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Publication numberUS2940575 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 14, 1960
Filing dateDec 19, 1957
Priority dateDec 19, 1957
Publication numberUS 2940575 A, US 2940575A, US-A-2940575, US2940575 A, US2940575A
InventorsSeyed Khalil
Original AssigneeRoyal Mcbee Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Typing machines for arabic group languages
US 2940575 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 14, 1960 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 19, 1957 Name Independent Flnol Medial IniTidl Added dhdl LGCC 3 WAW JJLB T T I /A i Q" 0 O. wifxuun f n ndd m I n w G wmwfififizmwmwmm mw 78 1.234 567 wzzazzzz F 'g I SEQQIDENIHOATIL BYgLnAMQYQpQ/ June 14, 1960 s. KHALIL TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 19, 1957 INVENTOR SEYED KHALI Wm ATTORNF' '5 June 14, 1960 s. KHALIL 2,940,575

TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES Filed Dec. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet s F P P O yl. I;

June 14, 1960 s. KHALIL 2,940,575

TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES Filed Dec. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6-

Fig. 7

INVENTOR Fig 8 52%;;

ATTORNEYS June 14, 1960 s. KHALIL.

TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES Filed Dec. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR S YED KHALIL ATTORNEYS June 14, 1960 s. KHALIL 2,940,575

TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES Filed Dec. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Fig. II

INVENTOR SEYED KHALlL BY M x ow ATTORNEYS United States Patent TYPING MACHINES FOR ARABIC GROUP LANGUAGES Seyed Khalil, New York, N.Y., assignor to Royal McBee Corporation, Port Chester, N.Y., a corporationof New York Filed Dec. 19, 1957, Ser. No. 703,850

16 Claims. (Cl. 197--1) This invention relates to a new and improved system and apparatus for typing Arabic characters.

In its traditional forms the Arabic language 1s very diflicult to learn, read and write. The many idiosyncrasies of the language have made it very difiicult to produce a practical Arabic typewriter which is capable of operating at speeds and efficiencies comparable to that of English typewriters. The several characteristics of the language which have heretofore caused the greatest difiiculty in typewriter design and construction will be briefly discussed.

First, the large number of difierent Arabic characters has required the incorporation of a correspondingly large number of keys, type bars and related linkages in conventional Arabic typewriters. Each of the letters of the Arabic alphabet may have as many as four difierent forms. These four are called the independent, initial, medial or final forms respectively, and are used where a given letter stands alone, or is the first, one of the middle, or the last letter, respectively, of any particular word. The number of different letter forms or characters used total more than one hundred.

Secondly, when writing in Arabic the successive letters of a word are constructed from right to left and each of said letters is, in most cases, connected to the next following letter as in English handwriting so as to form a continuous series of characters. In that there is no distinction between Arabic handwriting and printing, it will be apparent that successively typed letters of an Arabic word should be similarly interconnected, where possible, so as to form a continuous series of characters.

Thirdly, the relative widths of the many Arabic characters vary greatly; for example, the independent form of the letter s a d may be many times as wide as any form of the letter alif. It will be apparent that if successively typed Arabic letters of varying efiective widths are to be interconnected as above described, some sort of mechanism must be provided for permitting a variable escapement of the typewriter carriage as the latter is successively letter spaced.

Fourthly, the above noted interconnection required between the successively typed Arabic letters presents a critical problem of type bar alignment during the manufacture and/ or repair of Arabic typewriters.

In order to accommodate these characteristics of the Arabic language conventional typewriters have been provided with various complex and costly mechanisms such as proportional spacing mechanisms, silen keys, special keys etc. These structural features however have greatly increased the initial and maintenance costs of the machine and in some cases have not resulted in any substantial increase in the operational speed of the typewriter. Several proposals have been made to reduce the number of letter forms used in the Arabic alphabet, however these proposals have left unsolved the resultant increased criticality of type bar alignment and the problem of properly interconnecting the successively typed characters.

2,940,575 Patented June 14, 1960 ICE The instant invention overcomes these and other dis advantages of conventional Arabic typewriters by provid ing a two form system of Arabic characters wherein each character is standardized as to shape, size and relative position. The present invention contemplates the application of this system of characters to a portable typewriter in a manner that will permit a direct, rapid and eificient typing of said characters.

One object of the instant invention is to provide an improved system for typing Arabic characters.

Another-object of the instant invention is to provide an improved alphabetical system of Arabic letters whereby all of the letters of the alphabet have two standardized forms.

Another object of the invention is to provide a system of junctions between successively typed characters.

Another object of the invention is to provide a standardized shape, position, and size for each letter of the Arabic alphabet whereby typing of the Arabic language will be greatly facilitated.

Another object of the invention is to provide a simple inexpensive Arabic typewriter wherein no selection between several letter keys is necessary when different forms of any given one of the various Arabic letters are to be typed and wherein no proportional spacing mechanism is required.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved Arabic typewriter having a uniform carriage escapement mechanism and wherein the type for all of the characters of one letter form are located on the type bars in positions which respectively correspond to that of the lowercase type of an English typewriter, and wherein the type for all of the characters of the other letter form are located on said type bars in positions which respectively correspond to that of the upper case type of an English typewriter. V

Another object of the invention is to provide a simple, fast acting and very inexpensive Arabic typewriter which requires neither a variable escapement mechanism, silent keys nor a conventional type space bar.

A further object of the invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for aligning the type bars of a type- Writer.

Still another object of the invention is to provide an Arabic typewriter with a uniform carriage escapement which may be actuated in response to the operation of the case shift linkage of said typewriter.

Other objects of the invention will become apparent as the disclosure progresses.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 shows the various initial, medial, final and independent forms of the letters of the present Arabic language, and also illustrates the system of characters contemplated by the instant invention.

Fig. 2 is a plan view showing the keyboard arrangement of the instant typewriter.

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view showing a letter gage for determining the sizes, shapes and positions of the type on the typewriter type blocks.

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view showing the shapes, sizes and relative positions of the various characters of Fig. 2.

Figs. 5-8 are diagrammatic views illustrating-the proper interconnection of three successively typed Arabic letters.

Fig. 9 is a perspective view showing the principal parts of a portable Arabic typewriter which is constructed in accordance with the instant invention.

Fig. 10 is a detailed side elevational view partly in section showing a portion of the apparatus of Fig. 9.

Figs. 11-16 are diagrammatic views illustrating the method and apparatus for aligning the various type bars of the instant typewriter.

Although the present disclosure will made with Z mbia. 7 j

7 numbered 2- 7, 12 26 and 28 are respectively the same reference'to the Arabic language, it will be understood that the principles discussed herein may be applied to th il ng age in the rab c gro p. h, s Persi n V V vv Fig 1 shows the in the Arabic language. i The respectivealph abetically listedletters alif through ya have been numbered :1-28 inclusive. a As mentioned above, -the independent form of a letter is used when the letter standslalone'as; in oneexcept that-the medial form hasa junction line (such as at 30) which properly belongs.to. .tlie end of the. pre-. ceding letter. Obviouslvno junction line, such as39, is needed'byv the initial letter 'formsrin that there are no preceding letters to .be'connected'to the first or initial letter of a word; In similar fashion it will benoted that in most cases the final form of a letter, for example kf, letter number 22, is very similar to the independent form of the same letter except that the final form has a junction 'lin e,isuchas at 31, which properly belongs on'the various independent, final, medial and initial forms for. the twenty eight letters .regularlytused end of thenext preceding letterin the word. Obviously the independent form-of a letter does not need a junction line such as at 31 in thatthis form of a letter stands alone and is not connected t'o any other letters. The six letters numbered 1,341 and 27 are not connected to the next following'lette'rs of a wordt t I Conventional Arabic typivriters-mayrequire two or morel separate keys and type bars in order to type a particu'lar'for-mof a g'ivenfletter and/or'may requiretwo or tmore difierent keys to respectively print 'the'difierent forms of a letter. -Likewisejvariable carriage escapement mechanisms and silen keys (i.e. keys whose actuation will produce a printed-figure on the recordpaper but willnotadtuat the "carriage escapement mechanism) are respectively provided in said. conventional machines in order to accommodate characters of varying widths, such as alifand did numbered "1 and "115, and to provide a means for manuallyjcontrolling and printing the desired number of dots (o -similar :devices) adjacent the various forms of letters suchas ba, ta and'tha, numbered 2 -4 of Fig. 1. It will be apparent that where any initial or medial letter form is to be connected to "the junction line such as 30 orf3j1 of the' next following character the type bars of the machine rnustnot only be aligned but the typefor'each of said initial and medial characters must be designed so as .to make such interconnection possible.

Thus any iArabic typewriter which is designed and constructed to accommodate all these features of the Arabic alphabet will of necessity be either too expensive to manufacture or too' slow in operation asfcompared with conventional English typewriters.

The present inventioncontemplates the utilization of a system having only two :formsjfor each of'lthe twenty eight Arabic letters, these two forms being hereinafter respectively referred to as the terminal and the, preterminal'forms; and the incorporation of this system of terminal and preterminal letterforrns in an Arabic typewriter in such a way that visually pleasin g printed'wordsmay be properly typed in a'rapid, clear and inexp'ensivemanner.

Asdeiroted'in Fig.1.the terminal letter forms-or char- ;actersjor each of the letters alif through ya are respecztively-zthe same'as:the said;independent letter forrns. 'fhe preterminal forms or characters'lfor eaeh zofltheiletters as the said initial letter forms. The six letters numbered 7 1, 8-11 and 27 have no distinctive medial and initial forms, hence the predeterminal characters for these six letters are defined by the six'added characters as shown in Fig, 1; It will be noted that these added preterminal letter forms are substantially the same as the respective terminal forms for these sameletters, The last letter of an Arabic word and a letter standing alone will always be written in the terminal form While all the letters before said last letter of a 'word Will'each be written in the pie terminal form. By properly designing each ofthe preterminal characters, so that it is extended to properly connect to the next succeeding etter, t e n c y for junction lines, similar to that shown at 30 and 31 of Fig. 1, will be obviated. This type of construction for each of the characters must, however, besuch that a consistently accurate inter onn c on b t e n e su cessively typed characters is possible, otherwise the typed word i o always e-cemp ehe sibl a H Prior attemp ha e b en mad or he nu ber of 'Arabic' letter forms used in connection with a typewriter, e.g. see U.S. Patents 1,403,329 and 1,686,627. Such proposals however have notbeenentirely satisfactory either because the cost of the mflqhine has not been mp ses, f u r s f keys 75 i 2. nd 53- QT-he dotted jlined keys in the upper row 50 define the usual umerica n 'punc ionke/e h nnmsricelhrebfins dispesed'iin the lower-c se pesit n g type v thepunctuation marksibeing disposed in the uppercase p sit on -f het reefle e ro sfil 52'e 5 contain the keys 'forthe twenty eight letters of theArabic alphabet. fl'hese twenty eight keys are shown in; solidline and are marked with theterminalforrns of the letters respectively associated therewith; The nature and useofthe characters respectively shownon the four dottedlined keys" 515, 56,57 and 5.8 in rows Slandj 5'3 are well known in the Arabic language and need'not be expiained'here; The two d'otte'cl lined keys 59 in row 53 designaterthe usual carriage or segment shiftikeys of the typewriter. The numbering of the keysin EigJZ correspondsto the letter numbering'of Figljl. V t By providing two and onlyftwo letter forms; terminal and preterminal, for each of the twenty eight letters of the Arabic alphabet, the operative disposition of the" two sets of type for respectively printing the said two {letter forms 'may respectively 'cdrrespond to-that of the upper and lower case type of an English typewriterj Thus the preterminal-characters may be typed by merely sequentially depressing the various desired letter keys shown in Fig.2 while the' terminal characters may be typed' by operating the shift key 59 and then de'pressin g the desired letter key. By-employing the said disposition era pa in the typewrite each ofthe letters ofthe'Arabic alphabet is associated with one and onlyone key of' the typewriter keyboard. i lence a' typist will never find-it necessar'yto' decide which one of t'wo or threelett'erkeys to 'tiepress when an'y' particular letter or letter'f orm 'istobe typed. r 1,

'Instead of making 'the typewriter cari'iage move variable amounts in order'to accommodateArabic letters oi varying widths the instant characters are standardized so astofpermit the use of an escapement mechanism which allows a uniformletter spacing of-the typewriter carriage. In Fig. 3 there is shown an enlarged View :of a patterned rectangularletter' gage 70 whieh is used to characters shown in Fig. -l. The dimensions of gage 70 will be illustratively defined assuming that the typewriter carriage is to move one twelfth of an inch for each letter space. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of the rectangular gage 70 are each equal to one sixth of an inch. The lines 71 and 72 designate the horizontal and vertical typing center lines respectively of any given type. The two parallel angular lines 73 and 74 intersect the horizontal typing line 71 at the two points 75 and 76 respectively which are of particular significance and Will be hereinafter referred to as gage junction points. The points 77, 78, 79, 80 and 81 are equally spaced one twenty fourth of an inch apart. Points 82 and 83 are right and left letter extreme end points respectively and each are located one forty eighth of an inch from points 75 and 84 respectively. The point 85 is midway between the said junction points 75 and 76 which are spaced one twelfth of an inch apart. No part of any letter form will extend to the right any farther than the extreme right hand end point 82, or to the left any farther than the extreme left hand end point 83. The upper vertical limits for any letter form are defined by the line 86 of said gage 70. It will be understood that the various dimensions of the gage 70 may vary from those specifically described above depending on the size, spacing etc. desired for the type characters. The essential features here however are that the distance between said points 75 and 76 should be substantially equal to the distance that the typewriter carriage moves during one letter space and that once a particular sized gage has been selected, it must be used to determine the configuration and position of all the instant terminal and preterminal characters.

The particular size, shape and position of each of the terminal and preterminal characters of Fig. 1 are shown in Fig. 4. Here the terminal and preterminal forms for each Arabic letter is enclosed in a block which is numbered in accordance with the letter numbering of Fig. l. The pattern of distribution of the letter blocks of Fig. 4 corresponds to that for the letter keys in Fig. 2. Each of the letter forms or characters of Fig. 4 is designed so as to conform with the said letter gage 70 in a predetermined manner. All of the preterminal characters, except those for the six letters numbered 1, 8-11 and 27, when superimposed on said gage 70 will have right and left side junctions or junction points which will be coincident with the said gage junction points 75 and 76. All of the terminal characters, as well as said six preterminal characters, when superimposed on said gage will have one point, i.e. a right side junction or junction point, which is coincident with said point 75 of the said gage 70. For the purpose of clarity in illustration only a portion of the gage 70 has been here shown superimposed on each of the letter forms of Fig. 4 and the letter side junctions which are coincident with the junction points 75 and 76 of gage 70 are defined by small white circular areas. It will be understood that the various characters as actually typed will not have any such white areas.

Although the preterminal forms for the six letters numbered 1, 8-11 and 27 have only right side junctions, the extremities of such characters preferably overlie or are geometrically oriented with respect to some predetermined line or point of the letter gage; for example, the respective lower end of each of the preterminal characters ra, waw, 25, letter numbers 10, 27 and 11, is adjacent the point 88 of the gage 70 of Fig. 3. Likewise the extremities for each of the pretermined forms of letters, dal, and dhal, numbered 8 and 9, respectively terminate along or near the lines 71 and 73. The preterminal form for the letter alif, numbered 1, is disposed substantially parallel to the vertical typing center 72. The various extremities of said terminal characters preferably overlie or are geometrically oriented with respect to some point or line of gage 70 in a manner similar to that just described'for said six preterminal characters. In that the said side junctions for the instant characters are always in a predetermined position relative to the said vertical and horizontal typing center lines 71 and 72 of gage 70 each typed character will be located in a corresponding predetermined horizontal and vertical coordinate position in the successive print receiving letter spaces of the paper being typed on. It will be noted that the overall width of many of the preterminal letter forms, such as 5, number 12, is greater than the distance between the respective junction points of these particular letter forms. In similar fashion a portion of many of the terminal characters, such as ha, number 6, extends to the right of the right side junction point of these letter forms. Inmost cases the width of the terminal characters exceeds that for the Widest preterminal characters.

In the instant system, by standardizing the various preterminal and terminal characters as shown and described above in connection with Figs. 2 and 4 Arabic words having a pleasing typed appearance may be readily constructed. The successive letters of such words can be properly interconnected and aligned by successively placing the predetermined side junctions of each letter in progressive coincidence in the manner illustrated in Figs. 5 to 8. These figures show the terminal form of the letter Ra, numbered 10; the preterminal form of the letter said, numbered 14, and the preterminal form of the letter mim, numbered 24. When these three characters are interconnected so that the left side junction of mim, Fig. 7, is coincident with the right side junction of sad, Fig. 6 and the left side junction of sad is coincident with the right side junction of rd, Fig. 5, then the word shown in Fig. 8 and meaning Egypt will have been formed. When the preterminal form of the said six letters alif, dhal, dal, r5, 2?. or war are used there will be a slight space between any such characters and the next succeeding character, said six preterminal letter forms having no left side junctions.

It will be noted that when any series of letters are properly interconnected as shown in Fig. 8, the left end portion of each preterminal character will take the place of the junction lines, such as 30 and 31, required on the medial and final forms of the various letters as shown in Fig. 1. It should be emphasized again that where such a use of only two forms of the Arabic letters is contemplated it is imperative that all the typed letters be accurately and consistently joined and aligned otherwise the typed words are likely to be illegible. By properly interconnecting the standardized terminal and preterminal characters in the manner illustrated by Figs. 58 a word will always be clearly legible in that no relative misalignment of the successive characters is possible: also a pleasing and continuous appearance is thereby imparted to the lines defining the word. In that the distance between the successive side junctions of the letters is constantv no proportional escapement mechanism is needed for the instant typewriter carriage. As noted above in connection with Fig. 4 the white circular areas denoting the side junctions for the letters of Figs. 5-7 are shown for explanatory purposes and do not appear in the actual typed word of Fig. 8.

The above described system of characters will be shown and described as applied to and embodied in the construction of a portable Arabic typewriter; however, it will be understood that the principles discussed may be applied withequal efiicacy to standard and electric typewriters.

Figs. 9 and 10 show the principal parts of the portable Arabic typewriter .100 contemplated by the instant invention. Any parts of the instant machine not specifically shown or described may be similar to those used in conventional type portable Arabic typewriters such as that presently being produced by the Royal McBee Corporation. Further, unless otherwise stated each of the various parts shown is suitably supported on the machine frame. Referring to Fig. 9, the typewriter comprises a carmore;

7 -7 riage 101 which is progressively displaced from left to rightduring atyping operationby means of'cable .102

which passes overthe stationary pulley 103. One end of the cable is secured to the carriage while the otheitend is connected to the usual spring biased carriage feed drum.

The letter spacing of the carriage 101 is controlled by the escapementmechanism 104; saidmechanisni having .a

pinion 105 which engages the rack 106 secured to. the

carriage'frame. It will be assumed here that the rack 106 has twelve teeth per inch of length,

"I'he typewn'ter is provided with a vertically, movable seg1nent107. which pivotally supports a plurality of type bars 'such'as 108 which may berespectively actuated to typechara'cters in the usual :manner on a record sheet that is operatively'supported by the cylindricalvplaten' 109. Each of said type bars is actuated by depression of a key such as 110 which in thisparticular case is connected to type bar 108 through the links 111, 112 and 113. Secured to the segment 107 is a pair of rearwardly extendingarms 114 whose 'freeends pivotally support the shaft 115. Rotatably secured to shaft 115 are two arms 116 and 17. The lower end of arm 116 is pivotally connected to the rearward extension 118 of the convenfl tionally mounted and operated universal bar 119 sup ported in the said segment 107. The arm 117' overlies the laterally extending arm120 of bail 121 which is pivot-' ally supported onthe upright shaft 122.' The forwardly .ottthe typewriter. after the typingof each word and will permit saidspace bar to beentirely eliminated from the iiistantmachine if desired. u a v g Q Referring to Figsl 9 andllO the. shaft 115 has rotatably secured thereto a depending arm139 having a lower end that .is provided a. rearwardly extending lug 140. Aide'tentf1'41. ispivotally secured, as at 142, to saidarm 139.and has a stud 143 fixed to the free endithercof. Iliedetent 141 and the lug'1'40 are provided withbent oif. ears 144.and,-145..respectively which .are'interconnectedbyrme'a'ns ofthe spring 146. Said spring biases arm 120 ofsaid bail 121 and i SQadapte'd to "rock said extending arm 123 of bail 121' is adapted'to engage and actuate the depending arm 124 of the pivotally mounted dog" supporting 125, Fig; 10. Secured to said arm 7 i i125 is a pairof dogs 12'6'which cooperate in the'usual V manner with the'teeth of the carriage escapement wheel 1 127,: ,Itwill be apparent that when any one of the type 'barspis actuated its camming surface,rsuch as is shown at 128 on type bar 108, will rea'rwardly displace the universal bar 119 which, through thelinkage just described,

will operate the escapement mechanism 104 thereby. allow- .in'g the carriage to be moved one twelfth of an inch, f or one letter space, to the right as seen in Fig. 9r

7 The means for shifting the segment 107 to its respective upper and lower positions comprises a pair of shift key levers 130 which are rotatably secured to the cross'shaft 13'1. Rotatably secured to the right end of shaft 131 is an 132 which is connected by means of link 133 to one ofthe arms 1'34that are ,rotatably secured to the rotatable shaft 135. The free ends of arms 134 are respectively articulately connected to links 136which are in 7 turnconnected to the segment 107. The arms 134 are biased in an upward direction by means of springs 138 so as to normallyretain, the segment 107 in a position permitting the typing of'preterminal characterson the record sheet. It will'be apparent that when either of the shift keys 59 is, depressed, the segment will be displaced downwardly, thereby permitting the typing of terminal characters. Springs 138 restore the segment to its normal positionwhcn' saidshjftrkey levers 130 are released. The above described apparatus of Fig. 9 is'conventional in nature and need not befurther explained here. The type forthe terminal andpreterminal char actors are located on the type barsin positionswhich re-. spectively correspond to that'of the upper and lower case charactersin English'typewriters. 7 V J It will be recalled from the discussion of Fig. 1 that the last letter of any 'Arabic word is always written in theterrninal form. I-Iere then the shift key'59 musfbe depressed prior to the typing of any such last letter. In that there is always a space between successive Arabic words, the present invention contemplates the provision of an interconnecting linkageibetween the said shift and ingof-preterminalcharacters This feature. will eliminate the ars; the 5 customary actuatiomof the space bar 6O 'arcuately displaced shoulder 154' and; thebell means bail= so as to. operate the esc apernent mechanism 104. in operation when either of the-shift key:.1e'vers 130 is actuated the segment'107 .togetherewith the shaft V and therearwardly extendingarms 114 willbelowered This downward motion ofshaft 115 willicause said depending arm 139 Fig.fl0, 'to be lowered? whereby detent 141 will be rotated in a clockwise. direction against the action of spring 146 by'reason of said. stud .143 riding over the camming surface147 of bellfcranlc 148. .Dur-

ing this operationjthe bell crank 148 will remain in .en-

gagement with thestopiSt): After said .shift l key lever 139 has been fully depressed and .thesegment107 is in a position for. pcrmitting terminal characters to be typed, the detent stud .143 -willunderlie the shoulder portion 154 of said bell crank 148; After the desired terminal character has been typed. and the carriage has been thereby displaced one space-to the right in the usual manner, and the depressed shiffkey lever 130 is released and allowed to move to its: normal position by the action 0% said springs 138,- the depending. arm 139 and the detent 141 will be lifted so'that the detent stud 143 will engage and lift the shoulder 154 of bell crank .148. Here the detentf141 cannot rotate in a counterclockwise direcion and hencewill rotatably displace said bell. crank in' a' counterclockwise direction; said'springs 138 being effectively stronger thanthe spring 151. The-counter.- clockwise rotation of bell crank=14$ will icausesaid shoulder 153 to engage andrearwardly displace the said lateral arm of the 'ba illzl. This motion ofibail 121, being the same as that imparted thereto by the normal operation o f'said' universal bar 119,. will operate the cscapement mecharn'sm' 104 therebypermitting the carriage to move one more letter space to the right. Thus the space required between'the last letter of a word and the firstiletter of' the next word is automatically provided for bythe restoration of the typewriter segment from its lower' position to its normal upperposition. When the segment again reaches its normal upper posi. the-stud 143 will have ridden out from under the will be restored toits-normalposition shown in'Fig. 9 by the action of said spring 151-. I I 7 By using only two forms for each of the letters in the alphabet and'by placing th'etype; for both for-ms'of one given letter on'one type: bar, the operator of the instant typewriter v lill never'haveto determine which of several keys to depress in order to type a given letter. Here there is only one keyg for each of the respective letters and hence the operator will alwaysuse'thesa'rne'key to type anyone of said letters; In'that the type fo'r the prcterminal characters are 'locatedon the type bars in positions whichfrespectively correspondto thaflof the lower case type off-English typewriters all of the; preterminali letters of a' word may. be; typed, by merely se vquentially depressing the proper keys. When a given terminal character of a word is to be typed the shift key 59 is simply depressed and the letter key for typing the preterminal form of the same letter is then actuated. Restoration of the shift key 59 and its associated linkage to normal position will actuate the said escapement mechanism to thereby automatically provide a space between the terminal character just typed and the first letter of the next word. The provision of a conventional type space bar is not essential to the operation of the instant typewriter. It will be seen that the above described opera? tion for the instant Arabic typewriter is as direct, simple and rapid as the operation of a conventional English typewriter and that the typed letters of each Arabic word will be properly aligned and mutually interconnected in the exact and predetermined manner illustrated by Figs. -8 so as to form a continuous series of characters. The instant typewriter may be produced very inexpensively in that a minimum number of letter keys are required and no proportional spacing mechanism, space bar or silen keys are necessary.

An improved method and apparatus for aligning the type bars of the instant typewriter is shown and described in connection with Figs. 11-16. If the type bars of an Arabic typewriter are not properly aligned the successively typed letters of a word will either be spaced apart or overlapped. In manufacturing and repairing typewriters, the usual method employed to overcome this difficulty is to bend the various type bars of the machine. This is an inefncient trial and error procedure whereby, in effect, each type block is sought to be aligned with some or all of the other type blocks. Even after the bending and the repeated rebending of each of the type bars there is no certainty that all of the type blocks will be finally oriented in their proper relative positions. The basic difficulty here lies in the fact there are no known datum lines or points against which each typed letter may be positionally gaged. This situation may be seen from an inspection of Fig. 15 where it is impossible, by reference only to the letters of the word, to tell which of said letters are out of alignment. For example, it is impossible to determine if the typed letter 14 is too low or if the typed letter is too high in causing the overlap at 165. Similarly it is impossible to determine if the letter 24 is too far to the right or if the letter 14 is too far to the left in causing the gap or space 166.

The instant invention ofifers a method and means for establishing datum lines and points against which each typed letter may be gaged. The concept involved in the instant type bar aligning method is that when each type bar has been operationally aligned with the same fixed datum points which have been typed on a record sheet all of the type bars will then be operationally aligned with each other.

Referring to Fig. 11 there is shown a type block 170 which is secured either permanently or temporarily to one of the type bars such as 108 of the instant machine. The type 172 and 173 formed on the operative face of said block are respectively shaped and sized so as to print on a record sheet a datum gage which is identical to the letter gage shown and described in connection with Fig. 4. For clarity in illustration only a portion of the respective gages 70 are shown in Figs. 11-16. After a record sheet 175, Fig. 12, has been operatively positioned in the typewriter carriage the type bar carrying the type block 170 is successively actuated (and adjusted if necessary) so as to print a continuous succession of said datum gages as shown in Fig. 12. In that the escapement mechanism for the instant typewriter always allows the carriage to move from left to right one twelfth of an inch between each successively typing stroke, and in that the distance between the points 75 and 76 of the datum gage is also one twelfth of an inch, it will be apparent that the line 73 and points 75 of any one of said typed datum gages respectively overlie or are coincident with 10 the'line 74" and point76 of the next preceeding typed gage. When said type bar has been adjusted so as to type the continuous gage pattern shown in Fig. 12, each typed gage will be oriented. in corresponding position in each of the respective successive letter receiving spaces of the record sheet and hence will provide a common datum from which positional deviations of any typed letters respectively superimposed thereon may be measured. One all the type bars have been aligned with respect to said typed gages they will then of necessity be aligned with each other.

By utilizing the typed datum gages of Fig. 12 the instant type bar aligning method will make it possible to determine not only which letters of the word of Fig. 15 are out of alignment but also the direction and extent of such misalignment. To accomplish this four separate gages are typed on the record sheet 175 as shown in Fig. 13, and then the four letters of Fig. 15 are respectively typed over these four gages (whether the letters are superimposed on the gages or vice-versa is immaterial). If each of the type bars associated with said four lettersis in proper alignment, then each of the side junctions of the typed letters 24, 14, 10 and 28, overlie there-spective junction points 75 and 76 of said four gages. It may be readily seen from Fig. 13 that there is no such positional coincidence between the three typed letters 14, 10 and 28 and their respective associated gages; letter 14 being rotatably twisted in a counterclockwisedirection, letter 28 being too high and letter 16 being too far to the right. On the other hand it may be seen that there is -a proper positional coincidence between the side junctions of the letter 24-and the junction points of its associated datum gage. The respective type bars for the three letters 14, 10 and 28 may then be bent or otherwise positionally adjusted in the typewriter so that'when each of these three letters are typed they will be properly oriented with respect to said gages as shown in Fig. 14. Thereafter, with all four of the said type bars aligned with said gages, the word of'Fig. 15 may be typed so that each of the successive letters thereof are then properly oriented with respect to each other as shown in Fig. 16, and the various side junctions of the letters will be i oinetg in the manner described above in connection with 1g. Thus it will be seen that the system of side junctions for the letters described above in connection with Fig. 4 not only serves to facilitate the interconnection and the standardization of the instant Arabic. characters, but also serves as a basis for readily and efficiently checking the alignment of the type bars of the instant typewriter. i While there is in this application specifically described one form which the invention may assume in practice, it will be understood that this form of the same is shown for purposes of illustration only and that the invention may be modified .and embodied in various other forms without departing from its spirit or the scope of the appended claims. V

The invention claimed is:

1. In a typewriter, a frame, a record supporting carnage movably mounted on said frame, a plurality of selectively operable type bars movably mounted on said frame, a pair of type mounted on each of said type bars, each pair of type being formed so as to type on the record sheet supported in said carriage two forms of one given letter, the majority of characters of one of said forms each having predetermined right and left side junction points which are successively coincident when said characters are successively typed, a portion of many of said characters extending to the right of the respectively associated right side junction points thereof, and escapement means permitting said carriage to intermittently move from left to right during the typing of said characters through distances which are substantially equal .to the distances between the said right and left side junction points of said characters respectively.

2. In an Arabic typewriter, a frame, a record support- 1 1 r r ing carriage movably mo nted on said frame and adapted to be distflacedfrom left .to right during a typing" operatiofi, a plurality of selectively operable-type bars movablymounted on said frame, each of said type bars having two types formed thereon which are respectively shaped V so .as-to print on the recordsupportedby the' carriage a 7 terminal and a pretermin'al form fo'r .each of the letters of the Arabicalphabet, said terminal. forms being substantially the'same as the independent forms 'of thecorre: spending conventional Arabic letters whilethepreterminal form' fdr each of said letters eXc'ept alif, .dal, .dhal, fa z a andxwaw being substantially thesarne as the initial forms of the corresponding conventional Arabic ,letters,

.each'of the pr'ete'rminal characters excepting said six letter -foinis' having predetermined right and left side junction pointsthrspective distances betweenwhich are substanriauy-thesameme width of the terminal charaetefsbein igreater than that of said pretrminal charaeters and a etitioner m st of said preterminal chara'cte fs extending to the right of the respectively associatedlri'ght side junction points thefof, and en asement for the preter'minal characters, arelocated ,onsaid type lbafr'sl in positions which respectively correspond to' that. of i v the lower, case type of;an;English.jtypevgriteif In an Arabic typewriter, a frame, a record support- .ing carriage. movably mountedon said frame 'and adapted to be displacedfrom leftlto r'ightldur'ing a operv, a plurality of selectively operable type barsmovably mounted on 's'aid frame, each of said type bars having two types formed thereon which are respectivel shaped so asi-td print onthe' record supported by the carriage a terminal and a preterminal formfor each ofthe letters of the Arabic alphabet, terminal forms being substantially .tiheisjam'e as the independent forms of the-corresponding conventional Arabic letters while the preterminal form for" each offs'aid letters except alif, dal, dhal, rapza andwaw'being substantially the same as the initial forms of'the' corresponding conventional Arabic letters, eachof the preterminal characters excepting said'six letter forms having predetermined right and left side junction points,

acarfriag'e' escapement mechanism, means for: shifting the relative positions of said type bars and said carriage so a to .ehange the set of type which may operably strike said record, and means ;resp'onsive to the operation of junctionv points.

form of the same letter, the preterminal letter formswhen successively typed having predetermined coincident side 8. Apparatus-as defined by claim 7 wherein the type for said preterminalcharacters are located respectively on said type bars'in positions which respectively correspond tothat of the lower case type of an English typewriter,

and wherein the type for said terminal letters are located 7 on said-type bars in positions which respectively correspond to that of the upper case type of anEnglish typewriter, the majority of preter-minal letters forms having predetermined right and left side junction points which are spaced apart adistanceequal to the distance which said carriage moves during said letter spacing operations, most of said preterminal characters having an overall width which is greaterthan the distance between said respective junction points. 7 V

9. Apparatus as defined by claim 8 wherein the type for the terminal and preterminal letters'forms" of each Arabic letter are on the same typebar, V p

10. In an Arabic typewriter, a frame, a record supporting carriage movably mounted on saidframe, a plurality of selectively operable type bars movably mounted on said frame, a pair of type mounted on each of said type bars and adapted to type terminal and preterminal Arabic a characters on a record sheet,.thetype for the preterminal letter forms being'loc'ated on said type barsin positions which respectively correspond tothat of: the lowercase type of an English typewriter, the type for the terminal said last mentioned means for actuating said escapement mechanism.

SI Apparatus as definedjby clairn'4 whereinthe major befiweeii'which is substantially equal to the distance through which the typewriter carriage is permitted to 'move during one letter spacing displacement.

16.. Apparatus as defined by claim 4"wherein said actuatingimek'ans connected was to operate said escapement mechanism during the restorationof said shiftmeans to normal position. p

.7; In a typewriter; a frame, a plurality of selectively operable type bars'movably mounted on said frame, a record supporting carriage movably mounted on said frame, an escapement mechanism permitting said carriage to move through successive letter spaces, shift means movable from a normal position for relatively displacing said carriage and type bars so that a different set of type may strike the record sheet, means responsive to the operation. of said shift means for actuating said escapement' mechanism; a pair of type secured to the and the other said type being adaptedto a t r i fl l and preterminal forms of a given letter being on the same typebar, the majority of the characters for the preterminal letter form's beiiig formed so as'tohave prcdetermined right and leftside' junctions which are successively coincident when said letter forms are successively typed a portion'of many of said characters extending to the 'right of; the respectively associated right side junction points thereof, and escapement means permitting said carriage to intermittently move from left to right during the typing of said characters through distances Whichare' substantially equal to the distances between the said right andleft side junction points of said characters respectively. a a

11; In an Arabic typewriter; a frame, a plurality of selectively operabletype bars, movably mounted on said frame, a record supporting carriage slidably mounted on said frame, an 'e scapement mechanism permitting said carriage to move from left to right during a typing operation, shift means operable to change the' set of type which strikes said record, and means responsive to the restoration of said shifit means to its normal position for actuating said escapemen-t mechanism. 7

12. In an'Arabic typewriter, a frame, a record supporting carriage movably mounted on said frame, an escapement mechanismsupported by said frame and adapted to permit said carriage to be successively spaced from left to right during 'a typing operation, .afplurality of;.type bars movably mounted onsaid frame,.a pair of; type formed on each of said type bars, each pair of said type beingshaped's'o'as'to respectively print on'the record sheet a terminal and preterminal form for each of the letters of the Arabic language, the majority ofpreterrninal letter aforms having predetermined side junctions the distance between'which is substantially equal to the distance through which the typewriter carriage is permitted Ito-move during a letter spacing displacement, shift means movable from a normal :position .forchanging the relative positions of said type bars and said carriageandmeans responsive to the restoration of said shift means to itsnormal position for operating said escapement mechanism.

,13. 'A methodof aligning the type bars of a typewriter; comprising the steps of, operatively positioning a record sheet. in thetypewriter, typinga letter gage in each of a plurality of letter spaces on said record, said gages being respectively located in the same knownposition in each or .therespect iveletter spaces, successively actuating the said typebars so as to 1 type aletterover each of said 13 gages, and adjusting the operative position of each of said type bars so that predetermined junction points of the letters respectively typed thereby overlie predetermined points of the respective gages in predetermined positional coincidence.

14. The method defined by claim 13 wherein the type and the associated type bar used for printing said gages are constructed and adjusted so that the successively typed gages have predetermined junctions which are respectively in successive coincidence.

15. Apparatus as defined by claim 11 wherein said escapement mechanism permits said carriage .to intermittently move through increments of uniform length.

16. Apparatus as defined by claim 11; additionally comprising a pair of type secured to each of said type bars, each of said pairs defining the terminal and preterminal forms of a given Arabic letter, the locations of said type on said type bars being such that the terminal letter forms respectively positionally correspond to the upper case type of an English typewriter and the preterminal letter forms respectively positionally correspond to the lower case type of an English typewriter.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 637,109 Haddad Nov. 14, 1899 639,379 Guest et a1 Dec. 19, 1899 1,057,013 Smith Mar. 25, 1913 1,213,880 Kadry Ian. 30, 1917 1,250,416 Barr et al. Dec. 18, 1917 1,686,627 Muller Oct. 9, 1928 2,672,228 Efiinger Mar. 16, 1954

Patent Citations
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US637109 *Oct 13, 1899Nov 14, 1899Selim S HaddadTypes for type-writers or printing-presses.
US639379 *Sep 25, 1899Dec 19, 1899Arthur Rhuvon GuestType for arabic characters.
US1057013 *Jul 2, 1912Mar 25, 1913Union Typewriter CoType-writing machine.
US1213880 *Jan 15, 1914Jan 30, 1917Underwood Typewriter CoType-writing machine.
US1250416 *Aug 4, 1917Dec 18, 1917Remington Typewriter CoType-writing machine.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3513968 *Jan 24, 1967May 26, 1970Compugraphic CorpControl system for typesetting arabic
US4137425 *Oct 18, 1977Jan 30, 1979Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.P.A.Bialphabetic teleprinter for texts in latin and arabic characters
US4176974 *Mar 13, 1978Dec 4, 1979Middle East Software CorporationInteractive video display and editing of text in the Arabic script
US4244657 *Jun 8, 1978Jan 13, 1981Zaner-Bloser, Inc.Font and method for printing cursive script
US4527919 *Dec 12, 1983Jul 9, 1985Lettera Arabica S.A.R.L.Method for the composition of texts in Arabic letters and composition device
US20070020591 *Jul 22, 2005Jan 25, 2007Alsalem Alsabah Sheikha LateefMethods and aids for teaching Arabic to the blind
Classifications
U.S. Classification400/111, 400/323.1, D18/25, 400/484
International ClassificationB41J3/00, B41J3/01
Cooperative ClassificationB41J3/01
European ClassificationB41J3/01