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Publication numberUS2943523 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 5, 1960
Filing dateJan 13, 1959
Priority dateJan 13, 1959
Publication numberUS 2943523 A, US 2943523A, US-A-2943523, US2943523 A, US2943523A
InventorsDuchnowski Henry E, Gray Abe L
Original AssigneeNorth American Machine Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Reversible ratchet wrench
US 2943523 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 5, 1960 A. L. GRAY ETAL REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH Filed Jan. 13, 1959 a MJ 722V, a M


United States Patent REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH Abe L Gray, Blairsville, and Henry E. Duchnowski, Johnstown, Pa., assignors to North American Machine Company, Blairsville, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl- Vania Filed Jan. 13, 1959, Ser. No. 786,561

1 Claim. (Cl. 81-63) This invention relates to reversible ratchet wrenches of the type in which there is a circular nut-receiving socket member.

It is among the objects of this invention to provide such a wrench which is of simple yet sturdy construction, which can be easily reversed without removing it from a nut, and in which the ratchet pawl is held securely in lace.

p In accordance with this invention the wrench has a hollow flat head at one end of a handle. Opposite sides of the head are provided with circular openings in which is journaled `a socket member for receiving a nut to be tightened or loosened. The socket is encircled inside the head by integral ratchet teeth. A pawl is disposed in the head between the socket and the handle and is rigidly mounted on a pin which is rotatable in the head. Opposite ends of the pawl have integral teeth for selectively registering with the socket teeth. One end of the pin is provided with a knob, by which the pin and pawl can be turned to reverse the wrench. The pawl teeth are pressed against the socket teeth by a spring at the opposite side of the pawl.

The preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. l is a side view of our wrench;

Fig. 2 is an edge view partly in section, taken on the line II--II of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal section taken on the line III- III of Fig. 2; and

Fig. 4 is a view of the side of the head opposite to the side shown in Fig. 1.

Referring to the drawings, a handle 1 of any desired length has an integral enlargement at one end which forms the elongated head 2 of the wrench. The head is hollow and its opposite sides are flat and parallel. One side of the head is in the form of a removable cover plate 3 that normally is held in place by a couple of screws 4. Near the free end of the head its opposite sides are provided with axially aligned circular openings 5. Journaled in those openings are the hubs of a circular socket member 6 that is encircled inside the head by integral ratchet teeth 7, which project radiallyv far enough to prevent the socket member from sliding out of the head. The central opening 8 through this ring is of a shape to receive the nuts, with which it is intended to use this wrench. The wrench is particularly well 6 adapted for turning the nuts used to hold the bits on coal mining machinery.

In order to lock the socket member to the head so that the socket will be turned when the handle is swung laterally in one direction, but will remain stationary when the handle is swung in the opposite direction, a pawl 10 is disposed inside the handle between the socket member and the handle. The pawl is triangular and is mounted on the central portion of a pin 11 extending through the head. As shown in Fig. 3, the portion of the pin in the pawl has flattened sides and the opening through the pawl has the same non-circular shape so that the pawl and pin will be rigidly connected together. One end of the pin is enlarged to form a circular bearing 12 that is journaled in an opening 13 in the fixed side of the head. The opposite end of the pin likewise is circular, but its diameter is no greater than the shortest diameter of the central portion of the pin so that it can pass through the pawl. The small free end of the pin is journaled in a circular opening 14 in cover plate 3 so that both ends of the pin are rotatably mounted in the head. To lock the pawl on the pin, the pin is provided with a circumferential groove 15 where its small circular end joins the central part, and a snap ring 16 is mounted in this groove and projects out into a circular recess 17 in the pawl around the pin. The pawl cannot be separated from the pin without rst removing the snap ring.

Inside of the head at the inner end lthere is a bore 20 extending lengthwise of the wrench toward the handle. Disposed in this bore is a coil spring 21 that presses a metal ball 22 against one side of the pawl near its apex. This holds the pawl in a canted position in the head and causes the far end of the pawl to engage the side of the socket member. The socket-engaging end of the pawl is provided with one or more teeth 23 that project between the adjoining socket teeth. It will be seen that if the handle of the wrench, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 3, is swung to the right, the pawl will compel the socket member to turn with the head as a unit. When the handle is swung to the left, however, the pawl will ride over the socket teeth because spring 21 will permit the far end of the pawl to swing away from the axis of the socket. A ratchet elect is thus produced.

To permit this wrench to be reversed in operation, the end of the pawl that is shown spaced from the socket member is also provided with one ormore teeth 24 for engaging the ratchet teeth when the pawl is turned clockwise in Fig. 3 to swing the other teeth 23 away from the socket and into the dotted line position. This reversal of the pawl is accomplished through operation of a knob 25 integral with the larger end of the pin. The knob engages at against the adjoining outer surface of the head of the wrench. It can be turned by the ngers to swing the pawl between its two extreme positions. It will be observed in Fig. 2 that the knob and the pawl engage opposite sides of the intervening portion of the head and thereby hold the pawl and pin in place even though the cover plate is removed. The pawl cannot be removed from the wrench without rst removing the snap ring 16. This mounting also helps to hold the pin perpendicular to the opposite sides of the head and thereby eliminates any danger of the socket pushing the pawl away from the ratchet teeth when the wrench is swung i? tllle direction in which the socket is moved with the The head of such a wrench often is used in a manner similar to a hammer, which may damage it, so it is desirable to have as few projections as possible on the head. An advantage of our wrench is that the only projection from the head is the small knob 25 on the pin, and as that is integral with the pin there is not much danger of harming it.

According to the provisions of the patent statutes, we have explained the principle of our invention and have illustrated and described what we now consider to represent its best embodiment. However, we desire to have it understood that, within the scope of the appended claim, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specically illustrated and described.

We claim:

A reversible ratchet wrench comprising a hollow Hat head having axially aligned circular openings in its opcover plate, spring-pressed means mounted in the head 10 and pressing against the side of the pawl opposite to the socket to hold an end of the pawl against the socket teeth, and a knob on said opposite end of the pin for turning it and the pawl to swing the opposite end of the pawl against the socket teeth, said ends of the pawl having integral teeth for registering with the socket teeth, the side of the pawl adjacent the cover plate being provided with a recess around the pin, the portion of the pin in said pawl recess having a peripheral groove, and a spring clip in said groove projecting out into said pawl recess to hold the pin and pawl together when the cover plate is removed from the head.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 603,377 Fitch May 3, 1898 1,078,059 Mossberg Nov. 11, 1913 1,209,320 Morneweck Dec. 19, 1916 1,428,982 Reese Sept. 12, 1922 1,868,839 McNaught et al. July 26, 1932 2,185,002 Pack Dec. 26, 1939 2,542,241 Fors Feb. 20, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,029,033 France Mar. 4, 1953

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US603377 *May 3, 1898 Ratchet-wheel wrench
US1078059 *Oct 1, 1913Nov 11, 1913Frank Mossberg CompanyWrench.
US1209320 *Jul 16, 1914Dec 19, 1916David MorneweckRatchet-wrench.
US1428982 *Jan 22, 1921Sep 12, 1922Reese Franklin TRatchet wrench
US1868839 *Jul 3, 1930Jul 26, 1932Duro Metal Prod CoRatchet lever
US2185002 *Sep 22, 1937Dec 26, 1939Pack Earle ADual reversible right and left hand wrench
US2542241 *Oct 23, 1946Feb 20, 1951New Britain Machine CoRatchet mechanism
FR1029033A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3269496 *Jun 22, 1964Aug 30, 1966Kilness Luther EReversible one way clutch for wrench
US3332295 *Mar 1, 1965Jul 25, 1967Lowell Wrench CompanyRatchet mechanism
US3393780 *Jan 26, 1967Jul 23, 1968Luther E. KilnessReversible ratchet
US4268010 *Jan 14, 1980May 19, 1981Acf Industries, Inc.Operating handle for bottom operated railway tank car valve
US4371201 *Sep 26, 1980Feb 1, 1983Stock Equipment CompanyReversing ratchet door closer
US4485700 *Jan 26, 1983Dec 4, 1984Colvin David SReversible ratchet wrench
US5857390 *Dec 24, 1996Jan 12, 1999Whiteford; Carlton L.Reversible ratchet wrench including thin-walled sockets
US6543316Mar 14, 2001Apr 8, 2003The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench
US6612205 *Mar 19, 2002Sep 2, 2003Darwin JonesRatchet
US7207244 *Jul 28, 2005Apr 24, 2007Terence ChenSelective one-way wrench
US7353735Jun 2, 2005Apr 8, 2008The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench
US20050257651 *Jul 28, 2005Nov 24, 2005Terence ChenSelective one-way wrench
US20060272455 *Jun 2, 2005Dec 7, 2006The Stanley WorksRatchet wrench
U.S. Classification81/63, 192/43.2, 192/44, 81/62
International ClassificationB25B13/46, B25B13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/463
European ClassificationB25B13/46B1B