US 2940325 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 14, 1950 M. NAKEscl-l 2,940,325
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE med Feb. 15, 1957 s sheets-sheet 1 June 14, 1960 M. NAKEscH 2,940,325
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE Filed Feb. 15, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 2 fsa 204 206 17o 166 l I 172 6 /54 0 h1 l t" "-M i 202 i; .3 /58 [6g 200 /26 Mic/mel Na/resch I zNvENToR ATTORNEY June 14, 1960 M NAKESCH 2,940,325
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE Filed Feb. l5, 1957 5 Sheets- Sheet 3 234 24550 BY QW ATTORNEY `lune 14, 1960 M. NAKEscl-l 2,940,325
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE Filed Feb. 15, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Michael Nakesch INVENIOR June 14, 1960 M, NAKESCH 2,940,325
` INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE Filed Feb. l5, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 F/G. /4 l 1 F/G. /3 356 354 l" 294 20 352 22a 228 i 3 I *i 2.96 i 32 O 292 290 S 2 l 323 S 34a 358 328 324 s# 26 32 35T 6 /299 3f@ 64 34 330 /358 N w 33a i i M j 3 0 J M 46 334 J 348 J 304 |346 336 342 f 3 /5 v3 306 34 350 N Michael Na/sc/f INVENTOR.
United States Patent INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SWASH PLATE DRIVE Michael Nakesch, 736 Elgin St., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Filed Feb. 15, 1957, Ser. No. 640,459
2 Claims. (Cl. 74-60) lhis invention relates in general to new and useful improvements in internal combustion engine construction, and more specifically to an improved internal combustion engine of the type having a swash plate drive.
Itis a well known rfact that dilerent compression ratios are required in order to obtain vthe proper inner combustion within a cylinder and the proper fuel-bore ratio within said cylinder, depending upon the particular fuel being used in order to obtain the maximum combustion efficiency from such fuel. The average internal combustion engine is designed to operate on a particular fuel. However, in many instances it may be desired to operate at certain times on a light petroleum product such as gasoline or a heavier petroleum product such as diesel oil and vthe like. `Ordinarily the compression ratio of an engine may be changed by changing the cylinder head thereof. However, because of a marked dilferential in the combustion ratio between an engine which is set up to operate on a light petroleum fuel and one which is set up to operate on a heavy petroleum fuel, it is virtually impossible to obtain this differential in compression ratio by merely changing the cylinder head. Further, this requires that an owner of an internal combustion engine have on hand extra cylinder heads corresponding to all of the various compression ratios which he may desire.
It is therefore, the primary object of this invention to provide an improved internal combustion engine construction which is of such a nature whereby the effective length of stroke of a piston may be varied as desired thus varying the relationship between the piston and the associated cylinder head upon the upper end of the stroke of the piston to vary the compression ratio of the engine.
Another object of this invention yis to provide an improved engine of the type which utilizes a swash plate for -t-he transfer of reciprocating motion to rotary motion, the swash plate being connected directly to connecting rods of an internal combustion engine or the like and being in turn connected to a y wheel by a drive pin, the connection between the swash plate and the fly wheel being an adjustable one which in eiect will Vary the length of stroke of the piston in order to produce rotation of the tly wheel.
Another object of this invention is to provide an irnproved internal combustion engine of the type which utilizes a swash plate intermediate the pistons and a fly wheel lfor converting the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotary motion of the ily wheel, the connection between the swash plate and the ily wheel being an adjustable one so as to vary the effective stroke of the pistons, the fly wheel being provided a counter balance weight which is adjustable so as to compensate for any shift in the connection between the swash plate and the y wheel.
Another object of this invention is to provide an mproved internal combustion engine of the type which utilizes a swash plate means for converting reciprocating motion to rotary motion, .the swash plate means provided with shoes which are engageable in guide ways in a block 2,940,325 Patented June 14, 1960 ice 2 assembly of the internal combustion engine whereby r'o` tary motion of Ytheswash plate is restrained and movement of the swash plate is limited to rocking movement.' Yet another object of this invention is to provide an` improved valve construction for internal combustion enfv gines, the valve construction including the customary in\ take and exhaust valves at theupper end of a cylinder and including an auxiliary exhaust valve, the auxiliary exhaust valve being disposed .adjacent the lower end of a cylinder and above the lower-most position of a piston for facilitating the exhausting of combustion gases from the cylinder.
A further object of this invention is to provide an improved auxiliary exhaust valve -for internal combus-r tion engines, the auxiliary exhaust valve being connected to the cylinder of Ithe internal combustion engine adjacent the lower end thereof and above the lower-most position of a piston, the auxiliary exhaust valve being of the proper type and being spring urged to a closed position and operable by the pressure of gases within the cylinder, there being means for varying the spring pressure on the valve.
Another object of this invention is -to provide an improved valve assembly for internal combustion engines particularly the type utilizing a swash plate -for converting f reeiprocatory motion to rotary motion and having a guide shaft located centrally of the cylinders of the internal combustion engine, the valve assembly including a cam plate carried by the drive shaft, the cam plate being provided with a circumferential cam surface for operating one group of valves of lthe internal combustion engine and an arcuate cam surface disposed at right angles to the circumferential cam surface for operating another group of valves of the internal combustion engine.
A still further object of this invention is to provide an improved valve assembly for .internal combustion engines of the type which utilizes a swash plate -for converting reciprocatory motion to rotary motion and having a central Vdrive shaft, the valve assembly including a cam plate which is mounted directly on the valve shaft for rotation therewith lfor the operation of exhaust and intake valves of the individual cylinders, the cam plate being provided with cam surfaces and the valve assembly including followers which are so associated whereby valve operating movement of the followers is obtained directly from the cam plate so that the valve assembly may be operated without requiring any additional drive with the exception of an induction drive between .the drive shaft and the cam plate permitting the cam plate to rotate about the drive shaft at a reduced speed. Y
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accom-l panying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein likeV numerals refer )to like parts throughout and in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view taken through the internal combustion engine which is the subject of this invention and shows a specific arrangement of the various components thereof, a cover -for the valves of thel valve assembly of .the internal combustion engine being shown in dotted lines;
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view taken substantially from the plane indicated in section line 2-2 of Figure 1 and shows a specific arrange. men-t of the .valves of one of the cylinders and the connection between a connecting rod and a piston;
Figure 3 is an enlarged yfragmentary transverse sectional view taken substantially upon the plane indicated by the section line 3-3 of Figure 2 and shows the arrangement of valve ports in the cylinder head of the particular cylinder; Y
Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view fasteners 116. The cap 114 and the connecting member 112 have formed therein complementary bearing surfaces 118 which receive a spherical member 1 20 on the lower end of the drive pin 98. It will thus be seen that the connection between the swash plate 46 and the tiy wheel 92 is such that the rocking movement of the swash plate 46 imparted thereto by the pistons 52 will be transmitted to the ywheel 92 inthe form of rotary movement.
In order to counter-balance the effect of the drive connection 108 on the y wheel 92, there is provided a counter-balance weight 122. The counter-balance weight 122 is secured in place on the upper surface of the y wheel 92 by means of a bolt 124.
In order that the engine may operate, the upper end of each of the cylinders 24 is closed by a cylinder head 126. The cylinder head 126 is provided with the usual igniting device 128 and exhaust and intake valves which will be described in more detail hereinafter. It is understood that the relationship between the piston 52 in its uppermost position and its respective cylinder head 126 will determine the compression ratio of the engine 10. If the uppermost position of the piston 52 leaves a relatively great space between the piston 52 and the cylinder head 126, then the compression ratio will be relatively low. On the other hand, if the space is reduced by permitting the piston 52 to travel nearer the cylinder head 126, then the compression ratio will be greatly increased. Thus, by providing means whereby the upper member of the movement of the piston 52 may be varied, the
t compression ratio of the engine 18 may be slightly varied so that the engine 10 may be adjusted to burning the lighter fuels, such as gasoline, or heavier fuels, such as diesel oil, etc.
In order to vary the stroke and nal upper position of the pistons 52, the connecting member 112 is mounted by sliding movement in the recess 110. However, in order that force may be transmitted from the swash plate 46 to the y wheel 96, the connecting member 112 cannot slide during the operation of the engine 10. Thus there is provided a threaded member 130 which is mounted for rotation within` the fly wheel 92 as at 132'and which is threadedly engaged in a bore 134 in the connecting member 112. An outer end of the threaded member 130 is provided with a wrench engageable portionf136 to facilitate the rotation thereof and the resultant positioning of the connecting member 112. p l
The counter-weight 122 must be shifted to correspond to the shifting of the connectingv member 112. Accord'- ingly, the bolt 124 passes through an elongated slot 138 and there is provided an interlocked connection 140 between the ily wheel 92 and the counter-balance weight 122.
At this time, it is pointed out that the drive shaft'82 may be connected to a driven device by any type of connection desired. Illustrated in Figure 2 on the drive shaft 82 is a coupling flange 142. However, other types of connections could be utilized.
y The cover 16 is provided with an outwardly projecting portion 144 surrounding the bearing 84. The projecting portion 144 carries a bearing 146 which is used to mount for rotation a cam plate 148. The cam plate 148 surrounds the drive shaft 82 and is mounted for rotation concentric thereof. The internal combustion engine 10 is a four-cycle engine and accordingly, the cam plate 148 must rotate at one-half the speed of the drive shaft 82. Otherwise, the cam plate 148 may be directly mounted on the drive shaft 82 for a two-cycle engine.
In order that the cam plate 148 may rotate at one-half the speed of the drive shaft 82, there is mounted on the drive shaft a drive gear 150. The drive gear 150 has meshed therewith an idler gear 152 which is carried by a shaft 154 depending from the partition wall 88. The idler gear 152 is in turn meshed with an internal ring gear 156 on the cam plate 148.
Referring now to Figure 2 in particular, it will be seen that the cylinder head 126 is provided with two ports 158 and 160. Although it is immaterial for purpose of description, the port 158 will be described as an exhaust port and the port 160 will be considered an intake port. The port 158 opens into the interior of the cylinder 24 and is normally closed by means of an exhaust valve 162. The exhaust valve 162 extends upwardly to the cylinder head 126 and it is normally retained in a closed position by means of a spring 164.
In order that the exhaust valve 162 may be urged to an open position, the upper end thereof has connected there'- to a rocker arm 166. The rocker arm 166 is mounted on a rocker shaft 168 carried by an opstanding support 170 formed on the upper part of the cylinder head 126. The end of the rocker `on 166 remote from the exhaust valve 162 is provided with an adjustable fitting 172 for connection with an elongated push rod 174; Push rod 174 is mounted within projecting ribs 176 on the exterior of the cylinder 24 for guided vertical reciprocating movement. Further, as is best illustrated in Figure 1, the crank case portion 14 is secured to the inner surface of the wall 86 thereof projecting ribs 178 which receive the lower portion of the push rod 174. Incidentally, the lower portion of the push rod is enlarged as in 180. The push rod is urged downwardly by means of a coil spring 182 which engages the upper end of the enlarged portion 180 and which bears against the under side of the cylinder portion 20.
In order that the exhaust valve 162 may be selectively opened, there is formed on the cam plate 148 a circumferentially extending cam surface 184. The cam surface 184 is of a design to produce the desired valve timing and opening. Engaged with the cam surface 184 is a vertical depending leg 186 of an angular follower 188. The follower 188 is mounted on a pin 190 carried by depending ears 192 on a partition wall 88. Follower 188 also includes the horizontal portion 194 which engages la spherical roller end 196 of the push rod 180. The partition wall 188 is provided with an opening 198 to permit the passage of the horizontal portion 194 when it is swung upwardly by the cam surface 184.
The intake port 160 communicates with the interior of the cylinder 24 and is normally closed by an intake Valve 200. The intake valve 200 passes upwardly through the cylinder head 126 and is urged to a closed position by a valve spring 202. Connected to the upper end of the intake valve 200 by moving it to an open position is a rocker arm 204 which is carried by a rocker shaft 206 which in turn is supported bya projection portion 208 of the cylinder head 126. The end of the rocker arm 204 removed from the intake valve 200 is provided with an adjustable tting 210 which is engaged with a push rod 212. The push rods 174 and 212 are mounted in projections 176 on the cylinder 24 and in projecting ribs 178 on the wall portion 86 of the crank case 14. Also, the push rods 212 are provided with an enlarged lower portion 214 and are urged downwardly by means of a coil spring 216. v
The lower end of the push rods '212 are provided with an enlarged follower 218 which is journalled in the wall 88 for reciprocatory movement. The follower 218 is provided at its lower end with a follower wheel 220 which engages an arcuate cam surface 222 formed in the upper part of the cam plate 148. It is to be noted that the arcuate cam surface 222 is formed on a projecting part 224 of the cam plate 148. In order to provide for clearance of the depending vertical portion 186 of the cam follower 188 there is formed in the projecting portion 224 a groove 226.
In order that the combustion gases can more completely be removed from the cylinder 24 so as to increase the eiciency of the engine 10, there is mounted on each of the cylinders 24 an auxiliary exhaust valve 228. The auxiliary exhaust valve 228 is aligned with an opening vantage of the engine is the provision of a novel valve assembly which permits the cam surface to be mounted on a cam plate which rotates together with the drive shaft about a common axis, thus eliminating an undesirable complicated valve train as is usually required in conjunction with engines of this type.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it ris -not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be restorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new 4is -as follows:
1. In an engine of the type including a block assembly and a plurality of pistons, a swash plate mounted for rocking movement `about Iits center, connecting rods connecting said pistons to said swash plate for converting reciprocating -movement of said pistons to rocking movement of said swash plate, a drive shaft, a fly Wheel, a drive pin carried by said swash plate, an improved drive connection between said drive pin and said fly wheel, said drive connection including a connecting member, a swivel connection between said drive pin and said connecting member, adjustable means on said y Wheel connecting said connecting member to said ily Wheel in a selective linear radial position relative to said drive shaft and including a radial recess opening toward said swash plate, said connecting member being seated in said recess,
said radial recs having side walls, said connecting member bearing against said side walls for transmitting force between said connecting member and said ily wheel, said adjustable means including a screw threaded member carried by said fly wheel and interlockingly engaged with said connecting member, and a counter-balance weight on said ily wheel diametrically opposed to said connecting member, means adjustably mounting said Weight on said ily wheel independent of said connecting member and in radial linear alignment therewith to compensate for shifting of said connecting member.
2. The structure of claim l in which said block assembly includes -a plurality of vertically disposed guideways opening toward said swash plate, said swash plate including la plurality of roller type shoes extending radially therefrom and received within said vertically disposed guideways.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,102,457 Twombly July 7, 1914 1,206,520 Eglinton Nov. 28, 1916 1,218,487 Storle Mar. 6, 1917 1,394,811 Daloz Oct. 25, 1921 1,679,425 Houston Aug. 7, 1928 1,722,726 Wills July 30, 1929 1,819,137 A Thompson Aug. 18, 1931 1,915,966 Wills June 27, 1933 2,539,880 Wildhaber Ian. 30, 1951 2,551,025 Lindeman May 1, 1951