along a course inclined at an acute angle to the general direction of yarn travel and substantially at the area in which the yarn altersv its axial travel in moving from one chamber tothe other.
With this structural arrangement, a streamlined flow of compressible fluid expands and is disrupted upon its entry into the bulking chamber, into a turbulent flow which impinges against the yarn as it alters its axial The impact and turbulence of the fluid serves to violently vibrate the yarn filaments apart from each other and swirl or whip the same into a plurality of convolutions or ringlike Jloops which are randomly spaced along'the length of the filaments and which become entangled with each other as the yarn continues its passage through the bulking chamber. To maintain and reinforce the turbulent effect of the fluid stream on the yarn filaments passing through the bulking chamber, the walls of this chamber may be provided-with longitudinally spaced projections which, in effect, serve as deflectors or obstruc'-' tions for both the'compressible'fiuid and theyarn pass ing therethrough.
"With reference to the drawing, Figure '1 illustrates a yarn 11 consisting of a plurality of continuous substantially straight filaments supplied from a suitable source,- riot shown, and delivered into and through the yarn bulking apparatus of the present invention, indicated generally at 13. During its travel through the device 13, the yarn filaments are distorted into the desirable convoluted or looped formation as more fully described hereinafter, and are then passed over and through the guides 1-5, 17 and 19,between the take-up rolls 23 and 25, and collected on a conventional wind-up device schematically illustrated at 27. As the bulked or treated yarn passes onto the Wind-up device, it is given a slight twist to assist in maintaining the filaments in their bulked condition. -It"will be understood that the degree of twist imparted to the bulked yarn'may be varied'as desired;
3 with the greater the twist, the more firmly the individ' ual filaments are held together.
As shown in Figures 2 4, the bulking apparatus 13 includes yarn delivery and bulking chambers or passages 29 and 31, respectively, and a fluid delivery duct 33 interconriecting a fluidinlet opening 35 with the bulking chamber 31: For the sake of economy and easein manu-f facture, the bulking apparatus 13 is formed of plates 37 and 39 releasably secured together by bolts 41, with their faces '43 and 45in snug contact. If desired, a gasket, not shown, may be intemosed between the plates 37 and 39 to assure a satisfactory fluid seal therebe tween; As shown in Figure 3, the face 4301? the plate 37 is'provided with a pair of substantially straight channels 47 and 49 which together form a continuous path extending between opposite ends of the plate 37. For purposes as described hereafter, the channel 47 is made deeper but narrower than the channel 49, and terminates within the channel 49 as shown at 51. In a similar manner, the face 45 of the plate 39 is grooved to form generally straight'channels 53 and 55, the latter of which extends at an angle of approximately 30 to the axis of theflchannel 53. From the structure thus far described, it will be seen that the respective plates 37 and 39 can be easily machined with conventional equipment to provide the necessary channels therein. Further, while channels of rectangular cross-section have been illustrated, it will be understood that channels of other cross-sectional configurationmay'be ,employed if desired. 7 l j After this preliminary machining of the parts, the plates 37"and '39 aresecured together by the bolts 41, In this-assembled condition of the parts, the channels L Y assuage v of the filaments. In view of the turbulent condition of the fluid as it flows toward the exit of the bulking chamber 31, the initial ring-like loops formed in the filaments tends to become snarled or entwined with each other thereby locking the loops in place. From the procedure described, it will of course be apparent that the velocity of the compressed air is adjusted for the particular effect desired and may be evenvaried or delivered at a pulsating rate to form a novel yarn bulked at intermittent intervals. Further, it will be recognized that the yarn delivery and withdrawal rates must be so correlated to prevent the filaments from being pulled into their straight condition before the filament loops have become snarled or before the yarn is given a twist.
49 and 53' are aligned with each other and together form the bulking chamber 3-1, while the channels 47 and 55 are closed by the adjacent smooth 'surfaces'of the plates 39 and 37,-respectively, to provide the yarn delivery chamber 29 and fluid delivery duct 33 heretofore noted. As seen particularly in Figure 4, the chambers 29 and 31 provide a continuous passage through the device. The axes of these chambers, however, lie along substantially parallel planes offset laterally from each other thus providing the continuous passage with an angulated portion which causes the yarn of filaments to alter its straight line course as it passes from the chamber 29 to the chamber 31. The duct 33 opens into the chamber 31 substantially in the area within which the yarn alters its course and the' yarn filaments will therefore' 'bc subjected to the full impact of'the compressible fluid delivered through the duct'33. Further, it will'be noted that the enlarged cross-section of the chamber 31, as compared to the duct 33, permits a rapid expansion of the inrushing fluid and that the angular inclination of the duct 33 directs the fluid and yarn toward the exit of the chamber 31. 1
'Theinlet opening 35 is formed when the plates 37 and 39 are in their assembled condition, and is inter nally threaded to facilitate attachment of the hose 57 connected to a suitable source of compressible fluid, as for example air. In addition, the inlet area of the chamber 29 is countersunk asshown at 59 to facilitate lacing of the yarn thereinto; V 1
During the bulking process, the yarn of filaments 11 travelsa generally-straight-line path into and through As heretofore mentioned, the compressible fluid or air delivered into the bulking chamber is maintained in its turbulent condition and perhaps made more turbulent as it flows toward the exit of this chamber to insure the desiredbulkin'g effect on the yarn filaments with a minimum of compressed air. This result is accomplished, for example, by the structure shown inFigure 5 which includes a pair of plates 137 and 139, corresponding to the plates 37 and 39 heretofore described. As shown, the plate 137 is formed with channels 147 and 149, While the plate 139 is provided with channels 153 and 155. When assembled by bolts extending through the openings 156, the channels 149' and 153 cooperate to form a bulking charnber'or passage similar to the chain ber 31, while the channels 147 and 155 are closed to provide a yarn delivery chamber or passage and a fluid delivery duct. The annular threaded portions 157 and 159 in each ofthe plates'137 and 139 of course are aligned when the plates are assembled and serveas an air inlet opening and enlarged entrance for the yarn delivery chamber'in a manner as shown at 35 and 59,
respectively, in Figure 2; 7
in this modified bulking apparatus shown in Figure 5, however, it will be noted that the periphery of the channels 149 and 153' are formed with longitudinally spaced projections 161' which, for the sake of ease in manufacture, may be screw threads cut after the plates 137 and 139 are assembled; As with the apparatus shown in Figures 2-4, the yarn delivery and bulking chambers of the structure shown in 'Figure 5 are substantially parallel and are laterally offset from each other so that the/yarn filaments will undergo a similar vibratory separation and swirling into ring-like loopsas it travels from the yarn delivery chamber to the bulking chamberL' However, with the structure of'Figure 5, the
air or other compressible fiuid flowing toward the exit of the bulking chamber as'well as the yarn filaments, will strike the projections 161"and will'accordingly be deflected from a straight-line path. Thiswill of course prevent the air from resuming a streamlined flow through the bulking chamber and results inv maintaining the desired turbulent air'condition reacting against the yarn filamentsduring their travel toward thebulkingchamber exit. With the apparatus shown in Figure 5, it will beapparent that maximum use .is made of the compressed air and that the yarn'treated with this device has a highly' bulked character with thering-like loops randomly spaced along the plength-ofthe filaments and entangled with each other.
a and bulking chambers 22,9,and 231 anda duct 233 for use in delivery of air or:othercompressible fiuid. As
' with the-arrangement shown in Figure 5, the bulking chamber 231 is provided with longitudinally spaced-projections 261 disposed in alternate relationship along opposite Walls .;of the bulking chamber. In addition to maintaining, the ai-r in a turbulent condition, in a manner as described im -relation to the apparatu s of Figure 5, the projections 261 deflect both the air and yarn filaments along a sinuous path to cause the filaments and air flow to repeatedly intersect each other as they travel through the bulking chamber.
It is seen that the above described process and apparatus effect a maximum bulking of the yarn filaments by subjecting the same, within a confined area, to a highly turbulent flow of compressed fluid or air. Further, it will be noted that the mode of yarn treatment described entails a highly efficient use of the compressed fluid while the apparatus is compact, simple and economical in construction and use.
It is seen from the above description that the objects of the invention are well fulfilled by the method and apparatus described. The description is intended to be illustrative only and it is to be understood that changes and variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
1. A process for making bulky continuous filament yarn from a yarn of continuous substantially straight filaments including the steps of delivering the yarn of filaments through a first confined path and into a second confined path interconnected therewith, the axes of'said first and second confined paths being in laterally offset relationship whereby the yarn of filaments is caused to alter its course of travel as it passes from said first confined path into said second confined path, and impinging a fluid stream against the yarn of filaments as it alters its course of travel and passes into the second confined path to separate the filaments and swirl the same into a plurality of ring-like loops spaced at random intervals along the length of the filaments.
2. A process as defined in claim 1 in which the fluid stream enters the second confined path at an acute angle to the general direction of yarn travel therethrough.
3. A process for making bulky continuous filament yarn from a yarn of continuous substantially straight filaments including the steps of delivering the yarn of filaments through a first confined path and into a second confined path interconnected with and spaced laterally from the first confined path, impinging a stream of fiuid against the yarn of filaments as it passes into the second confined path to separate the filaments and swirl the same into a plurality of ring-like loops at random intervals along the length of the filaments, and maintaining the stream of fluid in a turbulent condition as it passes through the second confined path along with the yarn of filaments.
4. A process as defined in claim 3 in which the yarn of filaments is moved sinuously through the second confined path.
5. Apparatus for making continuous filament yarn a bulking device having a continuous confined passage extending therethrough and opening at opposite ends thereof, said passage having a first substantially straight portion lying within a first plane and a second portion lying within a second plane disposed in substantially parallel and laterally oflset relationship with respect to said first plane, said first portion opening into said second portion and providing a continuous path for the yarn of filaments from said first portion into said second portion, an inlet for introducing a stream of compressible fluid into said bulking device, and a duct extending from said inlet to said second portion of the passage for impinging the yarn of filaments with the stream of compressible fluid as the yarn enters said passage second portion.
6. Apparatus as defined in claim 5 wherein said duct extends at an acute angle to the direction of yarn travel from said first portion to said second portion.
7. Apparatus as defined in claim 5 wherein said passage second portion includes longitudinally spaced projections extending along its periphery.
8. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 wherein said projections are in the form of screw threads.
9. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 wherein said prm jections are alternately disposed along opposite longitu dinal walls of said second portion to provide a sinuous path therethrough.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 132,582 Jenks Oct. 29, 1872 2,100,588 Claus Nov. 30, 1937 2,423,721 Nelson July 8, 1947 2,783,609 Breen Mar. 5, 1957 2,852,906 Breen Sept. 23, 1958 2,884,756 Head May 5, 1959 2,911,784 Vandervoort Nov. 10, 1959 2,924,000 Griset Feb. 9, 1960 FOREIGN PATENTS 161,076 Australia Feb. 10, 1955 495,767 Germany Feb. 1, 1929 542,356 Belgium Nov. 14, 1955 1,100,529 France Apr. 6, 1955 1,111,163 France Oct. 26, 1955 576,921 (Corresponding Canadian patent) June 2, 1959
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|Apr 15, 1981||AS||Assignment|
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