US 2947470 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 2, 1960 H. M. RUBEN ETAL 2,947,470
ASPIRATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 25, 1957 s Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig. 1 27 Mur /42%! Fig. 2
length of the stroke Fig. 4
HENNING M. RUBEN HOLGER HESSE Aug. 2, 1960 H. M. RUBEN ETAL 2,947,470
ASPIRATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 25, 1957 s Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.5
105 110 fifflo l H5 531 1 I 20 4 "-'ub" INVENTORS HENNING M. RUBEN HOLGER HESSE Aug. 2, 1960 H. M. RUBEN ETAL 2,947,470
ASPIRATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 25, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 L\'\-'E NTOR Henning M. Ruben a Holger Hesse ATTORNEY United States Patent;
' j 2,947,4'Zd fiicfi Patented Aug. 2, 1960 ASPIRATIN G APPARATUS Henning M. Ruben, Vinkelvej 7, Vedbaek, and Holger Hesse, Skovtoftebacken 19, Copenhagen-Lyngby, Denmark Filed Feb. 25, 1957, Ser. No. 642,033 Claims priority, application Sweden Mar. 2, 1956 Claims. or. 230-160) The present invention relates to a new or improved suction pump, and especially to a suction pump for lifesaving purposes.
When a person loses consciousness it is often of primary importance that the respiratory channels be sucked free from mucus and the like within a few minutes. In hospitals with operation facilities, a mechanical pump, an electric pump or an ejector pump is usually employed for this purpose. Oxygen in flasks or cylinders is also employed in order to free the respiratory channels by means of oxygen discharged from said flasks or cylinders according to the Venturi principle.
Hitherto, there has not existed any readily transportable or portable pump suitable for this purpose which may, for example, be carried in an ambulance and which can be operated without having to be connected to a source of electricity or to a water pipe, or to a source of compressed air. As the lifesaver needs both his hands to insert the suction tube into the respiratory channel it would be advantageous if the pump could be operated by foot, especially in View of the fact that the pumping requires considerable energy in order to produce a sufficient suction effect.
It has been previously proposed to use for such purposes a pump comprising a pump cylinder, a piston and a piston rod which are supported in a stand provided with a lever, said lever being pivotally attached to the piston rod. The lever arm is urged upwardly by a spring, and, when it is pressed down with the aid of a foot, a vacuum is produced inside the cylinder thus causing air to be sucked in through a valve and a tube. Upon release of the lever, the spring will urge the lever arm upward and thus also move the piston rod upward so that the air that has been sucked in can pass out through another valve. The spring has to counter-act and overcome only the frictional forces, the weight of the lever arm and the weak counter-pressure produced when the air is released, so that a relatively weak spring is suflicient for such an apparatus. However, such a device suffers from the disadvantage that it is much too bulky and heavy to be conveniently and easily transported.
It is an object of the invention to provide asuction pump of the smallest feasible dimensions which can be conveniently transported and is capable of producing a suflicient vacuum. l
According to the invention there is provided a suction pump especially intended for life-saving purposes, comprising a spring-loaded'bellows and suction and discharge valves, means being provided for strongly pro-loading the bellows in its fully expanded position and means also being provided whereby said bellows are connected to a suction flask.
According to a further aspect of the invention, the bellows are preloaded either by means of a chain or band disposed inside the bellows and secured to the upper and lower plates thereof, or by means of jaws disposed in the interior of the bellows, or by means of bands or belts attached externally to the upper and lower plates of the bellows or, finally, by means of an externally positioned stop or abutment.
According to a still further aspect of the invention, the suction and discharge valves may be ball valves attached to the same or different plate of the bellows. The suction ball valve may also be attached directly to the suction flask and to a tube leading to the suction flask from the suction pump.
According to yet a further aspect of the invention, the discharge valve may be a disc valve built into the upper plate of the bellows.
In order that the invention may be more readily understood and further features of the invention appreciated, the same will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure l is partly a cross-sectional and partly a perspective view of the apparatus;
Figure 2 is a graph showing the properties of the spring;
Figure 3 is an elevation of a modification of the apparatus;
Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view of an alternative type of bellows;
Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view of a modified form of the apparatus;
Figure 5a is an enlarged diagrammatic cross-sectional view of a valve;
Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view of another modified embodiment of the apparatus; and
Figures 7 and 8am elevational views of still further embodiments of the present invention.
The suction force of the pump is dependent on the strength of the spring and will thus be greatest when the bellows is in a compressed state. To obtain the strongest possible suction force upon expansion of the bellows it is essential, as will appear from Figure 2, that according to the invention there is employed a strongly pre-loaded spring, having the characteristics of curve II, instead of a spring that is practicallycompletely free of tension, as indicated in curve I.
Due to the fact that a bellows is employed according to the present invention, the pump is not as high as a piston pump, and this is of extreme importance for the foot-actuation of the pump. The bellows may be, for instance of cylindrical or triangular shape.
In Figure 1, the cylindrical bellows 1 is either made of a material that is in itself stiff enough not to collapse under diminished pressure, or is reinforced by means of metalic rings such as the rings 1a shown in Figure 6. The upper plate 3 is urged towards the lower plate 2 by foot pressure or, if desired, by hand pressure. Inside the bellows there is provided a very strong spring 4 which, when expanding, forces apart the two end plates and thus gives rise to a vacuum. The pro-loading of the spring is achieved in the expanded position by special means, e.g. by an external stop 319 shown in Figure 8 u or, as shown in Figure 1, by a flexible connection such as the chain 19 provided within the bellows and joined to the plates 2, 3 by means of pins 20, or by other suitable means. Instead of such a chain the spring may be pre-loaded by means of bands or belts 219 suitably fixed on the outside of the bellows as shown in Figure 7. As a further alternative, the pre-loading of the spring may be achieved by means of jaws 119 mounted inside the bellows as shown in Figure 6.
The air-outlet valve 5 in the lower plate 2 allows the air to escape upon compression of the bellows. The valve shown is of the ball type, but flap valves or the like may also be used. A threaded cap 6 provided with a hole and attached to the under-surface of the lower plate 2 supports a spring 8 which urges a valve ball 7 against the conical wall of valve 5. A suction valve 9 in the lower plate 2 may also be a ball valve. A threaded cap 10, also attached to the under surface of the lower plate 2, is provided with an internal conical cavity for a valve ball 21, said ball being held in position by a spring 22. A tube 23 connects the suction valve 9 to a suction flask 25 via a flexible tube 24. This flask is provided with a stopper 26 having a hole to which is attached a flexible tube 27 with which the patient is treated.
The pump is activated by continuously pressing and releasing the bellows by means of regular foot movements. After as few as two or three movements the vacuum produced in the flask is suflicient to suck off mucus and the like from the respiratory tracts of the patient. The pump is thus immediately ready for use.
Figure 3 shows a modification of the pump adapted for use in hospitals. In this embodiment, the pump and the flask are mounted on a support 31, while a carrying handle 32 prevents the foot from pumping against the flask when exerting the pumping movements and thus serves to prevent accidental displacement of the flask.
Figure 4 shows a modified form of bellows. In this figure, a lower plate 35 and an upper plate 36, pivotally connected at 37, are provided with a bellows 38 and an internal pressure spring 39. The upper plate 36 may be inclined at an angle (preferably of 30) to the lower plate to function as a pedal. The pressure spring is preloaded by means of an abutment or stop 40. The valves, the flask and the connecting tube of Figure l are meant to be included, but are not shown in Figure 4 for simplicity of demonstration to avoid duplication.
In theembodiment according to Figure 1, both valves are mounted in the lower plate 2. However, one or both valves in the alternative, may be disposed in the upper plate. In such an instance they may also be made without springs when the conical seat is above the ball.
The handle 32 shown in Figure 3 may be provided with a clamp to hold the end of the suction tube and the end of the tube applied to the patient when the pump is not in operation.
According to a further embodiment as shown in Figures and 5a, the pump may have an outlet valve consisting of a disc valve provided in the upper end plate 3 of the bellows and having a seating 105 screwed onto the plate. A loose disc 107 is check by wires 106a, 106b which are held in position with the aid of a lid 127 mounted on the plate. The suction valve of the pump is a ball valve consisting of two parts 109 and 110'. It is attached to the flexible tube 24 connecting the pump with the flask 25, preferably at that end where'said tube 24 is connected to said flask, and is provided with stoppins 112 which prevent the valve ball 111 from obstructing the valve channel leading to the flexible tube. Two valves of this type are provided on the stopper of the suction flask, one of them being connected to the tube 24 while the other serves as a substitute valve in case the first valve is obstructed. The substitute valve preferably is closed by a rubber cap when not in use.
In the modification illustrated in Figure 5, a cleaning channel 114 is provided in the lower plate 2, said channel being closed by means of a rubber cap 115. By pushing a needle through. the cap 115 any firmly adhering impurities may be removed, thus preventing obstruction.
It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing disclosure relates to only a preferred embodiment of the invention and that it is intended to cover all changes. and modifications of the example of the invention herein chosen for the purposes of the disclosure, which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention set forth in the appended claims.
1. A suction pump for lifesaving purposes and the like, comprising a reciprocating bellows, a first and a second opposing end wall secured to. the ends of said bellows and cooperating therewith to define an airtight expansible chamber, at least one compression spring mounted with each of its ends against one of said endwalls for automatic expansion of said bellows subsequent to each compression, said chamber comprising at least one suction port with an associated suction valve mounted therewith and at least one discharge port with an associated discharge-valve mounted therewith, and means cooperating With said first and second end walls to limit the expansion of said bellows below the maximum expansion of said spring whereby said spring is maintained under at least a minimum bias.
2. A suction pump as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means to limit the expansion of said bellows are stops disposed exteriorly of said bellows.
39A suctionpump as claimed in claim 1, further comprising at least one seat about each of said ports, a ball resting against each of said seats and a compression spring engaging each of said balls.
4. A suction pump as claimed in claim 1, further comprising valve cages and wherein said suction valve and said discharge valve, each-cooperating with its respective port, are positioned each in a valve cage to the outside of one said endwall. I
5. A suction pump as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means to limit the expansion of said bellows is in the form of a flexible connection mounted within 'said bellows with each of its ends attached to one of said opposing endwalls.
6. A suction pump as claimed in claim 1, wherein said bellows are accordion shaped cylinders equipped with reinforcing metal rings.
7. A suction pump as claimed in claim 1, wherein said reciprocating bellows are of the oscillating type one of said end walls forming a foot pedal and the other a supporting base.
8. An aspirating apparatus for evacuating mixed fluids and for simultaneously separating non-gaseous substances therefrom comprising in combination a gravity operated fluid-pressure-tight vertical separator-container and suction means, said container comprising a tight top-colsure, an. evacuating line connecting the source of said fluid to be evacuated with the interior of said container through said closure, said suction means comprising a suction port, a suction line connecting said suction port with the interior of said container through said closure and a suctionvalve mounted in said suction line, said suction means further comprising a foot-operated fluid-pressure-tight compressible and expansible bellows-type vertical chamber provided with a pair of vertically spaced endwalls, a helical compression spring mounted within said bellows-type chamber vertically with its ends fixed one to each said endwall, a flexible connection mounted axially within said bellows-type vertical chamber and thehelix of said spring with. one end fixed to each said endwall, the length of said connection being less than the distance between said endwalls under full expansion of saidspring to bias the force of said spring thereby limiting the expansion of said bellows-type vertical chamber, the latter being further provided with a discharge port having an exhaust valve mounted therein, and rigid guide means interposed between said container and said bellows-type chamber, said guide means extending to a point above the maximum expansion of said bellows-type chamber and above the top of said container, said guide means serving not only 7 to direct the foot or" the operator into contact with said bellows-type chamber but also serving as a guard to prevent accidental displacement of said container.
fluid-pressure-tight vertical separator-container and'suction means, said container comprising a tight top-closure,
an evacuating line connecting the source of said fluid to be evacuated with the interior of said container through said closure, said suction means comprising a suction port, a suction line connecting said suction port with the interior of said container through said closure and a suction valve mounted in said suction line, said suction means further comprising a foot-operated fluid-pressuretight compressible and expansible bellows-type vertical chamber provided with a pair of vertically spaced endwalls, a helical compression spring mounted within said bellows-type chamber vertically with its ends fixed one to each said endwall, said bellows-type vertical chamber being further provided with a discharge port having an exhaust valve mounted therein, and rigid guide means interposed between said container and said be1lows-type chamber, said guide means extending to a point above the maximum expansion of said bellows-type chamber and above the top of said container, said guide means serving not only to direct the foot of the operator into contact with said bellows-type chamber but also serving as a guard to prevent accidental displacement of said container.
6 10. The apparatus as set forth in claim 9, wherein said guide means are so configured as to constitute a carrying handle for transporting the apparatus.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 286,631 Park Oct. 16, 1883 948,115 McCourtie Feb. 1, 1910 1,095,930 Sanders May 5, 1914 1,209,846 Kells Dec. 26, 1916 1,341,669 Porter June 1, 1920 1,349,766 Hunt Aug. 17, 1920 1,382,081 Heiliger June 21, 1921 2,816,703 Turner Dec. 17, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 438,404 Great Britain Nov. 15, 1936 510,339 Belgium Apr. 15, 1952 551,737 Great Britain Mar. 8, 1943