US 2941551 A
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June 21, 1960 H. w. BALLARD SEMI-ORIENTAL JACQUARD AND METHOD 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 9, 1958 FIG. I.
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INVENTORI .end of one of the United States Patent 2,941,551 SEMI-ORIENTAL JACQUARD AND METHOD Hyde W. Ballard, West Chester, Pa., assignor to James Lees and Sons Company, Bridgeport, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Jan. 9, 1958, Ser. No. 707,896
9 Claims. (Cl. 139-59) This application pertains to apparatus for weaving pile fabrics and more particularly to an improved semi-oriental jacquard whereby any pile yarn may be carried indefinitely over as many pile wires as desired, between the top and bottom shots for as long as desired, and woven through to the back whenever desired.
The present invention carries forward the inventive concept disclosed and claimed in copending Raymond B. Patterson application, Serial No. 698,557, filed November 25, 1957, and particularly has to do with a further improvement which enables a fabric to be woven having pile warp ends floated under the wire and over any desired number of top filling shots.
The semi-oriental jacquard for controlling and selecting pile yarns in a Wilton fabric is well-known in the art. Such jacquards, however, have in the past been limited in the ability to produce the complete range of pile yarn effects which are desired in present fabrics of this type.
A primary object of the invention, therefore, is to provide in a single index, stationary grate jacquard of the semi-oriental type, means for selectively controlling each lingo heddle to weave over or under a pile wire and its associated filling shot and then over or under a subsequently inserted bottom filling shot.
A further object of the invention is to provide a jacquard capable of weaving a semi-oriental pile fabric having high floats.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved semi-oriental jacquard capable of weaving low floats.
A further object of the invention is to provide a series of two-position high lift hooks capable of selective engagement with the high lift knives in accordance with the control of the cards.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a series of multi-thickness jacquard cards for adding an additional selective position to the jacquard hooks.
A further object of the invention is to provide in a semi-oriental jacquard means for weaving a float pile fabric without the use of stationary knives.
A further object of the invention is to provide means for weaving a float pile fabric with a jacquard having a single index and a stationary grate.
Further objects will be apparent from the specification and drawings in which: I
Fig. 1 is a schematic view showing the' present invention applied to the high lift hooks on a semi-oriental jacquard, and also the utilization of superimposed jacquard cards on the cylinder,
Fig. 2 is a schematic view showing the hooks of Fig. 1 in an advanced position in the cycle,
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary detail of the upper high lift hooks shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
Fig. 4 is an exploded view of the high lift hook of Fig. 3,
Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional detail showing the superimposed or thickened jacquard cards and a section of the cylinder,
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary detail of a portion of the cards of Fig. 5, 1
Fig. 7 is a weave diagram of a typical fabric showing the range of pile yarn control achieved with the present invention,
Figs. 8-10 are shedding diagrams used in weaving the fabric of Fig. 7, and
Fig. 11 is a modified form of two-position high lift hook.
The invention as applied to a semi-oriental jacquard embodies the use of two-position high lift hooks which are capable in one indexing of being selected to either a high or an intermediate position. Insofar as is known, the present invention discloses for the first time the positioning of a pile end to any desired one of three positions with a stationary grate jacquard and a single index of the card cylinder. By utilizing a secondary jacquard card or cards in front of the standard card and having sufficient thickness to actuate the jacquard needles to an intermediate position, it is possible to reject the high lift hook entirely, raise it to the maximum high position, or raise it to an intermediate shed position all depending upon how the cards may be cut.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, a semi-oriental jacquard is conventionally equipped with a plurality of needles 15-20 which control the horizontal position of a series of jacquard hooks 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27. The needles are slidably supported in jacquard frame member 28 at one end and are resiliently urged to the right as seen in Figure 1 by a series of compression springs 29 operatively associated with each needle. The opposite ends of the needles are carried in a frame member 30 through which the needles extend in a position to be longitudinally and selectively displaced when the jacquard cards 31 and 32 are presented to the ends of the needles by means of the jacquard cylinder 33.
The bottom of each hook 22-27 is provided with a reverse bend 35 and an upset end 36 which supports all of the hooks on stationary grate 37 when the hook is not selected by the needles. The hooks are connected in pairs to single lingo heddles 38 having eyes 39 through which the pile yarn ends are threaded.
The high lift knives 40, 41, and 42 form a group of vertically movable elements generally termed the high lift knife assembly or grate. A second series of knives 43, 4'4, and 45 biased in the opposite direction are similarly secured together as a unit and these low lift knives, sometimes called the low lift grate, reciprocate vertically in opposite timed relation to the high lift knives. The details of a semi-oriental jacquard described thus far are the same as those disclosed and claimed in the Patterson application referred to above and form no part of the present invention.
In the customary jacquard a series of punched cards is subsequently fed around the periphery of a jacquard cylinder such as seen at 33 in Figure 1. This cylinder is controlled to reciprocate towards and away from the ends of the needle from the broken line position to the indexing position shown in full lines. Conventional jacquard cards are punched or blanked in accordance with a pattern to control the position of the jacquard hooks by either moving certain jacquard needles in the case of a blank on the card or in permitting the needle to remain in its normal position during indexing. Whether or not a blank or a cut in the card selects or rejects a particular hook depends upon the design and construction of the hooks and the knives. In any event, however, in previous jacquard mechanism only two needle positions were possible since the cards are either punched or blanked. By using a superimposed thicker card or alter natively two or more standard thickness cards in front of the conventional jacquard card, it will be apparent that 3 i the outermost d s n d? a nee le impingin against the blank outermost card area will be displaced to a greater extent than a needle impinging upon a blank appearing'on the hinerrnost card when the outer card or cards are cut. By cutting all of the cards in the same piece the needle of course is not displaced at all, so that three effective worldng positions of each needle can be achieved in this manner.
Referring to Fig. 5, it will be seen that needle 15 is displaced to a maximum position since the facing card 31 has been blanked opposite that needle. Needle 17 is displaced to an intermediate position since card 31 is cut, but eard 32 is blanked for this needle. Needle 19 has not been displaced at all because both cards 31 and 32 are cut in alignment with this needle. The needles 16, 18, and 20 control the low lift hooks 23, 25, and 27 respectively so that the outer card or cards 31 are always but opposite these needles and the control thereof is effected entirely in the conventional manner by cutting or blanking the normal card 32. A front view of a corner of each of the cards shown in Figrue is illustrated in Figure 6 showing how the superimposed cards are cut or blanked to obtain three-position selection. In order to obtain the benefit of the three-position needle selection described above, I provide a dual position modified high lift hook which is illustrated in detail in Figures 3, 4, and 11. Each of the books 22, 24, and 26 is provided with an auxiliary guide element 50 which is secured near the upper end of the hook at 51 and extends downwardly along the back of the hook to be secured again thereto at52. An extension 53 is provided near the bottom of guide 50 and it will be noted that the upper portion of the guide extends in close spaced relation to the shank of hook 22 to form a slot 54 in which a pin 55 may travel. The secondary hook 56 is preferably made of a piece of flat metal having a bill 57 generally similar to the bill 58 on hook 22. The bottom of secondary hook 56 is formed into a U-shaped section and is slidably secured to the hook by means of the pins 55 and 59 (Fig. 3). When not supported by one of the knives 40-42, the secondary book 56 drops to .a lower position where it is held with the bills 57 and 58 in substantial horizontal alignment by means of pins 55 and 59 as well as the bottom edge 60 of the reversed lower portion of the secondary hook. The configuration of guide 50 at its lower end 53 is such that the weight of the secondary bill tends to tilt this bill forward as shown in Figure 3 when it is not in contact with one of the knives 40-.42. However, the relative displacement between bills 57 and 58 is determined by the location of pin 59 and corner 60 of the bill.
A modified upper hook 22a is shown in Figrue 11 in which the construction of the two bills 61 and 62 is integral with the hook 22a. In this case, however, there is a bend at 63 in the hook above bill 62 so that a slight displacement of the hook by the needle to the intermediate position shown in broken lines permits knife 40 to clear bill 62 but to engage bill 61 thereby raising the lingo heddle 38 to a mid position. This condition is shown in broken lines in Figure ll. Maximum displacement of the hook 22a will move both bills 61 and 62 farther to the left, thus rejecting. the hook entirely and permitting the pile yarn controlled by this hook to weave under a top shot.
; In operation, the selection of the high lift books '22, 24, and 26 controls the positions of three typical pile yarns when a pile wire 65 and a top shot 66 are inserted. The low lift hooks 23, 25, and 27 control the position ofthe same pile yarns when the bottom shot 67 is inserted. In the particular selection. shown in Fig. l, therefore,'it will be seen that, proceeding from left to right, book 27 has been moved to the left to engage low knife 45 thus raising its associated lingo heddle 38 to a mid position when the bottom shot is inserted. The pile yarn then controlled by this lingo heddle will not weave hrough to the ac t rds 31 d 2 a e been, cut for needle 19 so that it will not be displaced to the left at all. Therefore, high lift knife 42 engages both bills 57 and 58 on hook 26 thereby lifting the same lingo heddle to the high position and weaving the associated pile yarn over a wire and top shot. Hook 25 controlled by needle 18 is rejected by cutting both cards 31 and 32 so that it will not be picked up by low lift knife 44, thuspermitting the yarn controlled thereby to weave underthe bottom shot. Hook 24 controlled by needle 17 is moved to an intermediate position because card 31 is cut. but card 32 is blank. This intermediate position shown in Figure 2 permits the bill 58 or 62 as the case may be to be rejected by knife 41, but this is not a sufficient dis-- placement to have knife 40 miss bill 57 or 61. When bill 57 is picked up by knife 40, the secondary hook 56 is raised until pin 55 strikes the upper part of guide 50,. whereupon book 22 is lifted, but not for the full travel of the knife. This raises the associated pile yarn to amid position when the wire and top shot are inserted,. thereby weaving the pile under the wire but over the top shot, The shedding for these various selections described. above can be seen in Figs. 8-10. In Fig. 8 all needles: are down for indexing and, therefore, all of the pile yarns Y are in the bottom shod position.
Referring now to Figs. 8-40, the sequence of operation as it aifects the shedding of the loom and particularly the ability to select to three positions when a filling shot is inserted with the wire will be described. Lingos 38, shown in Fig. 8, are all in the lowered position with the upset ends 36, books 22-27 resting on stationary grate 37. The reed 80 is beating up the previous shot 67 against the fell of the fabric and the cylinder 33 is advanced against the ends of the needles for indexing. As the high lift knives or griff elevate to form the sheds for the insertion of wire 65 and top shot 66, selected lingos are raised to a top position to form the top 81 of a dual shed. Other ends elevated to a mid position to form the middle portion 82 of the dual shed while further non-selected ends remain in the lower position to form the bottom 83 of the shed. In this shed formation the wire 65 and top shot 66 are inserted in the usual manner. The stufier 84, if present, is below top shot 66. For the insertion of the bottom shot 67, there is a reversal of'positions of; the high and low lift grates so that any end may be selected to a mid position 82a (Fig. 10) and all remaining ends are rejected to form the bottom 83a of a single shed. The stulfer is elevated to the mid shed position so that the bottom shot 67 when inserted is below the stuifer and selected warp ends.
The following table illustrates the manner of cutting cards to achieve a total range of selection for either the bottom or the top shot, and it will be understood that the invention is applicable to other multi-shot fabrics even though it has been described herein in connection with a two-shot fabric with stuffer.
High Lift Low Lift Needles Needles Card Card Card Card 31. 32 31 32 Over wire, top shot and under next Gut--- Cut... Out... Out.
bottom shot. Over wire, top shot and over next Cut..- Cut.-- Out-.- Blank.
bottom shot. Under wire, over top shot (low float) Cut..- Blank. Out.-. Out.
and under next bottom shot. Under wire, over top shot (low float) Out--- Blank. Gut-.- Blank.
and over next bottom shot. Under tgptshot and under next bot;- Blank. Cut--. Gut.
tom 5 o Unltllsrtop shot and over next bottom Blank. Out..- Blank With the present modification of the jacquard mechanism, it is possible to weave a complete range of float fabrics in which any yarn may be carried indefinitely-over a any or all the wires; carried indefinitely under any or all of the wires and over any or all of the top shots; under any or all of the top shots and over any or all of the bottom shots (running dead in the fabric); or under any or all of the bottom shots. To illustrate this more clearly, it will be seen in Figure 7 that a pile yarn 70 is carried over wires 65a and 65b to form a high float. Thence it runs down under the next Wire 65c and also its associated top shot 71. This yarn is again carried under wire 65d and top shot 72 before it weaves up again over the wire 65e. The pile yarn 73 after weaving over wire 65c and 65dis carried underneath the subsequent bottom shot 74. A further variation of a high float is shown at 75 in which pile yarn 70 weaves under top shot 72, then over wires 65a and 65 but instead of weaving down directly under a bottom shot, yarn 70 is tied in under top shot 77. This forms an extra high float over two wires. The high floats, of course, may run over any number of wires and may then be tied down under either a top or bottom shot.
The jacquard shown and described above is of relatively inexpensive manufacture, trouble free, and provides a complete range of pattern and design effects in a pile fabric. It is less complicated than the conventional threeposition upholstery jacquard, and it is possible to weave through to the back of the fabric which cannot be done with other jacquards of the three-position type.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a semi-oriental jacquard having a set of high lift knives, a set of low lift knives, a series of hooks selectively engageable with each said set of knives, a plurality of needles for actuating said hooks, a plurality of superimposed jacquard cards, a cylinder for presenting a set of said cards to said needles, a plurality of lingo heddles, an actuating connection between pairs of hooks and each of said lingo heddles, one hook of each pair controlled by a needle to selectively engage or disengage the low lift knives, the other hook of each pair controlled by another needle to selectively engage or disengage one of the high lift knives, one hook of each of said pairs of hooks being a dual bill hook, and a stationary grate for normally supporting all of said hooks during a cylinder indexing operation.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the dual bill hooks comprise vertically spaced ofiset bills on each hook.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the dual bill hooks comprise a fixed bill on each hook and a relatively movable bill on each book, and means for limiting the relative movement of the movable bill with respect to the fixed bill.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the dual bill hooks comprise a fixed bill on each hook and a relatively movable bill on each hook, and means for limiting the vertical movement of the movable bill with respect to the fixed bill.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the dual bill hooks comprise a fixed bill on each hook and a relatively movable bill on each hook, and means 6 for limiting the horizontal movement of the movable bill with respect to the fixed bill.
6. In a jacquard assembly for controlling the shedding of a plurality of lingo heddles having at least one movable set of knives, hooks selectively engageable with said knives, needles for controlling the position of said hooks whereby selected hooks are engaged or rejected by the knives, a cylinder for presenting a sequence of perforated cards to the ends of the needles for displacing the needles in accordance with apredetermined pattern, the improvement which comprises a sequence of secondary perforated cards superimposed upon a sequence of primary cards whereby each needle may be displaced to at least three positions depending upon a blank in the secondary card, a perforation in a secondary card and a blank in the associated primary card, or a perforation in both a primary and its associated secondary card.
7. An improved hook for a loom lacquard assembly comprising two vertically-spaced relatively-immovable bills on the upper end of said hook the higher bill extending laterally beyond the terminus of the lower bill.
8. The method of controlling the displacement of a plurality of jacquard needles which comprises presenting in sequence a plurality of sets of superimposed jacquard cards to the ends of said needles, selectively presenting a blanked outer one of said cards to provide maximum displacement for a needle, presenting a perforated outer card and blanked second card to provide intermediate displacement for another one of said needles, and presenting a registered perforation in both of said cards to provide minimum displacement for a third one of said needles.
9. The method of controlling the displacement of a plurality of jacquard needles which comprises presenting in sequence a plurality of sets of superimposed jacquard cards to a position adjacent the ends of said needles, selectively presenting a blanked outer one of said cards to provide maximum displacement fora needle, presenting a perforated outer card and blanked second card to provide intermediate displacement for another one of said needles, presenting a registered perforation in both of said cards to provide minimum displacement for a third one of said needles, and moving at least two of said superimposed cards against the ends of the needles to simultaneously displace at least two needles in different amounts.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 900,948 Perrin Oct. 13, 1908 2,395,823 Hayhurst Mar. 5, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS 11,716 Great Britain of 1890 15,005 Great Britain May 3, 1906 736,546 Great Britain Sept. 7, 1955 738,432 Great Britain Oct. 12, 1955