US 2938281 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 31, 1960 E. J. B. MILLER coLoR HARMONY SELECTION ASSEMBLY 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 4, 1954 ,fa/f Jan glane. M//er' /5 //7 my W4 aw; yA/@E L f-f-:e
May 31, 1960 E. J. B. MILLER coLoRHARMoNY SELECTION ASSEMBLY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 4, 1954 2'0 L/ fg 4f 2257 56 TIA v AWA COLGR HARMONY SELECTION ASSEMBLY Edith Jean Blanc Miller, Chicago, lll., assignor to Qesarco Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Ilhnols Filed Jan. 4, 1954, Ser. No. 402,095
3 Claims. (Cl. 35-28.3)
The instant invention relates to a color harmony selection system by means of which a user can rapidly and conveniently select harmonious color combinations from an extremely wide variety of selections.
Previously used color harmony selection systems have not always met with approval by decorators and other artists interested in the problem of color design. some of the systems previously employed, the number of possible color combinations derivable from the system has been rather limited. In other systems which permit a wider selection of color combinations from which to choose appropriate color harmonies, the systems employed are sometimes unwieldy and require the services of an expert trained in color theory for operation. Such systems are, of course, impractical commercially because they are beyond the prowess of the ordinary layman who might be interested in selecting a harmonious color arrangement for rooms in his own home.
The present invention provides a color harmony selection system which overcomes the disadvantages associated with the previous color harmony selection systems. The system of my invention is capable of presenting different color combinations which number in the millions. Yet at the same time the system is sufficiently flexible and sufficiently uncomplicated that it may be employed to advantage by those unskilled in color selection or the theory of colors.
This is a continuation-impart of my copending application Serial No. 235,327, filed July 5, 1951, now Patent No. 2,665,503, in which the claims emphasize the concept of employing certain positional arrangements for color indicia that are tints or shades of a given color. The instant invention relates to the arrangement of color indicia on one or more arrays so as to obtain improved interchangeability between arrays and an improved number of cooperating positions for such arrays, so as to function adequately with a mask that is uniquely adapted for cooperation therewith.
lt is, therefore, an important object of the instant invention to provide an improved color harmony selection `system which permits the selection of harmonious color .combinations among a very wide variety of choices.
A further object of the present invention is to provide Va color harmony selection system which can be manipulated and used effectively by persons relatively unskilled in the theory and practice of decorating.
Another object of the instant invention is to provide a color harmony selection system consisting of only a few basic components, which are uniquely capable of being lnterchanged in positional relationship. y z
Another object of the present invention is to prov-ide a color harmony selection system which is unique in that any one, two, or more arrays may be used together at any one time, so that the color user can make his own choice of the particular color arrays, as the red array, `and the green array, or the blue green array, etc. which he will use together and from which he will make his tates Patent O ice n, 2,938,281 y Patented` May.
nal selection of color indicia for a scheme, according,
to his own needs.
Another important object of the present invention 1s to provide a novel type of color array for use in color harmony selection systems.
Still a further object of the instant invention is to provide an improved mask for use in a color harmony selection system.
Another important object of the present invention is to provide a new selection system whereby one may select schemes which vary from each other in the number of individual color members involved so that a user may find a scheme with few colors or one with many colors, as his particular purpose demands.
Another very important object of the instant invention is to provide a unique device for presenting great numbers of color schemes in eachv of which the same color sample can appear, so that a color user is enabled .to` build any one of a number of color harmonies aroundl some item of predetermined color which he already has, and so that a student of color may study the relativity of color by observing the varying effects produced when the same color sample is viewed in various combinations with other color samples and to see how the same color sam-- ple may appear lighter or darker or more vivid or less vivid as it is seen in combination with other colors.
Another equally important object of the present invention is to provide a unique selection system which will present many types of color schemes, schemes varying from each other in their degrees of contrast of light and dark colors or of vivid and dull colors, so that the color user may nd a scheme of the precise degrees of color contrast for his particular purpose. Another object of the instant invention is to provide an improved neutral scale which may be used when desired, `and which is uniquely capable of being variously repositioned in reference to the color arrays without any of its edges obscuringthe individual color indicia which are.4 located on the color array in a row next to the neutral;
vide a selection system which can be used as a teaching,
device, or a game, in which the interchangeable and variously repositionable arrays will exhibit individual colors, or letters, or words, or numbers, or other symbols and in which a mask will ac t as a selector of meaningful combinations of colors, vor letters, or words, or numbers, or other symbols.
Other and further objects, features and advantages of the instant invention will become apparent to those skilled in the vart from the following detailed disclosurethereof and from the attached sheets of drawings which form a part thereof.
In the drawings: n
Figure l is a plan view of a color selection system ernbodying the instant invention, including a mounting board,- color arrays and a neutral scale disposed thereon, with a mask superimposed upon the arrays neutral scale and mounting board;
Figure 2 is a plan view ofthe color selection `system shown in Figure 1, with the mask removed;
Figure 3 is a plan View of a second array arrangement embodying the instant invention and using the arrays shown in Figures 1 and 2;
Figure 4 is a plan view vof a third array arrangement embodying the instant invention;
Figure 5 is a plan view lof a fourth array arrangement embodying the instant invention;
Figure 6 isan array arrangement showing a fifth embodiment of the instant invention; i Y 'l Figure 7 is a fragmentary kdetail viewshowing the man- Figure 8 is,l asdetailnview of an array which may be i usedv in the'practice of-the instant invention, particularly as a neutral, Scale.
Figure 9 shows a sixth arrayarrangement embodying the 'instant invention;
Figurel() is a plan view of aseventh array arrangement embodying the instant invention;
Figure 1l is a plan View of an eighth array arrange,- ment embodying the instant invention;
`Figure 12 isA an array arrangement shown in vplan view embodying a ninth arrangement of the invention;
Figure v13 shows in plan view a tenth arrayA arrange-` ment embodyingthe instant invention;
Figure 14 shows in plan view an eleventh array arrangement embodying the instant invention;
Figure l shows in plan view a Ytwelfth array arrangement embodying the Vinstant invention;
Figure 16 shows in plan view a mounting board and arrayY arrangement that constitutes a thirteenth embodimenty of the instant invention; andY Figure l-7 is a view in elevation of-the mounting board i of Figure 16.
Y As shown in thedrawings;
A-s indicated in Figures l and 2, the selection system of the present invention may include ya laminated iiat locking board 10 which may be suitably composed of relatively stiff material such as heavy cardboard and the like. The interior of the-mounting board 10 is recessed, as indicated generally 'by the numeral 1-1, leaving the upstanding marginal edges 12, 13, 14'aud y15 about the recessed interior of the mounting board- 10.
`It shouldbe pointed out at this time that the mounting board 10 provides an additional convenience for operating the instantdevice in that it assists in` retaining the various arraysinthe positions desired; but such arrays mayl also be retained on any suitable mounting lmeans, such as atableby means of thumb tacks or `some other fasteningY device.- The instant mounting-board 10 is particularlyfadvantageous in that it yeffectively retains the arrays-in position while at the same time permitting ready substitution of one array for another in a given position.'
- Oneof the significant features ofthe present invention resides in` the type of color array used in conjunction with `the instant color harmony `vselection system. As described in detail in myfcopendiug application lSerial No. 235,327, Awhich disclosure is made a part hereof by reference for^ the` purpose of supplementing the instant disclosure, it is preferable to employ one color array for each of the basic colors. The selection of'two or more basic colors which may be used is 'described in detail in saidv application Serial No. 235,327 with respect tothe operation of the colorrvvheelshown in Figure l thereof, andY need not be further discussed herein. It willbe appreciated, however, that one of the particular advantages ofthe invention described and claimed herein isthat it provides for the maximum number of color combinations and in this respect itv wouldnot-be absolutely necessary to employ color indiciaonta given array which are al1 tintsA or shades of a given pure color, For the systematic use of the instant device and so as to take maX- imum advantage ofthe great number of color combinations attainable using this device, each color array-is provided with color indicia for only one of said basic colors.
Referring to Figure 2 again, itwill be noted that each ofthe six color arrays, indicated by the reference numerals 16, -17, 18, 19, Z0, 21. and 22-consistsofapolygonalhshapedrmember, kin this case shown asa generally triangularly-shaped member, preferably made of white material and having a pluralityrof color particles or indicia detachably secured thereto. f
showninFigure 7, the iudividualcolor particleJZS is preferably in the shape of a rhombus so that the oppo- 4site 'ends'2'3a'and 23b ofthe particle 23 may be slipped underneath a portion of the array, indicated fragmentarily at 24, through a slit opening at 24a and 24b respectively, thereby leaving ahe exposed portion of the color particle 23 in the form of a hexagon. It will be appreciated that the instant invention does notpreclude the use of other types of color indicia or the use of diierent detachable `fastening means; 'but the arrangement here shown has been found to be particularly satisfactory. In referringn subsequentlyjto` alignment of the color indicia or particles, such alignment has reference to the center or approximate center of the-exposed'A portion of the color particle, which Iwould be at C in Figpre7.
Referring now to Figure 2` again, it will be noted that the device 10 comprises a pair of color arrays 16 and 17 disposed with an edge 16a of the array 16 parallel to an edge 17a of the array 17, each of the arrays 16 and 17 having individual'color indicia aiiixed thereto, the indicia a, b, c and d plus the indicia f, g, h and i being aligned in alrst set of parallel rows (the row a, b, c, d being parallel with the row f, g, h, i) and the indicia j, b, k and lplus the indicia m, c, h and n being aligned in a second set of parallel lrows (namely the row j, b, k, l being parallel vto the row m, c, h, n). The rst set of parallel rows which includes the rows a, b, c, d and f, g, It, i is lintersected by the second set of parallel row-s which includes the rows j, b, k, l and m, c, h, n, in each case at the centers ofl the indicia. For example, the row a, b, c, d intersects the row j, b, k, l at the center of the color particle b, etc. At least one of such sets of parallel rows is aligned so as to intersect the parallel edges 16a and-17a, and preferably both sets of rows are so aligned, as shown in Figure 2;
Also, it will be noted that the indicia in each row of said sets of rows-are spaced an integer multiple of a predeterminedV unit of distance x from any indicia in that row-immediately adjacent thereto. This may be clariiied by reference to the row p, o, l, n, q,k r, s, t (which is here referred to for the purpose of convenient location of the dimension notations in Figure 2); it will be seen that the distance between each of the color indicia inthis row is the predetermined unit "x. The color indicia b, c'and'd in the array V16 are likewise spaced the distance x apart, but the indicia a and b in this same rowa, by c, d-are spaced apart the distance 2x. In like manner, theindicia m, c and h in the array 16 are spaced from each other the distance x, whereas the indicia h and n are spaced apart the distance 2x in the row m, c, h and n.k It will thus be seen that the pattern here presented by the indicia is that wherein the indicia on both arrays `16 and 17 are aligned in t-wo different sets of parallel rows which intersect and the indicia in each row of these sets of rows are spaced an integer multiple of a predetermined unitof distance x fromrthe immediately adjacent indicia. In a given array, such as the array 16, each of the indicia in any particular row of indicia is preferably spacedfrom the others immediately adjacent by the distance x instead of an integer multiple of x. By integer multiple is meant awhole number multiple, such as 1'x,2x, 3x, etc.l It will be appreciated that, even though color is used herein for purposes of example, any intelligence conveying indicia can be used such as letters, words, numbers, etc. for use in a game, for example; and such indicia including the color indicia may be mounted detachably or otherwise, suchv as Yby printing.
' tance x, whereas the indicia, such as the indicia a and b= which are-immediately adjacent each of parallel edges 16a -andv 17a are alignedin'fone-of the row's, b, c, `d`
are spaced from each other an integer multiple (preferably two) of a predetermined unit of distance x. The spacing of the arrays 16 and 17 in this manner results in an increased number of color combination possibilities for certain purposes by virtue of the blank space provided between the edges 16a and 17a. As will be explained hereinafter, the mask 25 (Figure 1) has a number of indicia-sized windows (i.e. adopted to expose a part or all of a single indicium) therein that are so positioned that they may be readily aligned with various indicia, but it is often advantageous to have a blank space on the mounting board 10, such as that provided between the parallel edges 16a and 17a which permits one of the windows to act as a closed window, even though it is centrally located. This will be explained hereinafter in more detail.
Referring again to Figure 2, it will be noted also that the center portion of the mounting board contains a hexagonal array 26. This hexagonal array 26 has a total of 6 color indicia (which includes q and r) thereon and these color indicia are preferably made up to comprise the so called neutral scale, which includes black and white and various Shades of gray which are increasingly more shaded from light gray to dark gray. The concept of employing a neutral scale is described in detail in said copending application Serial No. 235,327 and need not be further described herein. The important feature in connection with the instant neutral scale array 26 is that that indicia therein are also alignable in two intersecting sets of parallel rows, as is obvious from observing the drawing. In addition, the indicia on the neutral scale array 26 are spaced from each other in any one of said rows by the predetermined distance unit x, as indicated in connection with the indicia q and r. In this manner, the indicia on the neutral scale array 26 are also alignable in the sets of parallel rows hereinbefore indicated in connection with the adjacent arrays 16, 17, etc. In this manner, the entire pattern for the indicia on the mounting board 110` is set.
By the use of the instant arrangement pattern for the indicia on the mounting board 10, it is possible'to employ a mask having windows positioned therein in a related positional relationship so as to greatly increase the`possible color combinations which may be obtained.
Referring now to Figure 1, it will be seen that the arrangement set forth in Figure 1 includes the mounting board 10, the neutral scale array 26 and a total of 3 color arrays 16, 17 and 21. (The dotted line reference to the edges of the recessed center of the board 10, indicated by the reference numeral 11, have been omitted from Figure l for the sake of simplification.) In Figure l, the color harmony selection is to be made between the neutral scale and certain colored arrays, which are the arrays 16, 17 and 21 representing three different colors. If it is desired to make a selection among more colors, then more arrays may be suitably positioned on the board 10, and if it is desired to make a Selection between only two colors, for example, the array 21 may be removed.
The windows 27 through 40 indicated on the mask are positioned to some extent in a random manner, although the positioning of these windows is based upon the same pattern theory for arranging the color indicia. In other words, the windows are positioned in at least two sets of parallel rows, one set being indicated by parallel lines drawn through the window row 27, 28; the row 30, 3l; the row 32, 33; the row 34, 35; and the row 38, 39,40. Another set of rows of parallel alignment is dened by the row 33, 36, 40; the row 31, 37; the row 28, 32, 39; etc. Still a third set of parallel rows would be indicated by the windows in the row 27, 31; the row 29, 32; the row 30, 35, 37; etc. As will be explained hereinafter, the most preferred indicia arrangement calls for 3 (not 2) sets of parallel intersecting rows and this arrangement is also preferred in the case of the windows in the mask 25. It will also be noted in the mask 25 that the spacing between adjacent windows in any given row is an integermultiple of the predetermined unit of distance x. This dimensional arrangement is shown in Figure 1 in connection with the row 38, 39, 40; the row 35, 37; and the row 27, 28. By using the instant positional relationships between the color indicia and the windows, it is possible to obtain a maximum number of color combinations byv relatively simple manipulation of the mask 25. The rst step being to align the windows in any given row on the mask 25 with a line that is parallel to or the same as a line drawn through a row of color indicia in one of said sets of parallel rows. Then, as soon as one window is centered on one color indicia, the other windows which are over color indicia will also be centered with respect thereto. Thus, in the view Ishown in Figure 1, the Window 32 is centered on the color indicia q in the neutral scale array 26 and the window row 32, 33 is aligned with the indicia row p, o, l, n, q, r. This results in the centering of the window 36 over the color particle u in the arrayY 21, the centering of the window 30 over the color particle w in the array 17 and the centering of the windows 27 and 28 over the color particles j and z, respectively, inv
the array 16. It will also be noted that the Window 29 is positioned over the space between the parallel edges 16a and 17a so that this window functions as a closed window in this particular position. The remaining windows are not positioned in the region of arrays which are here present, so these windows also function as closed windows. and the observer looking at the mask 25 (and disregarding the portion of the array 21 extending outside the righthand edge of the mask 25) has an opportunity to view a total of 5 color indicia, j, q, u, w and z in the absence of all of the remainingv color indicia in order to ascertain whether or not a harmonious color system has been selected in this position. Movement of the mask 25 in alignment with any one of its ledges, such as the edge 25a (parallel to the indicia row p, o, l, n, g, r, t) will result in the exposure of another set of colored indicia. Because of the arrangement whereby the windows on the mask 25 are aligned in the same relationship in which the indicia on the arrays are aligned, each time a given window is centered upon a given color particle, the other color particles which are to be exposed will also be centered in the respective Windows and aclear uniform View of each of the color particles to be exposed in a particular position is thus made possible. Further, because of the alignment of the color indicia (and the windows) in at least two sets of parallel rows, and preferably three sets of parallel rows, it is possible to move the mask 25 in a great plurality of different directions without causing disalignment between the mask 25 and the rows of color indicia.
Each time any mask edge, or row of mask windows, is parallel to any given row of color indicia, as mask edge 25aV parallel to color row w, I, as shown in Fig. 1, the mask may be moved step by step, placing each window successively over each color indicium. Further, each time any mask edge is parallel to any given row of color indicia, as mask edge 25a parallel to color row w, l, as in Fig. l, the mask may be moved step by step, placing each window successively over the same color indicium,
as over color w, displacing many different color combinations, in each one of which the same color, as w, will appear, thus permitting the user to build many dilerent color schemes around an item of a predetermined color.
It lwill further be noted that whereas the mask as positioned in Fig. l displays tive color indicia in the color schemes presented, it can display a different number at other times. For example, the mask, while still retainingy its alignment at lwindow row 32, 33, with the indicia www-qt It n. et. r, 'can be. nieve@ one Step upwardly-l to; the right Sather window-32, is; centered over, nddummY fallingk overa 'blank area, while window 2,9 has moved- Qverfcolor h inarray 16, and window 35 has movedover the` indicium, which is located just belowindiciulrn q in, the neutrali Scale array 2.6-
Itwill4 lienoted also that the-rst scheme, as shown in Fig, l, having Vtive colors and involving mask windows 3 2',- -390,36, 21 and 2,8, presented a color pattern in which the maximum,distanceI between anyy selecting *windows in the same row, windows 28 and 32, was4X, whereas the second` schemev ofA six colors, involving mask win,-A clo`ws f32j,4 29,A 35, 36, 30 and 27, jpresented a color pattern in which the maximum distancelbetween any selectingwindows in thev 'same row, as windows` 29 and 32 was; 2X. In this way my mask can piek color indieiaA which aresometimes far apart and which are at other timesclose together. It can beseen that when thecolor.
arrays havean organized arrangement for the color inf.
dicia, with the indicia in av given row becoming progressively lighter, or darker, or more vivid, or more grayed, the selectingby the mask of colorindicia which` are far apart can present greater degrees of contrast in dark andk light or in vividness and dullness than wouldj b e exhibited when the selected color indicia were close together. `For--example, when twin windows 38 and 39 appear as selectors the color indicia wouldk show only one stepfof contrast as compared withfour-steps of contrast; between windows 28 and 32.
- One of the unique features of this mask is that any given window, as Windowy 32, may join, at one time, with one-groupof windows, as with 28, 27, 3tland36 to pick onescheme, and that this same window, as 32 may join, at;another time, with another-group of windows, as with 29; 3,5, 21, 30; and 36, topick another scheme.
I twill also be noted that the general pattern of win-` dows called` for in the mask 2 5 is that wherein the, windows Yinany'onerowl of windows, such asthe rows 27, 28535 37; 3034;,and 38, 39, 40fare spaced an integer multipleY ofx, 4and preferably` the integer multiple is 2 or 3. Itywill be appreciated lthat if the integer is only one-throughout the mask, the mask would show sub-v stantially allof the color indicia on the arrays below. InStead,-it\hasbeen found to be preferable to employ distances of; atleast 2x between the windows, and Ipreferf ablynot more than 4x This makes possible the maxi, mumy number otcolor combinations without necessitatingY they presentation to theobserver of a great number of color indicia which are only one shade apart (in other words, which are positioned side byY side on array. On the;Y other hand, it hasy been found to be particularly im portant from a color selection point of view to provide acmasfkwhereinat least one and perhaps two groups `of windows,'such as vthe windows 38 and 39 are spaced the distancex. Incertain color harmony selections, it has beenfoundto be desirable to employ colors which are onlyone shade apart, and in such harmony selections, the arrangement of' the windows 38.and 39 is particularly useful; .In addition, the cooperation between the maskfZSand the rarray arrangement shown in Figures l and/Zisuniquely adapted'for the use'of a mask having adjacent windows38, 39, because-the arrays, such as the arraysland 17`are=positioned with .a space therebetween (-b'etween vthe parallel edges 16a land 17a) so that it will be possible to position one o'f'the windows 38 or 39 over acolor particle- (for example, by inverting themask ZSf-'as here shown and positioning one-of the windows 38 or 391over the color particlea) so that only one ofthe adjacentwindows 38-and 39 is overa color particle landj the Uother-is over ablanlc area. -I11-thisway,x maximum- 75l,
liftv are only-oneshade apart in every' position thereof.
f Thev mask., shape which -is shown in Fig-.g1 is a: six; sidedglgure, However, it can assume other shapes. lt. may,lhave more or less windows than shown, andrtheset windowsmaybe in vother arrangements than those in; Eig.; l, as long as the window 'placements follow the; above, prineiplesfand arepositioned in reference tothe; predetermined unit of distance used for locating centers; Qfj the. indicia on the arrays. Irrmasks of other shapes,.- themask, edges need; notbe used as positioning agents; since the 'user may` positiony the mask over the arraysf just, as easily hy having any row of mask windows. parallel to a row of color indicia on the arrays beneath; theimask- Y As hereinhefore mentioned, it is mostpreferable to; arrange; the color. ,indioiafso that they fall in; orareI alignable with atleast threel sets of parallel lines. Int other.l to accomplish this, it is necessary tofso position, the-color indiciaon any-one array. lf thecolor indicia, on` a given array are positioned, the additional arrays may, be suitablealigned so as to obtain a color pattern for the entire combination ofV arrays. Referring now` specifically to the array 41 shown in Figure '5, which contains a color indicia arrangement that is most pref'k kferredv for use in the instant invention, it w-ill be seen. that thecolor array 41 has agenerally triangular shape, substantially that of an equilateral triangle, and the color arrays `thereonare-arranged in `the general shape of an. equilateral triangle. The color indicia indicated in Figure 5f are shown as circles instead of hexagons asl asimpliticatiombut it will bev appreciated that still other. shapes may be yemployed if desired.
As. shown' inthe array -41 of Figure 5, the color indicia are ali-gnable in a -rst set of parallel lines` al, a3,j a3, andA a4 which; are parallel to the edge 41a; a second set of parallel lines b1, b2, b3 and b4 which areparallel tothe edge 41b and a third set of parallel lines c1, c2, cgand @which are-parallel to the remaining edge. These sets. of vparallel lines are thus arranged sothat one.of.each of the sets will bey parallel to a sideof. the equilateral triangle arrangementhere employed. In each-of the lines (such as the 'line a1) the color indicia aretspaced apart the distance x and in each of thesets ojflinesparallel tothe sides 41a, 41b and 41C, the .lines ('spchas Athe lines ,a1 and a2) are spaced apart the distance` color indicia, for example in the line d2 are spaced apart,-
the-distancehbetweenthe parallel lines b', and 113,. which is x\/3; The arrangement 'of'` the fourth, fifth and sixth. setsof parallel4 lines will be apparent withoutvfurther description, although it will be appreciated that using. an array having -a greater number of color indicia, suchA asone having fiveor six color indicia along each side, will permit a more extensive showing of the fourth, fifth Iand sixth sets of parallel lines.
Itfrwillalsobe notedthat theshortest distance between an array edge, Isuch as the `array edge-41a and theicolort indicia in the row apwhich arealigned parallel to the. edge 41a v.and Aare immediatelyadjacent thereto is but the distance from the edge 41e to the color particle 1n the row al immediately adjacent the edge 41o, which distance is measured along the line a1, is 1/zJc or x/Z. It will thus be seen that the preferred color array 41 has at least one straight edge (and preferably three stralght edges) having a plurality of color indicia fixed t the array 41 suitably aligned in a set of parallel rows wherein this set of parallel rows is aligned to intersect an edge (in the manner in which the parallel rows a1, a2, a3 and a4 intersect the edge 41C) with the color ndicia in each of the rows immediately adjacent this edge 41e (which would be the color indicia in the row c4) being spaced from the edge 41C one-half of the predetermined unit of distance x. The reason `for this arrangement is that a second array may be suitably disposed in uniplanar relationship with respect to the array 41 so that the edge of the second array (having the same design and arrangement as the array 41) may be disposed in abutting relationship to the edge 41C and the color indicia on either side of the edge 41e will thus be spaced apart the distance x. IThis arrangement is shown in Figure 4, which will be discussed in detail hereinafter. At least it is necessary that two mating arrays must be fabricated so that the color indicia thereon which are to be positioned on opposite sides of mating edges of these two arrays in a given row of color indicia will be spaced from the edges a total distance of x. In other words, the color particle in one array could be spaced from a given edge thereof a distance of Mix and the color particle in the mating array would have to be spaced a distance Blix from the edge thereof which is to cooperate with the edge of the first array. It will be appreciated that the problem is greatly simplified if the color particles in each case are spaced the distance 1/zx from one or more edges so that a great benet in interchangeability may be obtained.
Another feature of the array 41 which has been found to be important is that of providing flattened edges at the apex of the triangle.
The particular arrangement of the attened or blunted apex of the triangle is best indicated in connection with the array 42 of Figure 3. As shown in Figure 3, the apex of the array 42 is blunted at the edge 42d. This is done in the case of each apex of the equilatered triangle in order to permit the individual array 42 to be placed in abutting relationship Iwith another array instead of overlapping relationship in order to obtain a given positional relationship. The edge 42d is cut so as to provide an edge which is from the center of the nearest color particle 43 (just as the edges'42a and 42C are spaced from the color particle 43 meaurng by the shortest distance); but measuring along the row al, or along the row c4, it will be noted that the center of the color particle 43 is spaced a distance x/2 from the intersecting edges 42C and 42d and the intersecting edges 42a and 42d, respectively.
Referring now to the array arrangeemnt of Figure 3,
it -will be seen that the arrays 42, 44 and 45 are arranged p in substantially uniplanar relationship, with the array 44 overlying a small portion of the array 42 and the array 45 overlying a portion of the array 44. It will be noted, however, that the color indicia on the various arrays here shown are aligned in at least 2 and in this case 3 s'ets of parallel lines, one set being indicated by the heavy lines 46, 47; another set being indicated by the heavy lines 48, 49 and a third set being indicated by the heavy lines 50, 51, 52.
` It will also be noted in Figure 3 that a neutral scale array 52 is positioned in overlying relationship with respectto the color array 45 and the color indicia in the neutral scale array 52 are positioned so that those color indicia 52a, 52b and 52e` in the portion of the neutral scale 52 which overlies the color array 45 are positioned directly above the color indicia in the array 45 which should normally be exposed and are thereby positioned in the proper alignment for the sets of parallel rows.
Referring to Figure 8, it will be seen that the neutral scale 52 comprises an elongated array backing with a row of color indicia 52a, 52h, 52C, 52d and 52e aligned thereon so as to be spaced apart the distance x. The distances from each of the color indicia to the edges of the neutral array 52 are the same as those distances hereinbefore indicated in connection with the color indicia immediately adjacent a side of a triangular array such as the array 42.
Referring now to Figure 4, it will be seen that the arrays 53, 54 and 55 shown therein are uniplanarly disposed with an edge of each array abutting an edge of another of the arrays. Thus, the edge 53a of the array 53 abuts the edge 54a of the array 54. The edge 5417 of the array 54 abuts the edge 55a of the array 55. In each case, it will be noted that the arrays 53, 54 and 55 are so positioned with the color indicia thereon that the color indicia fall in three sets of parallel lines, which in each case are also parallel to one side of each of the arrays 53, 54 and 55. Thus, the parallel lines in the set associated with the line 56 are also parallel with the array edges 53a, 54a and 55b. The other two sets of parallel lines are indicated generally by the heavy line 57 and the heavy line 58.
Assuming the color array 53 is made up forthe color red, the color particle 59 at one apex of the array 53 will be pure red and the color particle 60 at another apex of the array 53 will be a light tint of red and the color particle 61 at the third vertex will be a relatively dark shade of red. The color particles in between the particles 59, 60 and 61 at the vertices of the array will vary between the strength of the colors represented at the vertices. Thus, the color particles 62 and 63 will be increasingly lighter tints of red, with the particle 60 being the lightest tint of red, etc. The arrangement of the color particles is described in detail in said application Serial No. 235,327 and need not be further discussed herein. However, it will be noted that the same position shown in Figure 4 for the array 53 may be obtained using three diierent color indicia arrangements. In other Words, the array 53 may be turned around so that the dark red color particle 61 is in the position shown for the pure red color particle 59, etc. This gives a total of three positions for each color array 53, 54 or 55 in the arrangement shown in Figure 4, and thus a total of nine different possible color combinations or nine times the possible total number of color combinations obtainable using this arrangement.
Referring now to Figure 5, it will be seen that a total of three arrays 41, 64 and 65 are used plus the neutral scale 52 hereinbefore shown. The arrangement between the arrays 64 and 65 shows the advantage of having the blunted apex edge 65a at the apex or `vertex of each of the triangularly shaped arrays 64, 65. The heavy lines indicated in Figure 5 show the alignments of the various parallel rows of color indicia. Also, the arrow at 66 indicates possible movement of the color array 41 through a series of positions. Thus, the color array 41 may be moved toward the array 65 or away from the array 65 along a line aligned with the arrow 66 so as to produce a new color pattern each time the array 41 is moved the distance x along the line indicated by the arrow 66.
Figure 6 shows still another arrangement which may be used for the triangularly shaped color arrays 67, 63 and 69 shown therein. Again, the heavy lines indicate the direction in which the sets of parallel rows extend. Here again, the blunted vertices at 69a and 68a prevent overlapping of the arrays 68 and 69 in the position shown.
Figure 9 shows a single array'70 having 4 instead of 3 sides and having the general shape of a square. The
indicia are positioned thereon at 71, 72, etc. in the formofisquares and the alignment of fthe'a'rrays thereon is such that 3 sets of parallel rows of indicia are indicated by the heavy lines 73, 74 and 75. The color indicia in the rows 73 and 74 are each spaced apart the same distance. A neutral array 76 is also shown in conjunction with the array 70. It will be noted that the neutral scale or array 76 has cutaway portions along the lefthand edge 76 thereof so as to permit the neutral -array 76 to overlap partially one side-of the -color array 70 without covering any of the color indicia thereon. The neutral scale color indicia 77, 78, etc. are arranged in a row, as indicated, and spaced from each other in that row the same distance which the color indicia are spaced from each other in the row indicated'by the heavy line 75 on the array 70, so that perfect alignment may be obtained between the neutral scale color indicia 77, 78, etc. Aand the color array indicia 71, 72, etc.
-Referring now to Figure 10, it will vbe seen that the arrangement there shown comprises a total of four arrays 79, 80, 81 and 82. In Figure 10, the showing is primarily diagrammatical in that the centers of the color indicia are indicated, for example, at 83 and 84 in the array 80, shown with connecting lines which indicate the direction of the sets of parallel rows. The color indicia used may be in the form of squares 85 and 86 as indicated in one corner of the array 79, or the color indicia may be in the form of circles or some other similar shape. The arrays shown in Figure 10 are rectangular in shape, but the arrangement of the color indicia thereon as indicated permits these arrays to be positioned in abutting relationship along the full length of their edges, as in the case of thearrays 79 and 82; or in partial abutting relationship along their edges asin the case of the arrays 79 and 80 and the arrays l80 and 82, and the arrays 80 and 81; or the arrays may be positioned in overlapping relationship, as in-the case of the arrays 81 and 82. In each case, the alignment of the color indicia throughout the assembly is in the sets of intersecting'parallel rows hereinbefore described in detail.
Referring now to Figure 11, it will be noted that the arrays therein are again all of the same shape. `The arrays 87 and 83 have the general shape 'of a rhombus and the array 89 is also in the shape of a rhombus, except that it is positioned differently with respect to the other two so as to -iit therebetween. Again, the color indicia indicated at 90, 91, 92, etc. are represented diagrammatically only by their centers, but it 'will be seen that the arrangement of sets of parallel rows hereinbefore described is again present in the arrangement of Figure 7. Also, it will be noted that two corners (having acute angles) in each rhombus 87, 8S and 89 have been blunted in the manner in which the vertices of the triangles are blunted, for example, in connection with the array 42 of Figure 3, so as to serve the same function, which is indicated 'best in the arrangement of'Figure 5 between the arrays 64 and 65.
Referring now to Figure 12, it lwill be seen that still another arrangement may be obtained using a plurality of arrays 93, 94 and 95, each of which has thegeneral shape of a rhombus and which has color indicia thereon 96, 97,- 98, etc. arranged in the same manner in which the color indicia 90, 91, 92, etc. are arranged in the case of each of the arrays S7, 88 and 89. In this case, the arrays 93, 94 and 95 are arranged in abutting relationship, so as to obtain the desired alignment in Iparallel rows and sets of rows for the color indicia mounted thereon. It Awill also be noted that the arrangementof Figure 12. permits additional flexibility in that still Vanother color array may be mounted at the position indicated in dotted lines at 99.
lnthe case of individual color arrays,.such as those shown in Figures 9, 10, 11 and 12, which do not have color `indicia positions thereon solely in the shape Yof a triangle, it will be appreciated that the color indiciapositionedthereon may have a number of shade and tint relationships. The color indicia may be vpositioned thereon `in the'form of a pair of triangles each of which contains 'different shades of the same color or of a differentdcolor, other arrangements may also be used, as those skilled in the art will appreciate. K
Referring now to Figure 13, it will be seen that the color arrays 100, 101, 102 and 103 each have the shape of a segment Aof a circle. In each of these arrays 100, 101, 102 'and 103, the color indicia located thereon are indicated-only by their centers, as at 104, 105, ete., so that itcan be seen that the color indicia are aligned in three sets of parallel rows of indicia. It will be noted that the segments have two straight edges and one curved edge, and it is preferable in the case of the instant color arrays to have at least one straight edge which may be positioned in abutting relationship with a straight edge of another array and for best operation and interchangeability there should be two and most preferably three straight edges. However, there is a particular advantage lin the use of thesegment arrangement shownin Figure 13 in that the arrays might be mounted, for -example, in` groups of four to six so as to form a complete circle, as shown in Figure 16. And the arrays thus mounted to form a circle such as the circle 106 in Figure 16 may be aixed to a permanent mounting board adapted for rotation about the center, so that the movement of the arrays from one position to another may be very easily handled.
Referring again to Figurev 13, it will be noted that the color'indicia 104, 105, etc. are positioned on each ofthe arrays, such as the array 101 in the generally triangular shape hereinbefore described in detail, for example, in connection with the array 41, this greatly facilitates the alignment of onesegment with another segment V101 so as to complete the sets of parallel rows of color indicia throughout the pattern, without necessarily positioning the segments in the same relationship in which they would appear in a circle, such as is done in connection with the segments 102 and 103.
Another feature of Figure 13 resides in the additional circular color array 107, which may be mounted for rotation in order to facilitate rearrangement of the color indicia. `In such instance, the color indicial mounted'on the array 107 (which may also be a neutral array) are so spaced from each other that they have the same pattern as that on the segment arrays 100, 101, etc. The arrangement on the basis of centers is shown by vitrue of the light lines connecting the centers in Figure 13, and it will be noted that the color indicia 109, 110, etcron 'the array 107 are suitably aligned and spaced from each other to fall into alignment with the parallel rows of indicia shown on the segment arrays 100, 101, etc.
In Figure 16, a mounting board 111 is shown which has a plurality of circular color arrays 106, 112, 113 and 114 mounted thereon. As is indicated in Figure 17, the board is provided with a pedestal member 115 vhaving a central peg 116 which fits through a suitable aperture in the-array 113 so as to rotatably mount the array 113. Similar arrangement is provided for the other arrays 106, 112, and 114. Also, a similar arrangement with a slightly higher pedestal 117 is provided for the centrally positioned neutral scale 118. Using the arrangement shown in Figures 16 and 17, it will be appreciated that each circular array `106 may be made -up of-a plurality of segmental arrays such as the arrays 102 and 103 of Figure 13, so thatfalignment between the color indicia (not shown) on all of the arrays as well as the neutral scale array 118 may be accomplished, merely by rotation of the arrays so as to align the indicia thereon.v In each case, the indicia are so positioned in nal proper alignment that the indicia on a given array are preferably spaced apart the predetermined unit of distance 'x and the'findicia lying in a given row extending from one color array to anotherarepositioned an from .each other along the row.
Figure 14 shows still another shape of array. In this case, the arrays 119, 120,' 121 and 122 have a zig-zag edge on one side, as at 119a and 121a and a straight edge on the other side, as at 121b and 119b. This permits the positioning of the arrays in back-to-back relationship as shown in connection with the arrays 119 and 120, and in a face-to-face relationship as shown in connection with the arrays 121 and 122. Also, the zig-zag edges are so designed as to permit interlocking relationship between the arrays on such basis, if such is desired. It will be noted again that the color indicia, shown only by their centers at 123, 124, etc. are again aligned as hereinbefore indicated in the sets of parallel rows, so as to permit alignment of color indicia across a plurality of arrays.
Still another array arrangement is shown in Figure 15. In Figure 15, the arrays 125 and 126 are shown as octagons, lalthough it will be Iappreciated that other polygon shapes may be used. -Here again, it will be noted that there are continuing parallel rows of color indicia extending across from the array |125 to the array 126, the color indicia again being indicated only by their centers as at 127, 128, etc. -Here the arrays 125 and 126 are shown in abutting relationship.
It will be understood that modiiications and variations may be effected Without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention.
I cl-aim as my invention:
l. A color harmony selection system comprising a pair of color arrays disposed with an edge of one array parallel -to an edge of the other array, each of said arrays having individu-al color indicia atiixed thereto, the indicia on both arrays being aligned in a iirst set of parallel rows, a second set of parallel rows intersecting the first set at the centers of the indicia `and a third set of parallel rows intersecting the iirst and the second sets at the centers of the indicia, the indicia in each row of said sets of rows being spaced an integer multiple of a predetermined unit of distance from any indicia in that row immediately adjacent thereto; and a mask separate and apart from said Iarrays and movable with respect thereto superimposed upon said arrays, said mask having indicia-sized windows therein which are aligned in said sets of parallel rows and are spaced from each other in each of such rows an integer multiple of said predetermined unit of distance, whereby positioning of the mask to expose one of said indicia at one Window results in exposure of other indicia in other windows.
2. A color harmony selection system comprising a pair of color arrays disposed with an edge of one array parallel to an edge of the other array, each of said arrays having individual color indicia axed thereto, the indicia on both arrays being aligned in a iirst set of parallel rows Iand a second set of parallel rows intersecting the rst set at the centers of the indicia, the indicia in each row of said sets of rows being spaced an integer multiple of a predetermined unit of distance from any indicia in that row immediately adjacent thereto, and a mask separate and apart from said arrays and movable lines 'and spaced apart said predetermined unit of dstance With the each of remaining windows positioned in any given parallel line .being spaced apart from each of the other windows more than one integral multiple of said predetermined unit of dis-tance, whereby positioning of the mask to expose one of said indicia at one window results in exposure of other indicia in other windows coupled with the exposure of two immediately adjacent indicia at said pair of windows.
3. In -a color harmony selection system, a color array comprising a iiat mounting member having edges in the shape of an equilateral triangle and having a plurality of color indicia detachably secu-red thereto, said indicia being arranged in the form of an equilateral triangle with an indicium containing a selected pure color at one vertex of the triangle, an indicium containing a light tint of the same color at another vertex and an indicium representing a dark shade of the same color at the third vertex of the triangle, and indicia disposed between the vertices, the indicia disposed between the vertices varying progressively in shades of the selected color between the two vertices, the indicia on said array being aligned in three sets of parallel rorvs each intersecting the other two sets at the centers of the indicia, at leasttwo of said sets being aligned to intersect each edge, and the indicia in each row being spaced from each other a predetermined unit of distance with the indicia in each row immediately adjacent one of said edges being spaced onehalf said predetermined unit of distance therefrom measured in the direction of the row intersecting the edge, said color array being adapted for use with a mask separate and apart from said array and movable with respect thereto while superimposed upon said array, said mask having indicia-sized windows therein which are aligned with said sets of parallel rows and are spaced from each other in each of such rows an integer multiple of said predetermined unit of distance, whereby positioning of the mask to expose one of said indicia at one window results in exposure of other indicia in other windows.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,057,546 Griin Apr. 1, 1913 1,087,207 Austin Feb. 17, 1914 1,762,036 Steedle June 3, 1930 2,409,285 Jacobson Oct. 15, 1946 2,636,286 Bowman Apr. 28, 1953 2,665,503 Miller Jan. 12, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 331,767 Germany Jan. 12, 1921 5,539 Great Britain Apr. 15, 1887