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Publication numberUS2948047 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 9, 1960
Filing dateDec 27, 1955
Priority dateDec 27, 1955
Publication numberUS 2948047 A, US 2948047A, US-A-2948047, US2948047 A, US2948047A
InventorsLawrence F Peeler, Foy Eugene L La
Original AssigneeLawrence F Peeler, Foy Eugene L La
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of building structures
US 2948047 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug? 9, 1960 1 F. PEELER Erm. 2,948,047

METHOD oF BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Dec. 27. 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS 4 Law/'ence F Pee/er Eugene Lafoy Aug. 9, 1960 L. F. PEELER IAL METHOD OF BUILDING STRUCTURES 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 27. 1955 INVENTORS Lawrence F Pee/er Eugene L. LaFoy w O m Aug. 9, 1960 Filed Dec. 2'?, 1955 L. F. PEELER ETAL METHOD OF BUILDING STRUCTURES 3 Sheets-Sheet 3' IN VENTORS au/ence F.' Pee/er Eugene L. La Foy METHOD OFBUTLDING STRUCTURES Lawrence F. Peeler, 3943 Hawthorne, and Eugene L. La Foy, 5027"Willis Ave., both of Dallas, Tex.

Fried Dec. 27, 1955, ser. No. 555,565 z claims. (orzs--15'4il This invention relates to shell type concrete building construction and it refers more particularly to the method by which individualunits may be produced as well as to .the method of combining the unitsin erecting a building.

The principal object of the invention is to improve upon known methods of erecting shell type buildings by first creating a` new basic unit composed of a frame- Work of relatively slidable and intercrossing rods and a` covering consisting of rows of correlated overlapping sections of expansible llexible material so connected to the frame-Work as to permit the sections to move independently and collectively, thus to assume the curvature oli-ther rods along two transverse aXesas the rods are bent into the shape in which they are to remain in association with like assemblies in a completedbuilding.

Another object of the invention is to provide a shell type building composed of a multiplicity of interconnected flexible units which areA Prefabricated `011 a flat plane where they are arcuated along their minor axes and `hoisted into the relative positions they will assume as the frame-work of the completed building, during which `each unit is i arcuatedalong its major axis, if the building is tobe dome-shaped, tubular or of other de-` signs involving compound' curves. Subsequent to the erection of the building units individually or `collectively to completethe building frame-work, a plastic;` or cementitios material is shot onto or otherwise applied to the fabric covering which hardens and perinanently integrates the assembly into .a structure capable of withstanding all normal compressive stresses without'- need for the supporting and reinforcing mediums common `to conventional buildings.

"vS'till another"object ofthe invent-ion is to provide a` structural unit as specified, whose initial configuration predetermines the ultimate shape of the building of which" it forms apart, whether the building is to be a warehouse, airplane hangar, shelter or even a spheroid, the latter 4being composed of `two` dome-like or hemisphericalV structures anticipated herein.

Other objectswill appearas vthe description proceeds when considered` witlrthe annexed drawing" wherein:

Figure 1 is atop plan View of a typical structural unit in its initial stage of constructionV` FigureliZ'lis a perspectiveview ofthe unit shown curved along :its maj'or orlongitudinal axis as the second stage of its formation.

FigureI 3 is afside'elevational View of the unit `on a slightly reduced scale, shown'c'ived along itsminor or transverse axis. t

`Figute 4 isfa transverse sectional view taken on` line 4 -,4 of Figureul.

Figure 5,is a fragmentary perspective view showing intercrosisingurods ofthfr'ame, aretaining cliptherefor and a section"of` the fabricv covering.

Figure 6 isA anmend elevational view of `a unit comparable to` the showin'ghin Figure 2,`devoid of thefabric covering but revealingua slightly modied form of retaining means for Athe rods.

l igure 7is a fragmentary'perspective view of the rod retaining 'means shown in Figure 6."


Figure `8is a perspective View of two modified structural units, each composed of a plurality of progressively tapered fabric cover sections in slidable overlapping relationship.`

" Figure9A is aplan view of an assembly of the' structural units shown inFigure 8 in the initial stage preparatory to springing into the position shown in Figure 1 0, and i `Figure l0 is a side elevational view of the supporting `fabricationof a dome shaped structure for-med by the assembled units of Figure 9, preparatory to receiving the cementitiouscoating. i

Continuing with a Vmore detailed description of the drawing, reference'is made primarily to Figures l to 5l wherein reference numeral 10 denotes generally what,

isherein referred/to as a building unit or a structural unit, of whiclifseveral are employed in jiuxtaposed and` interconnected relationship to form the supporting fabricationof a building whose shape is determined by the configuration of theV individual unit 10, as will become apparentV as the description proceeds.

Each `structural unit 10 is composed primarily of a pluralityuof` longitudinally parallel rods 11 and a plu-n rawlityfof,r intercrossing' transverse rods 12. Overlying the assembly of rods 11 and 12 is atfabric covering," generally indicated by reference numeral 13 but which/ isf` `actually in overlapping, slidab'le sections, each identied by, reference numeral 14.

` 'I`he-rodsf11` and 12 are placed on a flat ysurface in the relationship shown in Figure 1 and the sections 14, of the` fabric covering 13 are attached to the rods at the points "of intersection by means such as the clips 15, oneofwhich is shown on an enlarged scale in Figure 5.` It'will .become evident present-ly that the rods 11 must be-slidable in relation to the fabric cover sectionsi lflghencethe clip 15 is formed with a loop' 16 (Fig. 5 through which these rods 11 slide longitudinally. Since the fabrics 13` is eXpendable, the rods 12 extending across the short" axis of thefabric covering can be and are aigiedto tlfleclipsv 15, asY by Welding and the clips 15 '1 are sezcuredwto` the` cover sections 14 by means of the` legs 17, Figure 5,'Whichcxtend through and are bent upon the fabric.

` The described`-elements of `the structural unit 10 are` assembled` over aiv uplurality of transverse parallel base rodsflS. "'Theends ofthe `rods 18 along one side of the assembled .unit y10;a're' 4 secured to the adjacent outermost'` longitudinal rod 11 by any suitable means auch as having thelends (Fig, 2i)e`belnt Varound said outermost rod, 1K1, Theoppositeedge ofothe structural unit 10` need not bei` connected toA the transverse base rods 18 since the covering 13 is to be warped or arcuated, as shown in` Figure; 2` along the. longitudinal -axis of the unit by eiierting aiforce laterally againstthe edge of the unit itetheanchoredpoints 19.` of the base rods 13.l d-one by anysuit'ablehtol but preferably by ratchet jacks, not shown,` which are attached to the base rods ISanda-dvanced thereon toward their anchored ends 19, meanwhile engaging `the free edge of the cover 13,'.

causingpthesaidicover` and the transverse rods 13 -to bow upwzuidly,betweenA the sides of the unit .10 in the manner.shown` irFigure `2. When the required curve;1

obtains," free `edge of the unit 10 is suitably tied `to thetransvierse baserods 18` or their opposite ends l20 (Fig, 3) ,maybe bentfupwardly against the sides of the nownarcuated unit to` prevent recoil.

It isto. be observed in the several `figures that the` sections 14 `ofthe",fabric cover 13 have theiryadjacent edges 21 overlapped This is `done in `order that the sections 14 may individually shift `their positions to contraensate for the curvature imposed in the longitudinal -rodsl Patented Aug. 9, 1960,

11 when the unit 10 isbowed along its transverse or minor axis, as shown in Figure 3. y

There are many ways in which the units 10 can be brought into the shape shown in Figure 3 and since this wouldbe obvious to those skilled in the fart, it is considered adequate to explain that the most suitable manner of springing the unit would be by means of a craneyhoist with cables connected at strategically shaped points along the length of the unit 10, depending upon the particular curvature of the arch, that is, whether true centered, three centered, oantilevered or other design. This would apply also to the dome structure shown in Figures 8 and l0, which will be presently described. t

In constructing a tunneltype structure, such as suggested in Figure 4, whether it be a building, culvert, bridge or other fabrication, the units 10, when preformed in the manner explained or in the shape illustrated in Figure 2, they are progressively joined together by suitable ties and the fabric covering 13 is shot with a cementitious outer covering which, when it hardens, forms a rigid shell which reinforces the supporting fabrication against all normal stresses to which any conventional building is tion of the units, which closes Vasthe units assume their subjected, the greatest of which is compression. t No other support is needed to make the structure self-sustaining because of the continuous wall span created by the arcuated units. Y

It is evident also that the same units 10, constructed and formed in the manner explained, may be disposed on la horizontal plane instead of the vertical plane shown in Figure 3 and joined end to end to form a circle. The circular structures thus fabricated may then be superimposed one upon the other to form a structure in the nature of a silo or grain elevator. Moreover, in any such construction, the units 10 may be arcuated along the major -axes opposite to that shown in Figure 3 so that when the units are assembled in a building, the curve on the transverse axes of the units will be concave instead of convex on the exterior of the building.' In Figures 6 to l0, the same method is used in forming the structural units to produce a supporting fabrication in a dome-like building identified broadly in Figure 10 by reference numeral 30. The only difference between the structural units of the modification shown in these figures and those just described being in the configuration of the unit which, in Figures 8 to l0, are generally indicated by reference numeral 31.

The units 31 are identical to each other and each consists of longitudinally coextensive rods 32, converging towards one end of the unit. Intercrossing the rods 32 are transverse rods 33 and to the rods 33 is welded a series of tubular retainers 34 through which the longitudinal rods 32 slide The expandable fabric covering, generally indicated by reference numeral 35 is composed of progressively tapered sections 36 whose adjacent transverse edges 37 and adjacent longitudinal edges 38 are overlapped (Figures 8 and 9).

In Figure 9 the units 31 areshown assembled on a flat plane such las concrete slab (not shown). The apices of the triangular units 31 meet at the center. As each individual unit 31 is formed, it is sprung into the arcuate form shown in Figure 6 by means of the transverse, longitudinally spaced base rods 39, one end 40 being secured to the outermost longitudinal rod 34 while pressure is applied inwardly all along the the Vopposite edge of the fabric covering 35. As each unit `is thus arcuated along its major axis, its edge is tied in any suitable manner to the adjacent edge of the companion unit.

, After all of theunits have been assembled in the manner explained, a crane hoist is employed to raise the assembled units to the positions shown in Figure 10. A cable may be connected to. the center of the assembly and a series of cables connected at annularly spaced points to the units between their inner and outer ends.' By ,controlling the pull 'on the'cables, the dome-shaped supporting ,fabrication shown-iserected. Y

final position in the structure, after which Vthe adjacent edges of the units between which the gap 42/was formed, are joined together.'

When the assembly ofl units has been sprung to the desired shape, the fabric covering35 is shot with a cementil tious composition which, when dry, provides a rigid weathertight shell about the supporting fabrication;

By constructing two identical hemispherical bodies resembling that in Figure l0 and joining these bodiestogether to form aA spheroidal body, a tank may be thus produced which may be supported on a tower or embedded in the earth to contain liquids or solids for storage.

It is evident from the foregoing that the rod retaining members shown in Figures 6 and 7 may be interchangeably used with the structures shown in Figures 1 to 5 and 8 to 10. f

Manifestly, the steps of the method herein dened are subject to certain changes and modications and these are considered to be within the spirit and intent of the invention as long as they fall Awithin the scope and meaning of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A method of building structures which comprises arranging a supporting fabrication of inter-crossing and relatively slidable exible elements on a flat plane,.attaching expandable fabric covering material to the supporting fabrication, in rows of overlapping, individually movable sections, to form one of a plurality of structural units, exerting a force laterally against one edge providing -a supporting fabrication of inter-crossingand relatively slidable rods, attachingV a row of overlappingV individually movable sections of cover fabric to the supporting fabrication to form a structural unit, restraining the unit along one edge while exerting a force along the opposite edge of the unit to produce a curve therein along one axis, exerting a force on the unit perpendicular to said one axis to produce a curve in theunit along another axis transverse to said one axis, and finally applying cementitious material to the cover fabric. Y.

References Cited inthe file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS fj 424,656 Ransome YAprrrl, 1890 625,258 Grow May 176, 1899 740,039 Parmley Sept. 29, 1903 852,202 Russell Apr. 370, 1907 1,231,290 Otte June 26, 1917 2,296,984 Corbett-a Sept. 29, 1942 2,317,734 ACook Apr. 27, 1943 2,353,071 Pitou July 4, 1944 2,353,072 Pitou July 4, 1944 2,365,145 Neif Dec. 12, 1944 V2,616,149 Waller Nov. 4, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS n 494,382 Great Britain Oct. 25, 193,8

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3049785 *Feb 13, 1957Aug 21, 1962Chiado Paul SApparatus for making hyperbolic-paraboloidal thin shell building units
US3057119 *Aug 9, 1957Oct 9, 1962Milton KesslerMethod of erecting pre-stressed building construction
US3139464 *Jul 22, 1960Jun 30, 1964Bird Walter WBuilding construction
US3225413 *Jun 25, 1964Dec 28, 1965Walter W BirdInflatable form for a concrete building
US3226892 *Mar 20, 1963Jan 4, 1966Rose Richard AShell roof construction
US3324611 *Aug 7, 1964Jun 13, 1967Wilburn GamberConcrete reinforcement frame and method
US3462521 *Dec 12, 1966Aug 19, 1969Binishells SpaMethod for erecting structures
US3473272 *Apr 10, 1967Oct 21, 1969Goodrich Co B FEnclosure including flaccid nonmetallic surfacing
US3480023 *May 31, 1968Nov 25, 1969Mcconnell IncCollapsible tent
US3506746 *Dec 18, 1967Apr 14, 1970Fontaine Jean LouisStructural form and method for making architectural structures
US3530622 *May 9, 1968Sep 29, 1970Cohen Edwin JacquesBuilding apparatus and method
US3643910 *Mar 7, 1969Feb 22, 1972Heifetz HInflatable forms
US3707033 *Aug 24, 1970Dec 26, 1972Coatings Eng CorpManufacturing method for multi-element structures
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US3932969 *Aug 19, 1974Jan 20, 1976Matras Thad EFerrocement structures and method
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US5238014 *Jan 3, 1991Aug 24, 1993China Shenyang Damo Camp Equipment InstituteBackbone-type framework for tents or houses
US6684601 *Dec 17, 1999Feb 3, 2004Airbus Uk LimitedJig loading system
US8789317 *Jan 17, 2013Jul 29, 2014James L. CHEHMethod for forming a double-curved structure and double-curved structure formed using the same
US20100233421 *Apr 28, 2008Sep 16, 2010Tufts UniversityDoubly-Curved Mesh
US20130180184 *Jan 17, 2013Jul 18, 2013James L. CHEHMethod for forming a double-curved structure and double-curved structure formed using the same
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U.S. Classification264/32, 264/35, 29/448, 52/88, 135/906, 29/449, 29/460, 52/81.2, 135/125, 52/745.7, 135/124, 425/DIG.121, D25/18, 249/13
International ClassificationE04B2/84, E04B1/32, E04B2/72
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/3241, E04B2/723, Y10S425/121, E04B2/845, E04B2001/3252, E04B1/32, Y10S135/906
European ClassificationE04B2/84P2, E04B1/32